129 relations: Abolitionism, Adjudicator, After Virtue, Age of Enlightenment, Alasdair MacIntyre, Amartya Sen, Ambrose, Anarchism, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek philosophy, Applied ethics, Arete, Argument from ignorance, Aristotelian ethics, Aristotle, Atlantic World, Authority, Benjamin Franklin, Bernard Williams, Buddhist ethics (discipline), Capability approach, Cardinal virtues, Ceteris paribus, Christian, Cicero, City-state, Classical liberalism, Classical republicanism, Compassion, Confucianism, Consequentialism, Constitutional theory, Cultural relativism, Cynicism (philosophy), David Brion Davis, David Hume, Deirdre McCloskey, Deontological ethics, Divine command theory, English Civil War, Environmental virtue ethics, Episteme, Epistemology, Ethos, Eudaimonia, G. E. M. Anscombe, Golden mean (philosophy), Henry Sidgwick, Hermeneutics, History, ..., Homer, Immanuel Kant, International development, Italy, James Page (Australian educationist), Jeremy Bentham, Jiyuan Yu, John McDowell, John Stuart Mill, Julia Annas, Justice, Lawrence C. Becker, Legislation, Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski, List of national founders, Livy, Martha Nussbaum, Meaning of life, Michael Slote, Modern Moral Philosophy, Modern Stoicism, Moral absolutism, Moral character, Naturalism (philosophy), New Testament, Niccolò Machiavelli, Normative, Normative ethics, Nous, On Liberty, Paul Ricœur, Peace education, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philippa Foot, Philosophical realism, Philosophy of education, Phronesis, Plato, Plutarch, Polis, Postmodernism, Quakers, Reason, Republic (Plato), Roger Crisp, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Rosalind Hursthouse, Rule according to higher law, Scholasticism, Scottish Enlightenment, Seven virtues, Slavery, Socrates, Stanley Hauerwas, Stoicism, Summa Theologica, Tacitus, Teleology, Temperance (virtue), The Metaphysics of Morals, The Methods of Ethics, The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories, The Subjection of Women, Thomas Aquinas, UNESCO, United States, University of California, Santa Cruz, Utilitarianism, Utilitarianism (book), Utopia, Vice, Virtue, Virtue epistemology, Virtue ethics, Virtue jurisprudence, Walter Kaufmann (philosopher), Whigs (British political party), Wisdom. Expand index (79 more) » « Shrink index
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
An adjudicator is someone who presides, judges, and arbitrates during a formal dispute or competition.
After Virtue is a book on moral philosophy by Alasdair MacIntyre.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born 12 January 1929) is a Scottish philosopher, primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy, but also known for his work in history of philosophy and theology.
Amartya Kumar Sen, CH, FBA (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Aurelius Ambrosius (– 397), better known in English as Ambrose, was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Applied ethics is the branch of ethics concerned with the analysis of particular moral issues in private and public life.
Arete (Greek: ἀρετή), in its basic sense, means "excellence of any kind".
Argument from ignorance (from argumentum ad ignorantiam), also known as appeal to ignorance (in which ignorance represents "a lack of contrary evidence") is a fallacy in informal logic.
Aristotle first used the term ethics to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates and Plato.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Atlantic World is the history of the interactions among the peoples and empires bordering the Atlantic Ocean rim from the beginning of the Age of Discovery to the early 21st century.
Authority derives from the Latin word and is a concept used to indicate the foundational right to exercise power, which can be formalized by the State and exercised by way of judges, monarchs, rulers, police officers or other appointed executives of government, or the ecclesiastical or priestly appointed representatives of a higher spiritual power (God or other deities).
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, FBA (21 September 1929 – 10 June 2003) was an English moral philosopher.
Buddhist ethics as an academic discipline is relatively new, blossoming in the mid-1990s.
The capability approach (also referred to as the capabilities approach) is an economic theory conceived in the 1980s as an alternative approach to welfare economics.
Four cardinal virtues were recognized in classical antiquity and in traditional Christian theology.
Ceteris paribus or caeteris paribus is a Latin phrase meaning "other things equal".
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.
Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
Constitutional theory is an area of constitutional law that focuses on the underpinnings of constitutional government.
Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.
Cynicism (κυνισμός) is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics (Κυνικοί, Cynici).
David Brion Davis (born February 16, 1927) is an American intellectual and cultural historian, and a leading authority on slavery and abolition in the Western world.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Deirdre Nansen McCloskey (born September 11, 1942), born Donald N. McCloskey, is the Distinguished Professor of Economics, History, English, and Communication at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC).
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.
Divine command theory (also known as theological voluntarism) is a meta-ethical theory which proposes that an action's status as morally good is equivalent to whether it is commanded by God.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
Environmental virtue ethics (EVE) is, as the name suggests, a way of approaching environmental ethics through the lens of virtue ethics.
"Episteme" is a philosophical term derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐπιστήμη epistēmē, which can refer to knowledge, science or understanding, and which comes from the verb ἐπίστασθαι, meaning "to know, to understand, or to be acquainted with".
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology.
Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.
Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (18 March 1919 – 5 January 2001), usually cited as G. E. M.
In ancient Greek philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, the golden mean or golden middle way is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency.
Henry Sidgwick (31 May 1838 – 28 August 1900) was an English utilitarian philosopher and economist; he held the Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy from the year 1883 until his death.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
James Smith Page (born 1953) is an Australian educationist and anthropologist, and a recognised authority within the field of peace education.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Jiyuan Yu (July 5, 1964 – November 3, 2016) was a moral philosopher noted for his work on virtue ethics.
John Henry McDowell (born 7 March 1942) is a South African philosopher, formerly a fellow of University College, Oxford and now University Professor at the University of Pittsburgh.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Julia Elizabeth Annas (born 1946) is a British philosopher who has taught in the United States for the last quarter-century.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
Lawrence C. Becker (born 1939) is an American philosopher working mainly in the areas of ethics and social, political, and legal philosophy.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski (born 1946) is an American philosopher.
The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Martha Craven Nussbaum (born May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher and the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, where she is jointly appointed in the Law School and the Philosophy department.
The meaning of life, or the answer to the question "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general.
Michael Slote is UST Professor of Ethics at the University of Miami and is author of From Morality to Virtue (1992) and Morals From Motives (2001).
"Modern Moral Philosophy" is an article on moral philosophy by G. E. M. Anscombe, originally published in the journal Philosophy, vol.
Modern Stoicism is an intellectual and popular movement in the late 20th and early 21st century which attempts to revive the Stoic philosophy in the modern setting.
Moral absolutism is an ethical view that particular actions are intrinsically right or wrong.
Moral character or character is an evaluation of an individual's stable moral qualities.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard.
Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.
Nous, sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
On Liberty is a philosophical work by the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, originally intended as a short essay.
Jean Paul Gustave Ricœur (27 February 1913 – 20 May 2005) was a French philosopher best known for combining phenomenological description with hermeneutics.
Peace education is the process of acquiring the values, the knowledge and developing the attitudes, skills, and behaviors to live in harmony with oneself, with others, and with the natural environment.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Philippa Ruth Foot, FBA (née Bosanquet; 3 October 1920 3 October 2010) was a British philosopher.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
Philosophy of education can refer either to the application of philosophy to the problem of education, examining definitions, goals and chains of meaning used in education by teachers, administrators or policymakers.
Phronesis (phrónēsis) is an Ancient Greek word for a type of wisdom or intelligence.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
Roger Stephen Crisp (born 23 March 1961) is fellow and tutor in philosophy at St. Anne’s College, Oxford.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Mary Rosalind Hursthouse (born 10 November 1943) is a British-born New Zealand moral philosopher noted for her work on virtue ethics.
The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church defines virtue as "a habitual and firm disposition to do the good." Traditionally, the seven Christian virtues or heavenly virtues combine the four classical cardinal virtues of prudence, justice, temperance and courage (or fortitude) with the three theological virtues of faith, hope and charity.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Stanley Hauerwas (born July 24, 1940) is an American theologian, ethicist, and public intellectual.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
The Summa Theologiae (written 1265–1274 and also known as the Summa Theologica or simply the Summa) is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274).
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint.
The Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten) is a 1797 work of political and moral philosophy by Immanuel Kant.
The Methods of Ethics is a book on ethics first published in 1874 by the English philosopher Henry Sidgwick.
"The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories" (1976) is a popular paper in ethics by Michael Stocker.
The Subjection of Women is an essay by English philosopher, political economist and civil servant John Stuart Mill published in 1869, with ideas he developed jointly with his wife Harriet Taylor Mill.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of California, Santa Cruz (also known as UC Santa Cruz or UCSC), is a public research university and one of 10 campuses in the University of California system.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
John Stuart Mill's book Utilitarianism is a classic exposition and defence of utilitarianism in ethics.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
Vice is a practice, behaviour, or habit generally considered immoral, sinful, criminal, rude, taboo, depraved, or degrading in the associated society.
Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.
Virtue epistemology is a contemporary philosophical approach to epistemology that stresses the importance of intellectual, and specifically epistemic virtues.
Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics, from Greek ἀρετή (arete)) are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind and character.
In the philosophy of law, virtue jurisprudence is the set of theories of law related to virtue ethics.
Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 – September 4, 1980) was a German-American philosopher, translator, and poet.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.