156 relations: Aelius Donatus, Aeneas, Aeneid, Alecto, Amata, Amores (Ovid), Anchises, Ancient Rome, Apollonius of Rhodes, Appendix Vergiliana, Arcadia (utopia), Aristaeus, Aristotle, Astronomy, Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan poetry, Augustus, Battle of Actium, Battle of Philippi, Bible prophecy, Brindisi, Calvisano, Camilla (mythology), Carthage, Catullus, Cisalpine Gaul, Cleopatra, Cornelius Gallus, Cremona, Cumae, Cumaean Sibyl, Dactylic hexameter, Dante Alighieri, Daphnis, De vulgari eloquentia, Didacticism, Dido, Divination, Divine Comedy, Eclogue 4, Eclogues, Engraving, Ennius, Epic poetry, Epicureanism, Epyllion, Erinyes, Evander of Pallene, Ferdinand, Duke of Calabria, Gaius Asinius Pollio (consul 40 BC), ..., Gaius Maecenas, Gens, Georgics, Greece, Gregory of Tours, Hadrian, Hell, Helvius Cinna, Hesiod, Homer, Horace, Iliad, Italy, Jean-Baptiste Wicar, Julius Caesar, Juno (mythology), Jupiter (mythology), Kilometre, Latin literature, Latinus, Lavinia, Literary topos, Lucan, Lucas van Leyden, Lucius Varius Rufus, Macrobius, Magia (gens), Magic (supernatural), Mantua, Marcus Valerius Probus, Mark Antony, Matres and Matronae, Maurus Servius Honoratus, Medicine, Mediolanum, Megara, Mergellina, Metamorphoses, Milan, Munatia (gens), Naples, National epic, Nativity of Jesus, Nemesianus, Neoteric, Nero, Nisus and Euryalus, Northern Italy, Octavia the Younger, Odyssey, Open content, Orpheus, Ovid, Pallas (son of Evander), Pastoral, Perseus Project, Pharmacist, Pharsalia, Philosophy, Piedigrotta, Pilgrimage, Plotius Tucca, Poet, Poliziano, Power of Women, Pozzuoli, Propertius, Province of Mantua, Punic Wars, Punica, Purgatory, Rhetoric, Robert Seymour Conway, Roman Empire, Roman Italy, Roman Republic, Rome, Romulus and Remus, Silenus, Silius Italicus, Siro the Epicurean, Sortes Vergilianae, Statius, Suetonius, Suicide, Teleology, Terrot R. Glover, The Latin Library, Theocritus, Thoughtcast, Titus Calpurnius Siculus, Trojan War, Tunnel, Turnus, Underworld, Vergilius Augusteus, Vergilius Romanus, Vergilius Vaticanus, Verona, Virgil's tomb, Virgilio, Lombardy, Votive offering, Wales, Western literature, Woodcut, Works and Days. Expand index (106 more) » « Shrink index
Aelius Donatus (fl. mid-fourth century AD) was a Roman grammarian and teacher of rhetoric.
In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus).
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Alecto (Ancient Greek: Ἀληκτώ, English translation: "the implacable or unceasing anger") is one of the Erinyes, or Furies, in Greek mythology.
According to Roman mythology, Amata (also called Palanto) was the wife of Latinus, king of the Latins, and the mother of their only child, Lavinia.
Amores is Ovid's first completed book of poetry, written in elegiac couplets.
In Greek mythology, Anchises (Ἀnkhísēs) was the son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus, who was son of Tros).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Apollonius of Rhodes (Ἀπολλώνιος Ῥόδιος Apollṓnios Rhódios; Apollonius Rhodius; fl. first half of 3rd century BCE), was an ancient Greek author, best known for the Argonautica, an epic poem about Jason and the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece.
The Appendix Vergiliana is a collection of poems traditionally ascribed as juvenilia of Virgil, although it is likely that all the pieces are in fact spurious Régine Chambert "" in "Vergil, Philodemus, and the Augustans" 2003: "Vergil's authorship of at least some of the poems in the Appendix is nowadays no longer contested.
Arcadia (Ἀρκαδία) refers to a vision of pastoralism and harmony with nature.
A minor god in Greek mythology, attested mainly by Athenian writers, Aristaeus (Ἀρισταῖος Aristaios), was the culture hero credited with the discovery of many useful arts, including bee-keeping; he was the son of the huntress Cyrene and Apollo.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Augustan literature is the period of Latin literature written during the reign of Augustus (27 BC–AD 14), the first Roman emperor.
In Latin literature, Augustan poetry is the poetry that flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus as Emperor of Rome, most notably including the works of Virgil, Horace, and Ovid.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.
The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar's assassination, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia.
Bible prophecy or biblical prophecy comprises the passages of the Bible that reflect communications from God to humans through prophets.
Brindisi (Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Brundisium; translit; Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
Calvisano is a comune in the Italian province of Brescia, in Lombardy.
In Virgil's Aeneid, Camilla of the Volsci is the daughter of King Metabus and Casmilla.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Gaius Valerius Catullus (c. 84 – c. 54 BC) was a Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote chiefly in the neoteric style of poetry, which is about personal life rather than classical heroes.
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
Gaius Cornelius Gallus (c. 70 BC – 26 BC) was a Roman poet, orator and politician.
Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).
Cumae ((Kumē) or Κύμαι or Κύμα; Cuma) was an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
The Cumaean Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Cumae, a Greek colony located near Naples, Italy.
Dactylic hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter" and "the meter of epic") is a form of meter or rhythmic scheme in poetry.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
In Greek mythology, Daphnis (Δάφνις, from δάφνη, daphne, "Bay Laurel") was a Sicilian shepherd who was said to be the inventor of pastoral poetry.
De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the vernacular) is the title of a Latin essay by Dante Alighieri.
Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art.
Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.
Eclogue 4, also known as the Fourth Eclogue, is the name of a Latin poem by the Roman poet Virgil.
The Eclogues, also called the Bucolics, is the first of the three major works of the Latin poet Virgil.
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.
Quintus Ennius (c. 239 – c. 169 BC) was a writer and poet who lived during the Roman Republic.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
Villa Corsini.) In classical studies the term epyllion (Ancient Greek: ἐπύλλιον, plural: ἐπύλλια, epyllia) refers to a comparatively short narrative poem (or discrete episode within a longer work) that shows formal affinities with epic, but betrays a preoccupation with themes and poetic techniques that are not generally or, at least, primarily characteristic of epic proper.
In Greek mythology the Erinyes (sing. Erinys; Ἐρῑνύες, pl. of Ἐρῑνύς, Erinys), also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance; they were sometimes referred to as "infernal goddesses" (χθόνιαι θεαί).
In Roman mythology, Evander (from Greek Εὔανδρος Euandros, "good man" or "strong man": an etymology used by poets to emphasize the hero's virtue) was a culture hero from Arcadia, Greece, who brought the Greek pantheon, laws, and alphabet to Italy, where he founded the city of Pallantium on the future site of Rome, sixty years before the Trojan War.
Ferdinand, Duke of Calabria (Spanish: Fernando de Aragón, Duque de Calabria) (15 December 1488 – 20 October 1550) was a Neapolitan prince who played a significant role in the Mediterranean politics of the Crown of Aragon in the early 16th century.
Gaius Asinius Pollio (sometimes wrongly called Pollius or Philo; 75 BC – AD 4) was a Roman soldier, politician, orator, poet, playwright, literary critic and historian, whose lost contemporary history provided much of the material used by the historians Appian and Plutarch.
Gaius Cilnius Maecenas (15 April 68 BC – 8 BC) was an ally, friend and political advisor to Octavian (who was to become the first Emperor of Rome as Caesar Augustus) as well as an important patron for the new generation of Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil.
In ancient Rome, a gens, plural gentes, was a family consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor.
The Georgics is a poem by Latin poet Virgil, likely published in 29 BC.
Saint Gregory of Tours (30 November c. 538 – 17 November 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area that had been previously referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and later added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather. He is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum (Ten Books of Histories), better known as the Historia Francorum (History of the Franks), a title that later chroniclers gave to it, but he is also known for his accounts of the miracles of saints, especially four books of the miracles of St. Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, and St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this highly organized devotion.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.
Gaius Helvius Cinna was an influential neoteric poet of the late Roman Republic, a little older than the generation of Catullus and Calvus.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jean-Baptiste Wicar (22 January 1762, in Lille – 27 February 1834, in Rome) was a French Neoclassical painter and art collector.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Juno (Latin: IVNO, Iūnō) is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state.
Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.
Latinus (Lătīnŭs; Λατῖνος) was a figure in both Greek and Roman mythology.
In Roman mythology, Lavinia (Lāuīnĭa) is the daughter of Latinus and Amata and the last wife of Aeneas.
Topos (from τόπος 'place' abbreviated from τόπος κοινός tópos koinós, 'common place'; pl. topoi), in Latin locus (from locus communis), referred in the context of classical Greek rhetoric to a standardised method of constructing or treating an argument.
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, born in Corduba (modern-day Córdoba), in Hispania Baetica.
Lucas van Leyden (1494 – 8 August 1533), also named either Lucas Hugensz or Lucas Jacobsz, was a Dutch engraver and painter.
Lucius Varius Rufus (14 BC) was a Roman poet of the Augustan age.
Macrobius, fully Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius, also known as Theodosius, was a Roman provincial who lived during the early fifth century, at the transition of the Roman to the Byzantine Empire, and when Latin was as widespread as Greek among the elite.
The gens Magia was a plebeian family at Rome.
Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.
Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.
Marcus Valerius Probus (c. 20/30 – 105 AD) of Berytus, was a Roman grammarian and critic, who flourished during Nero's reign.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
The Matres (Latin "mothers"Lindow (2001:224).) and Matronae (Latin "matrons") were female deities venerated in Northwestern Europe, of whom relics are found dating from the first to the fifth century.
Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy; he was the author of a set of commentaries on the works of Virgil.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was originally an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy.
Megara (Μέγαρα) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece.
Mergellina is a coastal section of the city of Naples, Italy.
The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The gens Munatia was a plebeian family at Rome.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy.
The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew.
Marcus Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus was a Roman poet thought to have been a native of Carthage and flourished about AD 283.
The Neoterikoi (Greek νεωτερικοί "new poets") or Neoterics were a series of avant-garde Greek and Latin poets who wrote during the Hellenistic period (323–31 BC).
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Nisus and Euryalus are a pair of friends and lovers serving under Aeneas in the Aeneid, the Augustan epic by Virgil.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
Octavia the Younger (69 BC – 11 BC), also known as Octavia Minor or simply Octavia, was the elder sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus (known also as Octavian), the half-sister of Octavia the Elder, and the fourth wife of Mark Antony.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Open content is a neologism coined by David Wiley in 1998 which describes a creative work that others can copy or modify freely, without asking for permission.
Orpheus (Ὀρφεύς, classical pronunciation) is a legendary musician, poet, and prophet in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
In Roman mythology, Pallas was the son of King Evander.
A pastoral lifestyle (see pastoralism) is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture.
The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use.
De Bello Civili (On the Civil War), more commonly referred to as the Pharsalia, is a Roman epic poem by the poet Lucan, detailing the civil war between Julius Caesar and the forces of the Roman Senate led by Pompey the Great.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Piedigrotta Literally, "at the foot of the grotto".
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
Plotius Tucca (fl. 35 BC) was a Roman poet and a friend of Virgil.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
Angelo Ambrogini (14 July 1454 – 24 September 1494), commonly known by his nickname Poliziano (anglicized as Politian; Latin: Politianus), was an Italian classical scholar and poet of the Florentine Renaissance.
The "Power of Women" (Weibermacht in German) is a medieval and Renaissance artistic and literary topos, showing "heroic or wise men dominated by women", presenting "an admonitory and often humorous inversion of the male-dominated sexual hierarchy".
Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania.
Sextus Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet of the Augustan age.
The Province of Mantua (Provincia di Mantova) is a province in the Lombardy region of northern Italy.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
Punica is a small genus of fruit-bearing deciduous shrubs or small trees.
In Roman Catholic theology, purgatory (via Anglo-Norman and Old French) is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven," holding that "certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come." And that entrance into Heaven requires the "remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven," for which indulgences may be given which remove "either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin," such as an "unhealthy attachment" to sin.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Robert Seymour Conway (1864 – 1933) was a British classical scholar and comparative philologist.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
"Italia" was the name of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus are twin brothers, whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus.
In Greek mythology, Silenus (Greek: Σειληνός Seilēnos) was a companion and tutor to the wine god Dionysus.
Silius Italicus, in full Tiberius Catius Asconius Silius Italicus (c. 28 – c. 103), was a Roman consul, orator, and Latin epic poet of the 1st century AD (Silver Age of Latin literature).
Siro (also Syro, Siron, or Syron; fl. c. 50 BC) was an Epicurean philosopher who lived in Naples.
The Sortes Vergilianae (Virgilian Lots) is a form of divination by bibliomancy in which advice or predictions of the future are sought by interpreting passages from the works of the Roman poet Virgil.
Publius Papinius Statius (c. 45c. 96 AD) was a Roman poet of the 1st century AD (Silver Age of Latin literature).
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
Terrot Reaveley Glover (1869–1943) was a Cambridge University lecturer of classical literature.
The Latin Library is a website that collects public domain Latin texts.
Theocritus (Θεόκριτος, Theokritos; fl. c. 270 BC), the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC.
ThoughtCast is a Podcast and public radio interview program with authors and academics.
Titus Calpurnius was a Roman bucolic poet.
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
In Virgil's Aeneid, Turnus was the King of the Rutuli, and the chief antagonist of the hero Aeneas.
The underworld is the world of the dead in various religious traditions, located below the world of the living.
The Vergilius Augusteus is a manuscript from late antiquity, containing the works of the Roman author Virgil, written probably around the 4th century.
The Vergilius Romanus (Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica, Cod. Vat. lat. 3867), also known as the Roman Vergil, is a 5th-century illustrated manuscript of the works of Virgil.
The Vergilius Vaticanus or Vatican Virgil (Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica, Cod. Vat. lat. 3225) is a Late Antique illuminated manuscript containing, in its form today, fragments of Virgil's Aeneid and Georgics.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Virgil's tomb (Italian: Tomba di Virgilio) is a Roman burial vault in Naples, said to be the tomb of the poet Virgil (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC).
Virgilio is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Mantua in the Italian region Lombardy, located about southeast of Milan and about south of Mantua.
A votive deposit or votive offering is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Western literature, also known as European literature, is the literature written in the context of Western culture in the languages of Europe, including the ones belonging to the Indo-European language family as well as several geographically or historically related languages such as Basque and Hungarian.
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking.
The Works and Days (Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι, Erga kai Hēmerai)The Works and Days is sometimes called by the Latin translation of the title, Opera et Dies.
Mantuan Swan, Maro Virgilius, Pheryllt, Publius Vergilius Maro, Publius Vergilus Maro, Publius Virgilius Maro, Swan of Mantua, Vergil, Vergilius, Vergilius Maro, Virgil in his Basket, Virgil in his basket, Virgilian, Virgilius.