97 relations: Achromatopsia, Action potential, Adjective, Agnosia, Akinetopsia, Ancient Greek, Apperceptive agnosia, Aristotle, Associative visual agnosia, Bayesian approaches to brain function, Bayesian inference, Binocular vision, Brain, Cerebral cortex, Cognitive neuroscience of visual object recognition, Cognitive science, Color blindness, Color vision, Computer vision, Cornea, David Marr (neuroscientist), Depth perception, Electromagnetic spectrum, Emission theory (vision), Entoptic phenomenon, Environment (biophysical), Euclid, Experiment, Extrastriate cortex, Face perception, Figure–ground (perception), Fovea centralis, Foveal, Galen, Ganglion, Gestalt psychology, Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, Hermann von Helmholtz, Ibn al-Haytham, Illusory palinopsia, Insect, Irlen syndrome, Isaac Newton, Jellyfish, John Locke, Lateral geniculate nucleus, Lateral masking, Lens (anatomy), Leonardo da Vinci, Light, ..., Linguistics, Machine vision, MIT Press, Modular neural network, Molecular biology, Mollusca, Motion perception, Multisensory integration, Naked eye, Neuroscience, Octopus, Ophthalmology, Opponent process, Optic nerve, Optical illusion, Optometry, Perception, Peripheral vision, Photon, Photoreceptor cell, Plato, Prism, Prosopagnosia, Psychology, Psychophysics, Ptolemy, Recovery from blindness, Refractive error, Retina, Scholarpedia, Sense and Sensibilia (Aristotle), Spatial frequency, Superior colliculus, Timaeus (dialogue), Tomaso Poggio, Transducer, Two-streams hypothesis, Visible spectrum, Vision science, Visual agnosia, Visual cortex, Visual perception, Visual processing, Visual snow, Visual system, Wolfram Demonstrations Project, Worm. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
Achromatopsia (ACHM), also known as total color blindness, is a medical syndrome that exhibits symptoms relating to at least five conditions.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information.
Akinetopsia (Greek: a for "without", kine for "to move" and opsia for "seeing"), also known as cerebral akinetopsia or motion blindness, is a neuropsychological disorder in which a patient cannot perceive motion in their visual field, despite being able to see stationary objects without issue.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Apperceptive agnosia is a failure in recognition that is due to a failure of perception.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Associative visual agnosia is a form of visual agnosia.
Bayesian approaches to brain function investigate the capacity of the nervous system to operate in situations of uncertainty in a fashion that is close to the optimal prescribed by Bayesian statistics.
Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available.
In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Object recognition is the ability to perceive an object's physical properties (such as shape, colour and texture) and apply semantic attributes to it (such as identifying the object as an apple).
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
David Courtnay Marr (19 January 1945 – 17 November 1980) was a British neuroscientist and physiologist.
Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions (3D) and the distance of an object.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Emission theory or extramission theory (variants: extromission, extromittism) is the proposal that visual perception is accomplished by eye beams emitted by the eyes.
Entoptic phenomena (from Greek ἐντός "within" and ὀπτικός "visual") are visual effects whose source is within the eye itself.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
The extrastriate cortex is the region of the occipital cortex of the mammalian brain located next to the primary visual cortex, which is also named striate cortex because of its striped appearance in the microscope.
Face perception is an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain.
Figure–ground organization is a type of perceptual grouping which is a vital necessity for recognizing objects through vision.
The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye.
The foveal system of the human eye is the only part of the retina that permits 100% visual acuity.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.
Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (from Gestalt "shape, form") is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology.
Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a disorder characterized by a continual presence of sensory disturbances, most commonly visual, that are reminiscent of those generated by the use of hallucinogenic substances.
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Illusory palinopsia (Greek: palin for "again" and opsia for "seeing") is a subtype of palinopsia, a visual disturbance defined as the persistence or recurrence of a visual image after the stimulus has been removed.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Irlen syndrome, occasionally referred to as scotopic sensitivity syndrome (SSS) or Meares-Irlen syndrome, very rarely as asfedia, and recently also as visual stress, is a proposed disorder of vision.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; also called the lateral geniculate body or lateral geniculate complex) is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.
Lateral masking is a problem for the human visual perception of identical or similar entities in close proximity.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Machine vision (MV) is the technology and methods used to provide imaging-based automatic inspection and analysis for such applications as automatic inspection, process control, and robot guidance, usually in industry.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
A modular neural network is an artificial neural network characterized by a series of independent neural networks moderated by some intermediary.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Motion perception is the process of inferring the speed and direction of elements in a scene based on visual, vestibular and proprioceptive inputs.
Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system.
Naked eye, also called bare eye or unaided eye, is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical instrument, such as a telescope or microscope.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
The color opponent process is a color theory that states that the human visual system interprets information about color by processing signals from cones and rods in an antagonistic manner.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
An optical illusion (also called a visual illusion) is an illusion caused by the visual system and characterized by a visual percept that (loosely said) appears to differ from reality.
Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs only on the side gaze.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.
Prosopagnosia, also called face blindness, (" Choisser had even begun to a name for the condition: face blindness.") is a cognitive disorder of face perception in which the ability to recognize familiar faces, including one's own face (self-recognition), is impaired, while other aspects of visual processing (e.g., object discrimination) and intellectual functioning (e.g., decisionmaking) remain intact.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Recovery from blindness is the phenomenon of a blind person gaining the ability to see, usually as a result of medical treatment.
Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the retina due to the shape of the eye.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.
Sense and Sensibilia (or On Sense and the Sensible, On Sense and What is Sensed, On Sense Perception; Greek: Περὶ αἰσθήσεως καὶ αἰσθητῶν; Latin: De sensu et sensibilibus, De sensu et sensili, De sensu et sensato) is one of the short treatises by Aristotle that make up the Parva Naturalia.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, spatial frequency is a characteristic of any structure that is periodic across position in space.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
Timaeus (Timaios) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC.
Tomaso Armando Poggio (born September 11, 1947 in Genoa, Italy), is the Eugene McDermott professor in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, an investigator at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, a member of the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) and director of both the Center for Biological and Computational Learning at MIT and the, a multi-institutional collaboration headquartered at the McGovern Institute since 2013.
A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.
The two-streams hypothesis is a widely accepted and influential model of the neural processing of vision as well as hearing.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Vision science is the scientific study of vision.
Visual agnosia is an impairment in recognition of visually presented objects.
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Visual processing is the sequence of steps that information takes as it flows from visual sensors to cognitive processing organs.
Visual snow, also known as visual static, is a proposed condition in which people see white or black dots in parts or the whole of their visual fields.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
The Wolfram Demonstrations Project is an organized, open-source collection of small (or medium-size) interactive programs called Demonstrations, which are meant to visually and interactively represent ideas from a range of fields.
Worms are many different distantly related animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no limbs.
Animal vision, Biological vision, Eye sight, Eyesight, Human eyesight, Human vision, Human visual perception, Human visual recognition, Image perception, Intromission theory, Ophthalmoception, Perception of images, Perfect eye sight, Sense of sight, Sight, Sight (sense), Theory of vision, Vision (physiology), Vision (sense), Visual Perception, Visual cognition.