119 relations: Abstraction layer, Adaptive Domain Environment for Operating Systems, Adaptive optimization, Advanced Micro Devices, Amazon Machine Image, Android software development, Assembly language, Association for Computing Machinery, BCPL, C (programming language), Central processing unit, Common Language Runtime, Communications of the ACM, Compatible Time-Sharing System, Compiler, Computer (magazine), Computer architecture, Computer cluster, Computing platform, Concurrent computing, Conversational Monitor System, CP-67, CP/CMS, Disk image, Docker (software), Egenera, Embedded system, Emulator, End user, Euler (programming language), Fortran, FreeBSD jail, Full virtualization, Graham Nelson, Hardware virtualization, Hardware-assisted virtualization, High-level programming language, History of CP/CMS, HotSpot, Hyper-V, Hypervisor, IBM CP-40, IBM M44/44X, IBM System/360, ICore Virtual Accounts, IEEE Computer Society, Infocom, Instruction set architecture, Intel, Intermediate representation, ..., Interpreter (computing), Java (programming language), Java virtual machine, Just-in-time compilation, Kernel (operating system), Kernel same-page merging, Kernel-based Virtual Machine, Limbo (programming language), Linux, Linux containers, Linux-VServer, LXC, Machine code, Memory overcommitment, Message Passing Interface, Microsoft Virtual Server, Microsoft Windows, O-code, OpenVZ, Operating system, Operating-system-level virtualization, Oracle Corporation, Oracle VM Server for SPARC, Oracle VM Server for x86, P-code machine, Parallel Virtual Machine, Parallels Desktop for Mac, Parallels Workstation, Parrot virtual machine, Pascal (programming language), Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements, Pyramid 2000, QEMU, Real-time operating system, Sandbox (software development), Self (programming language), SIMMON, Smalltalk, SNOBOL, Software-defined storage, Solaris Containers, SPARC T3, Springer Science+Business Media, Squeak, Strongtalk, Time-sharing, Tiny BASIC, UCSD Pascal, Universal Turing machine, User space, Virtual appliance, Virtual Iron, Virtual machine escape, Virtual memory, VirtualBox, VisualWorks, VM (operating system), VMware, VMware ESXi, VMware Fusion, VMware Infrastructure, VMware Server, VMware Workstation, Win4Lin, Windows Virtual PC, Workload Partitions, Xen, Z-machine, .NET Framework. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
In computing, an abstraction layer or abstraction level is a way of hiding the implementation details of a particular set of functionality, allowing the separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence.
Adeos (Adaptive Domain Environment for Operating Systems) is a nanokernel hardware abstraction layer (HAL) or a hypervisor that operates between computer hardware and the operating system that runs on it.
Adaptive optimization is a technique in computer science that performs dynamic recompilation of portions of a program based on the current execution profile.
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.
An Amazon Machine Image (AMI) is a special type of virtual appliance that is used to create a virtual machine within the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud ("EC2").
Android software development is the process by which new applications are created for devices running the Android operating system.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
BCPL ("Basic Combined Programming Language"; or 'Before C Programming Language' (a common humorous backronym)) is a procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
The Common Language Runtime (CLR), the virtual machine component of Microsoft's.NET framework, manages the execution of.NET programs.
Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at the MIT Computation Center.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Computer is an IEEE Computer Society practitioner-oriented magazine issued to all members of the society.
In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.
A computer cluster is a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system.
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed.
Concurrent computing is a form of computing in which several computations are executed during overlapping time periods—concurrently—instead of sequentially (one completing before the next starts).
The Conversational Monitor System (CMS – originally: "Cambridge Monitor System") is a simple interactive single-user operating system.
CP-67 was the control program portion of CP/CMS, a virtual machine operating system developed for the IBM System/360-67 by IBM's Cambridge Scientific Center.
CP/CMS (Control Program/Cambridge Monitor System) is a discontinued time-sharing operating system of the late 60s and early 70s, known for its excellent performance and advanced features.
A disk image, in computing, is a computer file containing the contents and structure of a disk volume or of an entire data storage device, such as a hard disk drive, tape drive, floppy disk, optical disc or USB flash drive.
Docker is a computer program that performs operating-system-level virtualization also known as containerization.
Egenera, Inc. is a multinational cloud manager and data center infrastructure automation company with corporate headquarters in Boxborough, Massachusetts in the United States.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).
In product development, an end user (sometimes end-user) is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product.
Euler is a programming language created by Niklaus Wirth and Helmut Weber, conceived as an extension and generalization of ALGOL 60.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
The FreeBSD jail mechanism is an implementation of operating system-level virtualization that allows system administrators to partition a FreeBSD-based computer system into several independent mini-systems called jails.
In computer science, virtualization is a modern technique developed in late 1990s and is different from simulation and emulation.
Graham A. Nelson (born 1968) is a British mathematician and poet and the creator of the Inform design system for creating interactive fiction (IF) games.
Hardware virtualization is the virtualization of computers as complete hardware platforms, certain logical abstractions of their componentry, or only the functionality required to run various operating systems.
In computing, hardware-assisted virtualization is a platform virtualization approach that enables efficient full virtualization using help from hardware capabilities, primarily from the host processors.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
This article covers the History of CP/CMS — the historical context in which this important IBM time-sharing virtual machine operating system was built.
HotSpot, released as Java HotSpot Performance Engine, is a Java virtual machine for desktop and server computers, maintained and distributed by Oracle Corporation.
Microsoft Hyper-V, codenamed Viridian and formerly known as Windows Server Virtualization, is a native hypervisor; it can create virtual machines on x86-64 systems running Windows.
A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines.
CP-40 was a research precursor to CP-67, which in turn was part of IBM's then-revolutionary CP-67/CMS – a virtual machine/virtual memory time-sharing operating system for the IBM System/360 Model 67, and the parent of IBM's VM family.
The IBM M44/44X was an experimental computer system from the mid-1960s, designed and operated at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center at Yorktown Heights, New York.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
iCore Virtual Accounts is free download OS level virtualization (container-based virtualization) for Microsoft Windows XP.
IEEE Computer Society (sometimes abbreviated Computer Society or CS) is a professional society of IEEE.
Infocom was a software company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts that produced numerous works of interactive fiction.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
An Intermediate representation (IR) is the data structure or code used internally by a compiler or virtual machine to represent source code.
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages and compiled to Java bytecode.
In computing, just-in-time (JIT) compilation, (also dynamic translation or run-time compilation), is a way of executing computer code that involves compilation during execution of a program – at run time – rather than prior to execution.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
In computing, kernel same-page merging (abbreviated as KSM, and also known as kernel shared memory and memory merging) is a kernel feature that makes it possible for a hypervisor system to share identical memory pages amongst different processes or virtualized guests.
Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) is a virtualization infrastructure for the Linux kernel that turns it into a hypervisor.
Limbo is a programming language for writing distributed systems and is the language used to write applications for the Inferno operating system.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
Linux containers is a generic term for an implementation of operating system-level virtualization for the Linux operating system.
Linux-VServer is a virtual private server implementation that was created by adding operating system-level virtualization capabilities to the Linux kernel.
LXC (Linux Containers) is an operating-system-level virtualization method for running multiple isolated Linux systems (containers) on a control host using a single Linux kernel.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
Memory overcommitment is a concept in computing that covers the assignment of more memory to virtual computing devices than the physical machine they are hosted on actually has.
Message Passing Interface (MPI) is a standardized and portable message-passing standard designed by a group of researchers from academia and industry to function on a wide variety of parallel computing architectures.
Microsoft Virtual Server was a virtualization solution that facilitated the creation of virtual machines on the Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows Server 2003 operating systems.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
O-code is an intermediate language emitted by the BCPL compiler.
OpenVZ (Open Virtuozzo) is an operating system-level virtualization technology for Linux.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Operating-system-level virtualization, also known as containerization, refers to an operating system feature in which the kernel allows the existence of multiple isolated user-space instances.
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
Logical Domains (LDoms or LDOM) is the server virtualization and partitioning technology for SPARC V9 processors.
Oracle VM Server for x86 is the server virtualization offering from Oracle Corporation.
In computer programming, a p-code machine, or portable code machine is a virtual machine designed to execute p-code (the assembly language of a hypothetical CPU).
Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) is a software tool for parallel networking of computers.
Parallels Desktop for Mac, by Parallels, is software providing hardware virtualization for Macintosh computers with Intel processors.
Parallels Workstation is the first commercial software product released by Parallels, Inc., a developer of desktop and server virtualization software.
Parrot is a register-based process virtual machine designed to run dynamic languages efficiently.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements are a set of conditions sufficient for a computer architecture to support system virtualization efficiently.
Pyramid 2000 is an interactive fiction game.
QEMU (short for Quick Emulator) is a free and open-source emulator that performs hardware virtualization.
A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays.
A sandbox is a testing environment that isolates untested code changes and outright experimentation from the production environment or repository, in the context of software development including Web development and revision control.
Self is an object-oriented programming language based on the concept of prototypes.
SIMMON (SIMulation MONitor) was a proprietary software testing system developed in the late 1960s in the IBM Product Test Laboratory, then at Poughkeepsie, N.Y. It was designed for the then-new line of System/360 computers as a vehicle for testing the software that IBM was developing for that architecture.
Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
SNOBOL (StriNg Oriented and symBOlic Language) is a series of computer programming languages developed between 1962 and 1967 at AT&T Bell Laboratories by David J. Farber, Ralph E. Griswold and Ivan P. Polonsky, culminating in SNOBOL4.
Software-defined storage (SDS) is a marketing term for computer data storage software for policy-based provisioning and management of data storage independent of the underlying hardware.
Solaris Containers (including Solaris Zones) is an implementation of operating system-level virtualization technology for x86 and SPARC systems, first released publicly in February 2004 in build 51 beta of Solaris 10, and subsequently in the first full release of Solaris 10, 2005.
The SPARC T3 microprocessor (previously known as UltraSPARC T3, codenamed Rainbow Falls, and also known as UltraSPARC KT or Niagara-3 during development) is a multithreading, multi-core CPU produced by Oracle Corporation (previously Sun Microsystems).
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Squeak programming language is a dialect of Smalltalk.
Strongtalk is a Smalltalk environment with optional static typing support.
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
Tiny BASIC is a dialect of the BASIC programming language that can fit into as little as 2 or 3 KB of memory.
UCSD Pascal was a Pascal programming language system that ran on the UCSD p-System, a portable, highly machine-independent operating system.
In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input.
A modern computer operating system usually segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space.
A virtual appliance is a pre-configured virtual machine image, ready to run on a hypervisor; virtual appliances are a subset of the broader class of software appliances.
Virtual Iron Software, was located in Lowell, Massachusetts, sold proprietary software for virtualization and management of a virtual infrastructure.
In computer security, virtual machine escape is the process of breaking out of a virtual machine and interacting with the host operating system.
In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
Oracle VM VirtualBox (formerly Sun VirtualBox, Sun xVM VirtualBox and Innotek VirtualBox) is a free and open-source hypervisor for x86 computers currently being developed by Oracle Corporation.
VisualWorks is a cross-platform implementation of the Smalltalk language.
VM (often: VM/CMS) is a family of IBM virtual machine operating systems used on IBM mainframes System/370, System/390, zSeries, System z and compatible systems, including the Hercules emulator for personal computers.
VMware, Inc. is a subsidiary of Dell Technologies that provides cloud computing and platform virtualization software and services.
VMware ESXi (formerly ESX) is an enterprise-class, type-1 hypervisor developed by VMware for deploying and serving virtual computers.
VMware Fusion is a software hypervisor developed by VMware for Macintosh computers.
VMware Infrastructure (VI) was a software suite of hardware virtualization products from VMware (a division of Dell EMC).
VMware Server (formerly VMware GSX Server) is a discontinued free-of-charge virtualization-software server suite developed and supplied by VMware, Inc.
VMware Workstation is a hosted hypervisor that runs on x64 versions of Windows and Linux operating systems (an x86 version of earlier releases was available); it enables users to set up virtual machines (VMs) on a single physical machine, and use them simultaneously along with the actual machine.
Win4Lin was a proprietary software application for Linux which allowed users to run a copy of Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows 2000 or Windows XP applications on their Linux desktop.
Windows Virtual PC (successor to Microsoft Virtual PC 2007, Microsoft Virtual PC 2004, and Connectix Virtual PC) is a virtualization program for Microsoft Windows.
AIX Workload partitions (WPARs) are a software implementation of operating system-level virtualization technology introduced in the IBM's AIX 6.1 operating system that provides application environment isolation and resource control.
Xen Project (pronounced) is a hypervisor using a microkernel design, providing services that allow multiple computer operating systems to execute on the same computer hardware concurrently.
The Z-machine is a virtual machine that was developed by Joel Berez and Marc Blank in 1979 and used by Infocom for its text adventure games.
.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
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