427 relations: Abiogenesis, Acanthamoeba, Aciclovir, Adaptive immune system, Adenoviridae, Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, Aerosol, Agar plate, Alice Miles Woodruff, Alphaherpesvirinae, André Michel Lwoff, Angola, Antibiotic, Antibody, Antigen, Antigen presentation, Antigenic drift, Antigenic shift, Antimicrobial resistance, Antiviral drug, Anus, Aphid, Aphthovirus, Apoptosis, Archaea, Arenavirus, Arterivirus, Asymptomatic carrier, Atmosphere, Atomic force microscopy, Avian influenza, B cell, Bacteria, Bacteriophage, Baltimore classification, Barbara McClintock, Bartholomeus Anglicus, Baruch Samuel Blumberg, Biological pump, Biological warfare, Biotechnology, Bluetongue disease, Bornaviridae, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Bovine viral diarrhea, Brome mosaic virus, Burkitt's lymphoma, Caister Academic Press, Caliciviridae, Canine parvovirus, ..., Capsid, Capsomere, Carbon, Carbon cycle, Carbon sequestration, Caulimoviridae, CD4, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Cell division, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell-mediated immunity, Cellulose, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cervix, Chain termination, Chamberland filter, Charles Chamberland, Chemokine receptor, Chickenpox, Chile, Chiron Corporation, Chlamydia (genus), Cholera, Chronic condition, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Chronic wasting disease, Circoviridae, Class (biology), Classical Latin, Clinical trial, Common cold, Complementary DNA, Contagium vivum fluidum, Cowpea mosaic virus, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, CRISPR, Critical Reviews in Immunology, Crop yield, Cross-species transmission, Crystal, Crystallization, Current Protocols, Cyanophages, Cytokine, Cytopathic effect, Cytoplasm, David Baltimore, Dendritic cell, Dengue fever, Dicer, Dimer (chemistry), Dmitri Ivanovsky, DNA, DNA microarray, DNA replication, DNA virus, Double-stranded RNA viruses, DsDNA-RT virus, Dye, Earth, Ebola virus disease, Ebolavirus, Ecosystem, Electron microscope, Endemic (epidemiology), Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Enterobacteria phage T4, Envelope glycoprotein GP120, Enzyme, Epidemiology, Epstein–Barr virus, Ernest William Goodpasture, Ernst Ruska, Eurosurveillance, Evolution, Evolutionary history of life, Family (biology), Félix d'Herelle, Fecal–oral route, Filoviridae, Fluorescence, Food chain, Foot-and-mouth disease, Frederick Chapman Robbins, Frederick Twort, Friedrich Loeffler, Gastroenteritis, Geminiviridae, Gene, Gene therapy, Genetic diversity, Genetic recombination, Genetics, Genome, Genus, Germ theory of disease, Germline, Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Harbor seal, Harmful algal bloom, Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, Helix, Hematophagy, Hepadnaviridae, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis C virus, Hepatitis D, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Herpes labialis, Herpes simplex, Herpes simplex virus, Herpesvirales, Herpesviridae, Hexagon, HIV-1 protease, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Homeostasis, Horizontal gene transfer, Horizontal transmission, Host (biology), Howard Martin Temin, Human herpesvirus 6, Human papillomavirus infection, Human T-lymphotropic virus, Human virome, Humoral immunity, Hydroxy group, Icosahedral symmetry, Icosahedron, Immune response, Immune system, Immunity (medical), Immunodeficiency, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M, Immunology, Incubation period, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Infection, Infectivity, Influenza, Innate immune system, Interferon, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, Intron, Invertebrate, John Franklin Enders, John Trevisa, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Jonas Salk, Kaposi's sarcoma, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Kuru (disease), Lamivudine, Last universal common ancestor, Latin, Linnaean taxonomy, Lipid, Lipid bilayer fusion, List of Ebola outbreaks, List of virus families and subfamilies, Louis Pasteur, Luc Montagnier, Lymph, Lymphoproliferative disorders, Lysis, Lysogenic cycle, Macrophage, Marburg virus, Marburgvirus, Marine mammal, Martinus Beijerinck, Mass noun, Max Knoll, Measles, Medscape, Megavirus, Melanoma, Merkel cell polyomavirus, Merkel-cell carcinoma, Messenger RNA, Metabolism, Metaviridae, Michael Houghton (virologist), Microbiologist, Microbiology, Microorganism, Mimivirus, Mobile genetic elements, Molecular biology, Molecular genetics, Molecular self-assembly, Molecule, Morphology (biology), Multicellular organism, Multiple sclerosis, Mumps, Mutation, Mycovirus, Nanometre, Nanotechnology, Nasopharynx cancer, National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, Natural killer cell, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Negative stain, Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus, Nematode, Neurology, Neurotropic virus, Nitric oxide, Non-cellular life, Norovirus, Nucleic acid, Nucleoid, Nucleoprotein, Nucleoside analogue, Olivia Judson, Oncolytic virus, Oncovirus, Optical microscope, Order (biology), Organism, Outline of life forms, Overlapping gene, Paleovirology, Pandemic, Pandemic severity index, Pandoravirus, Papillomaviridae, Parasitism, Parvovirus, Pasteur Institute, Pathogen, Paul Tournier, Penicillin, Penis, Permissive, Pestivirus, Peter Palese, Phage therapy, Phage typing, Phocine distemper virus, Phosphorus, Phylum, Phytoplankton, Plasmid, Plasmodesma, Pleomorphism (microbiology), Plural form of words ending in -us, Point mutation, Poison, Polio vaccine, Poliomyelitis, Poliovirus, Polymerase, Polyomaviridae, Positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus, Post-transcriptional modification, Poxviridae, Primary effusion lymphoma, Prion, Prophage, Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Proteasome, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protozoa, Provirus, Pseudoviridae, Psychiatry, Quarantine, Quasispecies model, Quenching (fluorescence), Rabies, Reactive oxygen species, Reassortment, Receptor (biochemistry), Regular icosahedron, Repeated sequence (DNA), Reproduction, Restriction enzyme, Retrovirus, Reverse transcriptase, Ribavirin, Rickettsia, RNA, RNA interference, RNA virus, RNA world, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RNA-induced silencing complex, Robley C. Williams, Rosalind Franklin, Ross Granville Harrison, Rotavirus, Rubella, Salicylic acid, Sap, Satellite (biology), Scrapie, Self-organization, Sense (molecular biology), Severe acute respiratory syndrome, Sexual intercourse, Shingles, Smallpox, Spanish flu, Species, Sputnik virophage, State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Strain (biology), Sub-Saharan Africa, Subfamily, Sulfolobales, SV40, T cell, Talimogene laherparepvec, The New York Times, Thermophile, Thermoproteales, Thomas Huckle Weller, Three-domain system, Tissue culture, Tobacco mosaic virus, Toxin, Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), Transposable element, TRIM21, Tropical spastic paraparesis, Tungsten, Typhoid fever, United States Naval Research Laboratory, Vaccination, Vaccine, Vaccinia, Varicella zoster virus, Varicellovirus, Vector (epidemiology), Vector (molecular biology), Vertebrate, Vertically transmitted infection, Viral disease, Viral entry, Viral envelope, Viral evolution, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Viral hepatitis, Viral metagenomics, Viral replication, Viral shedding, Viroid, Virology, Virome, Viroplasm, Virotherapy, Virulence, Virus classification, Virus latency, Wendell Meredith Stanley, West African Ebola virus epidemic, White blood cell, World Health Organization, X-ray crystallography, Yersinia pestis, Zidovudine, Zoonosis, 2001 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth outbreak. 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Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae, a single-celled eukaryote commonly recovered from soil, fresh water and other habitats.
Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL or ATLL) is a rare cancer of the immune system's own T-cells.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains a solid growth medium, typically agar plus nutrients, used to culture small organisms such as microorganisms.
Alice Miles Woodruff (also known as Alice Lincoln Miles), together with Ernest William Goodpasture developed a method for growing fowlpox outside of a live chicken.
Alphaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of Herpesviridae, primarily distinguished by reproducing more quickly than other subfamilies of Herpesviridae.
André Michel Lwoff (8 May 1902 – 30 September 1994) was a French microbiologist and Nobel laureate.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antigen presentation describes a vital immune process which is essential for T cell immune response triggering.
Antigenic drift is a mechanism for variation in viruses that involves the accumulation of mutations within the genes that code for antibody-binding sites.
Antigenic shift is the process by which two or more different strains of a virus, or strains of two or more different viruses, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two or more original strains.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
Aphthovirus (from the Greek aphtha-, vesicles in the mouth) is a viral genus of the family Picornaviridae.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
An arenavirus is a virus which is a member of the family Arenaviridae.
Arterivirus is the only genus of viruses in the family Arteriviridae, which is within the order Nidovirales.
An asymptomatic carrier (healthy carrier or just carrier) is a person or other organism that has become infected with a pathogen, but who display no signs nor symptoms.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.
Avian influenza—known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
The Baltimore classification, developed by David Baltimore, is a virus classification system that groups viruses into families, depending on their type of genome (DNA, RNA, single-stranded (ss), double-stranded (ds), etc..) and their method of replication.
Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was an American scientist and cytogeneticist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Bartholomeus Anglicus (before 1203 – 1272), also known as Bartholomew the Englishman and Berthelet, was an early 13th-century scholastic of Paris, a member of the Franciscan order.
Baruch Samuel Blumberg (July 28, 1925April 5, 2011) — known as Barry Blumberg — was an American physician, geneticist, and co-recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (with Daniel Carleton Gajdusek), for his work on the hepatitis B virus while an investigator at the NIH.
The biological pump, in its simplest form, is the ocean's biologically driven sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere to deep sea water and sediment.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Bluetongue disease is a non-contagious, insect-borne, viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep and less frequently cattle, goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope.
Bornaviridae is a family of viruses in the order Mononegavirales.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or bovine viral diarrhoea (UK English), and previously referred to as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD), is a significant economic disease of cattle that is endemic in the majority of countries throughout the world.
Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus Bromovirus, family Bromoviridae, in the alphavirus-like superfamily.
Burkitt lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, particularly B lymphocytes found in the germinal center.
Caister Academic Press is an independent academic publishing company that produces books and ebooks on microbiology, and molecular biology.
The Caliciviridae are a family of viruses, members of Class IV of the Baltimore scheme.
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2, colloquially parvo) is a contagious virus mainly affecting dogs, and thought to originate in cats.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
The capsomere is a subunit of the capsid, an outer covering of protein that protects the genetic material of a virus.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.
Caulimoviridae is a family of viruses infecting plants.
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
Chain termination is any chemical reaction that ceases the formation of reactive intermediates in a chain propagation step in the course of a polymerization, effectively bringing it to a halt.
A Chamberland filter, also known as a Pasteur–Chamberland filter, is a porcelain water filter invented by Charles Chamberland in 1884.
Charles Chamberland (12 March 1851 – 2 May 1908) was a French microbiologist from Chilly-le-Vignoble in the department of Jura who worked with Louis Pasteur.
Chemokine receptors are cytokine receptors found on the surface of certain cells that interact with a type of cytokine called a chemokine.
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chiron Corporation was an American multinational biotechnology firm based in Emeryville, California that was acquired by Novartis International AG on April 20, 2006.
Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a medical condition characterized by long-term fatigue and other symptoms that limit a person's ability to carry out ordinary daily activities.
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk (or "wapiti"), moose, and reindeer.
Circoviridae is a family of viruses.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.
In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
Contagium vivum fluidum (Latin: "contagious living fluid") was a phrase first used to describe a virus, and underlined its ability to slip through the finest-mesh filters then available, giving it almost liquid properties.
Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a non-enveloped plant virus of the comovirus group.
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is a universally fatal brain disorder.
CRISPR is a family of DNA sequences in bacteria and archaea.
Critical Reviews in Immunology is a bimonthly scientific journal published by Begell House covering the field of immunology.
In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
Cross-species transmission, (CST) or spillover, is the ability for a foreign virus, once introduced into an individual of a new host species, to infect that individual and spread throughout a new host population.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Current Protocols is a series of laboratory manuals for life scientists.
Cyanophages are viruses that infect cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta or blue-green algae.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytopathic effect or cytopathogenic effect (abbreviated CPE) refers to structural changes in host cells that are caused by viral invasion.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist, university administrator, and 1975 Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
Dicer, also known as endoribonuclease Dicer or helicase with RNase motif, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DICER1 gene.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovsky (alternative spelling Dmitrii or Dmitry Iwanowski; Дми́трий Ио́сифович Ивано́вский; 28 October 1864 – 20 June 1920) was a Russian botanist, the discoverer of viruses (1892) and one of the founders of virology.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
Double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses are a diverse group of viruses that vary widely in host range (humans, animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria), genome segment number (one to twelve) and virion organization (T-number, capsid layers or turrets).
dsDNA-RT viruses are the seventh group in the Baltimore virus classification.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.
The genus Ebolavirus is a virological taxon included in the family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Enterobacteria phage T4 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria.
Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.
Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (25 December 1906 – 27 May 1988) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986 for his work in electron optics, including the design of the first electron microscope.
Eurosurveillance is a peer-reviewed open access medical journal covering epidemiology, with a focus on such topics that are of particular relevance to Europe.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Félix d'Hérelle (April 25, 1873 – February 22, 1949) was a French-Canadian microbiologist.
The fecal–oral route (or oral–fecal route or fecal oral route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease.
The family Filoviridae is the taxonomic home of several related viruses (filoviruses or filovirids) that form filamentous infectious viral particles (virions), and encode their genome in the form of single-stranded negative-sense RNA.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease (Aphthae epizooticae) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids.
Frederick Chapman Robbins (August 25, 1916 – August 4, 2003) was an American pediatrician and virologist.
Frederick William Twort FRS (22 October 1877 – 20 March 1950) was an English bacteriologist and was the original discoverer in 1915 of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).
Friedrich August Johannes Loeffler (24 June 18529 April 1915) was a German bacteriologist at the University of Greifswald.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Geminiviridae is a family of plant viruses.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.
In biology and genetics, the germline in a multicellular organism is the population of its bodily cells that are so differentiated or segregated that in the usual processes of reproduction they may pass on their genetic material to the progeny.
Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome (GSS) is a very rare, usually familial, fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects patients from 20 to 60 years in age.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric glycoprotein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, natural killer cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts that functions as a cytokine.
The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere.
A harmful algal bloom (HAB) are organisms that can severely lower oxygen levels in natural waters, killing marine life.
Heinz Ludwig Fraenkel-Conrat (July 29, 1910 – April 10, 1999) was a biochemist, famous for his viral research.
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
Hematophagy (sometimes spelled haematophagy or hematophagia) is the practice by certain animals of feeding on blood (from the Greek words αἷμα haima "blood" and φάγειν phagein "to eat").
Hepadnaviridae is a family of viruses.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a double stranded DNA virus, a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, and a member of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small (55–65 nm in size), enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae.
Hepatitis D (hepatitis delta) is a disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), a small spherical enveloped virusoid.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
Herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, is a type of infection by the herpes simplex virus that affects primarily the lip.
Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
The Herpesvirales is an order of dsDNA viruses with eukaryotic hosts and enveloped virions, characterized by a common morphology.
Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.
In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon.
HIV-1 protease (PR) is a retroviral aspartyl protease (retropepsin), an enzyme involved with peptide bond hydrolysis in retroviruses, that is essential for the life-cycle of HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS.
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Horizontal transmission is the transmission of infections between members of the same species that are not in a parent-child relationship.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
Howard Martin Temin (December 10, 1934 – February 9, 1994) was a U.S. geneticist and virologist.
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the common collective name for human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B).
Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).
The human T-lymphotropic virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, or human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) family of viruses are a group of human retroviruses that are known to cause a type of cancer called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and a demyelinating disease called HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).
Human virome is the collection of viruses in and on the human body.
Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
A regular icosahedron has 60 rotational (or orientation-preserving) symmetries, and a symmetry order of 120 including transformations that combine a reflection and a rotation.
In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.
The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
In epidemiology, infectivity is the ability of a pathogen to establish an infection.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of and the nomenclatures for viruses.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
John Franklin Enders (February 10, 1897 – September 8, 1985) was an American biomedical scientist and Nobel Laureate.
Polychronicon Ranulphi Higdin, Monachi Cestrensis, 1865 John Trevisa (or John of Trevisa; Ioannes Trevisa; fl. 1342 – 1402 AD) was a Cornish writer and translator.
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
Jonas Edward Salk (October 28, 1914June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer that can form masses in the skin, lymph nodes, or other organs.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the ninth known human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is HHV-8.
Kuru is a very rare, incurable neurodegenerative disorder that was formerly common among the Fore people of Papua New Guinea.
Lamivudine, commonly called 3TC, is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
In membrane biology, fusion is the process by which two initially distinct lipid bilayers merge their hydrophobic cores, resulting in one interconnected structure.
This list of Ebola outbreaks records the known occurrences of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, a highly infectious and acutely lethal viral disease that has afflicted humans and animals primarily in equatorial Africa.
This is an alphabetical list of biological virus families and subfamilies; it includes those families and subfamilies listed by the ICTV 2014 report.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Luc Antoine Montagnier (born 18 August 1932) is a French virologist and joint recipient with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) refer to several conditions in which lymphocytes are produced in excessive quantities.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other).
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus, genus Marburgvirus.
The genus Marburgvirus is the taxonomic home of one species, Marburg marburgvirus, whose members are the two known marburgviruses, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV).
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.
Max Knoll (17 July 1897 – 6 November 1969) was a German electrical engineer.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Medscape is a website providing access to medical information for clinicians; the organization also provides continuing education for physicians and health professionals.
Megavirus is a viral genus containing a single identified species named Megavirus chilensis (MGVC), phylogenetically related to Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus (APMV).
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV) was first described in January 2008 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Merkel-cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and highly aggressive skin cancer, which, in most cases, is caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) discovered by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh in 2008.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metaviridae are a family of viruses which exist as retrotransposons in a eukaryotic host’s genome.
Michael Houghton is a British scientist, who along with Qui-Lim Choo, George Kuo and Daniel W. Bradley, co-discovered Hepatitis C in 1989.
A microbiologist (from Greek μῑκρος) is a scientist who studies microscopic life forms and processes.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Mimivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Mimiviridae.
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are a type of genetic materials that can move around within a genome, or that can be transferred from one species or replicon to another.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
Molecular self-assembly is the process by which molecules adopt a defined arrangement without guidance or management from an outside source.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Mumps is a viral disease caused by the mumps virus.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
Nasopharynx cancer or nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer originating in the nasopharynx, most commonly in the postero-lateral nasopharynx or pharyngeal recess or 'Fossa of Rosenmüller' accounting for 50% cases.
The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Negative staining is an established method, often used in diagnostic microscopy, for contrasting a thin specimen with an optically opaque fluid.
A negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (-)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses negative sense, single-stranded RNA as its genetic material.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neurotropic virus is a virus that is capable of infecting nerve cells.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Non-cellular life is life that exists without a cellular structure for at least part of its life cycle.
Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore.
Nucleoproteins are any proteins that are structurally associated with nucleic acids, either DNA or RNA.
Nucleoside analogues are nucleosides which contain a nucleic acid analogue and a sugar.
Olivia P. Judson (born 1970) is an evolutionary biologist and science writer.
An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells.
An oncovirus is a virus that can cause cancer.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to life forms: Life form (also, lifeform) – entity that is living, such as plants (flora) and animals (fauna).
An overlapping gene is a gene whose expressible nucleotide sequence partially overlaps with the expressible nucleotide sequence of another gene.
Paleovirology is the study of viruses that existed in the past but are now extinct.
A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
The pandemic severity index (PSI) is a proposed classification scale for reporting the severity of influenza pandemics in the United States.
Pandoravirus is a genus of giant virus, first discovered in 2013.
Papillomaviridae is an ancient taxonomic family of non-enveloped DNA viruses, collectively known as papillomaviruses.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Parvovirus is the common name applied to all the viruses in the Parvoviridae taxonomic family.
The Pasteur Institute (Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Paul Tournier (12 May 1898 – 7 October 1986) was a Swiss physician and author who had acquired a worldwide audience for his work in pastoral counseling.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.
A permissive cell or host is one that allows a virus to circumvent its defenses and replicate.
Pestivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Flaviviridae.
Peter Palese is a United States microbiologist and Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, and an expert in the field of RNA viruses.
Phage therapy or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections.
Phage typing is a method used for detecting single strains of bacteria.
Phocine distemper virus (PDV) is a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus that is pathogenic for pinniped species, particularly seals.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Plasmodesmata (singular: plasmodesma) are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them.
In microbiology, pleomorphism (from greek πλέω- more, and -μορφή form) is the ability of some micro-organisms to alter their shape or size in response to environmental conditions.
In English, the plural form of words ending in -us, especially those derived from Latin, often replaces -us with -i. There are many exceptions, some because the word does not derive from Latin, and others due to custom (e.g., campus, plural campuses).
A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis (commonly known as polio), is a human enterovirus and member of the family of Picornaviridae.
A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 184.108.40.206/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains of polymers or nucleic acids.
Polyomaviridae is a family of viruses whose natural hosts are primarily mammals and birds.
A positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (+)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses positive sense, single-stranded RNA as its genetic material.
Post-transcriptional modification or Co-transcriptional modification is the process in eukaryotic cells where primary transcript RNA is converted into mature RNA.
Poxviridae is a family of viruses.
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a B-cell lymphoma, presenting with a malignant effusion without a tumor mass.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid.
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.g. HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell.
The Pseudoviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.
The quasispecies model is a description of the process of the Darwinian evolution of certain self-replicating entities within the framework of physical chemistry.
Quenching refers to any process which decreases the fluorescence intensity of a given substance.
Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Reassortment is the mixing of the genetic material of a species into new combinations in different individuals.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
In geometry, a regular icosahedron is a convex polyhedron with 20 faces, 30 edges and 12 vertices.
Repeated sequences (also known as repetitive elements, or repeats) are patterns of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that occur in multiple copies throughout the genome.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Ribavirin, also known as tribavirin, is an antiviral medication used to treat RSV infection, hepatitis C, and viral hemorrhagic fever.
Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.
The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), (RDR), or RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the replication of RNA from an RNA template.
The RNA-induced silencing complex, or RISC, is a multiprotein complex, specifically a ribonucleoprotein, which incorporates one strand of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) fragment, such as microRNA (miRNA), or double-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA).
Robley Cook Williams (October 13, 1908 – January 3, 1995) was an early biophysicist and virologist.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.
Ross Granville Harrison (January 13, 1870 – September 30, 1959) was an American biologist and anatomist credited as the first to work successfully with artificial tissue culture.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children.
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
Sap is a fluid transported in xylem cells (vessel elements or tracheids) or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant.
A satellite is a subviral agent composed of nucleic acid that depends on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper virus for its replication.
Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease that affects the nervous systems of sheep and goats.
Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.
In molecular biology and genetics, the sense of nucleic acid molecules (often DNA or RNA) is the nature of their roles and their complementary molecules' nucleic acid units' roles in specifying amino acids.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a localized area.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Spanish flu (January 1918 – December 1920), also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Sputnik virophage (from Russian cпутник "satellite", Latin "virus" and Greek φάγειν phagein "to eat") is a subviral agent that reproduces in amoeba cells that are already infected by a certain helper virus; Sputnik uses the helper virus's machinery for reproduction and inhibits replication of the helper virus.
The State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, also known as the Vector Institute, is a biological research center in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia.
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family but more inclusive than genus.
In taxonomy, the Sulfolobales are an order of the Thermoprotei.
SV40 is an abbreviation for simian vacuolating virus 40 or simian virus 40, a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
Talimogene laherparepvec is a biopharmaceutical drug to treat melanoma lesions that cannot be operated on; it is injected directly into the lesion.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.
In taxonomy, the Thermoproteales are an order of the Thermoprotei.
Thomas Huckle Weller (June 15, 1915 – August 23, 2008) was an American virologist.
The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.
Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus, genus tobamovirus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
Tripartite motif-containing protein 21 also known as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM21 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRIM21 gene.
Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), also called HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM) or HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a medical condition that causes weakness, muscle spasms, and sensory disturbance by human T-lymphotropic virus resulting in paraparesis, weakness of the legs.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex, enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family.
Varicella zoster virus or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one of eight herpesviruses known to infect humans.
Varicellovirus (var′i-sel′ō-vi′rŭs) is a genus of viruses belonging to subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, a member of family Herpesviridae.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g.- plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages).
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
Viral entry is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle, as the virus comes into contact with the host cell and introduces viral material into the cell.
Some viruses (e.g. HIV and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids.
Viral evolution is a subfield of evolutionary biology and virology that is specifically concerned with the evolution of viruses.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses in which fever and hemorrhage are caused by a viral infection.
Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection.
Viral metagenomics is the study of viral genetic material sourced directly from the environment rather than from a host or natural reservoir.
Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells.
Viral shedding refers to the expulsion and release of virus progeny following successful reproduction during a host-cell infection.
Viroids are the smallest infectious pathogens known.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
Virome refers to the collection of nucleic acids, both RNA and DNA, that make up the viral community associated with a particular ecosystem or holobiont.
A viroplasm is an inclusion body in a cell where viral replication and assembly occurs.
Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a taxonomic system.
Virus latency (or viral latency) is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the lysogenic part of the viral life cycle.
Wendell Meredith Stanley (16 August 1904 – 15 June 1971) was an American biochemist, virologist and Nobel laureate.
The West African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history—causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores.
Zidovudine (ZDV), also known as azidothymidine (AZT), is an antiretroviral medication used to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
The outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United Kingdom in 2001 caused a crisis in British agriculture and tourism.
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