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Visual system

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The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions. [1]

165 relations: Accommodation (eye), Achromatopsia, Action potential, Ageing, Akinetopsia, Amacrine cell, Ape, Apperceptive agnosia, Aragonite, Associative visual agnosia, Astigmatism, Axon, Bandwidth (computing), Bee, Bird vision, Brain, Capuchin monkey, Cataract, Cell (biology), Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Charge-coupled device, Chiton, Cilium, Circadian rhythm, Color, Color balance, Color blindness, Computer vision, Cone cell, Cornea, Credit card, David Ferrier, Default mode network, Depth perception, Dinoflagellate, Eduard Hitzig, Efficient coding hypothesis, Electromagnetic spectrum, Entrainment (chronobiology), Eye strain, Field of view, Fovea centralis, Franz Joseph Gall, Functional specialization (brain), Fusiform face area, Glaucoma, Great Barrier Reef, Guinea pig, ..., Gustav Fritsch, Heat, Helmholtz–Kohlrausch effect, Hermann Munk, Homonymous hemianopsia, Horace Barlow, Human, Human echolocation, Hypothalamus, Illusory contours, Image, Information, Infrared sensing in snakes, Intraparietal sulcus, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Iris (anatomy), Irlen syndrome, Language center, Lateral geniculate nucleus, Lateral intraparietal cortex, Lens (anatomy), Lens (optics), Lesion, Light, Macaque, Magnocellular cell, Mammal, Mantis shrimp, Melanopsin, Memory-prediction framework, Midbrain, Molecule, Mollusc eye, Monocular vision, Motion (physics), Motor cortex, Near-sightedness, Nervous system, Neuron, Neuron doctrine, Neuroscience, New World, Occipital lobe, Ocelloid, Old World, Ommatidium, Opsin, Optic nerve, Orangutan, Parietal lobe, Paul Broca, Perception, Photon, Photoreceptor cell, Pit viper, Predation, Presbyopia, Pretectal area, Primary somatosensory cortex, Primate, Proprioception, Prosopagnosia, Protein, Pulvinar nuclei, Pupil, Pupillary light reflex, Quadrantanopia, Receptive field, Recovery from blindness, Refraction, Resting state fMRI, Retina, Retina bipolar cell, Retina horizontal cell, Retinal, Retinal ganglion cell, Retinene, Retinohypothalamic tract, Rod cell, Sabellida, Saccade, Scotoma, Sensory neuroscience, Shape, Signal transduction, Simple eye in invertebrates, Sleep, Somatosensory system, Species, Spider monkey, Squirrel monkey, Superior colliculus, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Swordfish, Tears, Thalamus, Transducer, Two-streams hypothesis, Ultraviolet, University of Pennsylvania, Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, Vestibular system, Vision in fishes, Visual acuity, Visual agnosia, Visual cortex, Visual field, Visual hierarchy, Visual impairment, Visual modularity, Visual perception, Visual phototransduction, Visual processing, Warnowiaceae, Wavelength. Expand index (115 more) »

Accommodation (eye)

Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies.

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Achromatopsia

Achromatopsia (ACHM), also known as total color blindness, is a medical syndrome that exhibits symptoms relating to at least five conditions.

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Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Ageing

Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.

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Akinetopsia

Akinetopsia (Greek: a for "without", kine for "to move" and opsia for "seeing"), also known as cerebral akinetopsia or motion blindness, is a neuropsychological disorder in which a patient cannot perceive motion in their visual field, despite being able to see stationary objects without issue.

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Amacrine cell

Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina.

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Ape

Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.

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Apperceptive agnosia

Apperceptive agnosia is a failure in recognition that is due to a failure of perception.

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Aragonite

Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).

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Associative visual agnosia

Associative visual agnosia is a form of visual agnosia.

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Astigmatism

Astigmatism is a type of refractive error in which the eye does not focus light evenly on the retina.

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Axon

An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Bandwidth (computing)

In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path.

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Bee

Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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Bird vision

Vision is the most important sense for birds, since good eyesight is essential for safe flight, and this group has a number of adaptations which give visual acuity superior to that of other vertebrate groups; a pigeon has been described as "two eyes with wings".

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Brain

The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Capuchin monkey

The capuchin monkeys are New World monkeys of the subfamily Cebinae.

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Cataract

A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cerebellum

The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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Chiton

Chitons are marine molluscs of varying size in the class Polyplacophora, formerly known as Amphineura.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Cilium

A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Color

Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.

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Color balance

In photography and image processing, color balance is the global adjustment of the intensities of the colors (typically red, green, and blue primary colors).

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Color blindness

Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.

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Computer vision

Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.

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Cone cell

Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).

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Cornea

The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.

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David Ferrier

Sir David Ferrier FRS (13 January 1843 – 19 March 1928) was a pioneering Scottish neurologist and psychologist.

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Default mode network

In neuroscience, the default mode network (DMN), also default network, or default state network, is a large scale brain network of interacting brain regions known to have activity highly correlated with each other and distinct from other networks in the brain.

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Depth perception

Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions (3D) and the distance of an object.

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Dinoflagellate

The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.

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Eduard Hitzig

Eduard Hitzig (6 February 1838 – 20 August 1907) was a German neurologist and neuropsychiatrist of Jewish ancestry born in Berlin.

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Efficient coding hypothesis

The efficient coding hypothesis was proposed by Horace Barlow in 1961 as a theoretical model of sensory coding in the brain.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

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Entrainment (chronobiology)

Entrainment, within the study of chronobiology, occurs when rhythmic physiological or behavioral events match their period to that of an environmental oscillation.

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Eye strain

Eye strain, also known as asthenopia (from Greek asthen-opia, ἀσθεν-ωπία, "weak-eye-condition"), is an eye condition that manifests through nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, pain in or around the eyes, blurred vision, headache, and occasional double vision.

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Field of view

The field of view is the extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment.

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Fovea centralis

The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye.

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Franz Joseph Gall

Franz Josef Gall (9 March 175822 August 1828) was a neuroanatomist, physiologist, and pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain.

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Functional specialization (brain)

Functional specialization suggests that different areas in the brain are specialized for different functions.

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Fusiform face area

The fusiform face area - FFA (meaning: spindular/spindle-shaped face area) is a part of the human visual system that is specialized for facial recognition.

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Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.

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Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over over an area of approximately.

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Guinea pig

The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.

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Gustav Fritsch

Gustav Theodor Fritsch (5 March 1838 – 12 June 1927) was a German anatomist, anthropologist, traveller and physiologist from Cottbus.

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Heat

In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

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Helmholtz–Kohlrausch effect

The Helmholtz–Kohlrausch effect (after Hermann von Helmholtz and Rudolf Kohlrausch) is an entoptic phenomenon wherein the intense saturation of spectral hue is perceived as part of the color's luminance.

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Hermann Munk

Hermann Munk (3 February 1839 – 1 October 1912) was a Jewish German physiologist.

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Homonymous hemianopsia

Hemianopsia, or hemianopia, is a visual field loss on the left or right side of the vertical midline.

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Horace Barlow

Horace Basil Barlow FRS (born 8 December 1921) is a British visual neuroscientist.

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Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human echolocation

Human echolocation is the ability of humans to detect objects in their environment by sensing echoes from those objects, by actively creating sounds – for example, by tapping their canes, lightly stomping their foot, snapping their fingers, or making clicking noises with their mouths – people trained to orient by echolocation can interpret the sound waves reflected by nearby objects, accurately identifying their location and size.

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Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Illusory contours

Illusory contours or subjective contours are visual illusions that evoke the perception of an edge without a luminance or color change across that edge.

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Image

An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.

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Information

Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.

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Infrared sensing in snakes

The ability to sense infrared thermal radiation evolved independently in several different families of snakes.

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Intraparietal sulcus

The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is located on the lateral surface of the parietal lobe, and consists of an oblique and a horizontal portion.

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Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.

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Iris (anatomy)

In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.

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Irlen syndrome

Irlen syndrome, occasionally referred to as scotopic sensitivity syndrome (SSS) or Meares-Irlen syndrome, very rarely as asfedia, and recently also as visual stress, is a proposed disorder of vision.

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Language center

The term language center or language centre (or more accurately centers, e.g. Broca's area and Wernicke's area) refers to the areas of the brain which serve a particular function for speech processing and production.

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Lateral geniculate nucleus

The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; also called the lateral geniculate body or lateral geniculate complex) is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.

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Lateral intraparietal cortex

The lateral intraparietal cortex (area LIP) is found in the intraparietal sulcus of the brain.

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Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Lesion

A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Macaque

The macaques (or pronunciation by Oxford Dictionaries) constitute a genus (Macaca) of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.

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Magnocellular cell

Magnocellular cells, also called M-cells, are neurons located within the Adina magnocellular layer of the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus.

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Mammal

Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mantis shrimp

Mantis shrimps, or stomatopods, are marine crustaceans of the order Stomatopoda.

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Melanopsin

Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.

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Memory-prediction framework

The memory-prediction framework is a theory of brain function created by Jeff Hawkins and described in his 2004 book On Intelligence.

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Midbrain

The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Mollusc eye

The molluscs have the widest variety of eye morphologies of any phylum, and a large degree of variation in their function.

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Monocular vision

Monocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used separately.

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Motion (physics)

In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.

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Motor cortex

The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.

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Near-sightedness

Near-sightedness, also known as short-sightedness and myopia, is a condition of the eye where light focuses in front of, instead of on, the retina.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neuron doctrine

The neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells, a discovery due to decisive neuro-anatomical work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and later presented by, among others, H. Waldeyer-Hartz.

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Neuroscience

Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Occipital lobe

The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Ocelloid

An ocelloid is a subcellular structure found in the family Warnowiaceae (warnowiids), which are a members of a group of unicellular organisms known as dinoflagellates.

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Old World

The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").

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Ommatidium

The compound eyes of arthropods like insects, crustaceans and millipedes are composed of units called ommatidia (singular: ommatidium).

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Opsin

Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.

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Optic nerve

The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.

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Orangutan

The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Paul Broca

Pierre Paul Broca (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist.

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Perception

Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

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Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

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Pit viper

The Crotalinae, commonly known as pit vipers,Mehrtens JM.

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Predation

Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Presbyopia

Presbyopia is a condition associated with the aging of the eye that results in progressively worsening ability to focus clearly on close objects.

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Pretectal area

The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system.

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Primary somatosensory cortex

The primary somatosensory cortex is located in the postcentral gyrus, and is part of the somatosensory system.

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Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Proprioception

Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

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Prosopagnosia

Prosopagnosia, also called face blindness, (" Choisser had even begun to a name for the condition: face blindness.") is a cognitive disorder of face perception in which the ability to recognize familiar faces, including one's own face (self-recognition), is impaired, while other aspects of visual processing (e.g., object discrimination) and intellectual functioning (e.g., decisionmaking) remain intact.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Pulvinar nuclei

The pulvinar nuclei or nuclei of the pulvinar (nuclei pulvinares) are the nuclei (cell bodies of neurons) located in the thalamus (a part of the vertebrate brain).

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Pupil

The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.

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Pupillary light reflex

The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness.

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Quadrantanopia

Quadrantanopia, quadrantanopsia, or quadrant anopia refers to an anopia affecting a quarter of the field of vision.

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Receptive field

The receptive field of an individual sensory neuron is the particular region of the sensory space (e.g., the body surface, or the visual field) in which a stimulus will modify the firing of that neuron.

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Recovery from blindness

Recovery from blindness is the phenomenon of a blind person gaining the ability to see, usually as a result of medical treatment.

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Refraction

Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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Resting state fMRI

Resting state fMRI (rsfMRI or R-fMRI) is a method of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that is used in brain mapping to evaluate regional interactions that occur in a resting or task-negative state, when an explicit task is not being performed.

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Retina

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Retina bipolar cell

As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells.

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Retina horizontal cell

Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of vertebrate eyes.

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Retinal

Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.

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Retinal ganglion cell

A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.

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Retinene

The Retinenes (Retinene1 and Retinene2) are chemical derivatives of the dietary supplement vitamin A (see retinol) formed through oxidation reactions.

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Retinohypothalamic tract

The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a photic neural input pathway involved in the circadian rhythms of mammals.

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Rod cell

Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.

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Sabellida

Sabellida is a suborder of annelid worms in the class Polychaeta.

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Saccade

A saccade (French for jerk) is a quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two or more phases of fixation in the same direction.

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Scotoma

A scotoma (Greek σκότος/skótos, darkness; plural: scotomas or scotomata) is an area of partial alteration in the field of vision consisting of a partially diminished or entirely degenerated visual acuity that is surrounded by a field of normal – or relatively well-preserved – vision.

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Sensory neuroscience

Sensory neuroscience is a subfield of neuroscience which explores the anatomy and physiology of neurons that are part of sensory systems such as vision, hearing, and olfaction.

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Shape

A shape is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, texture or material composition.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Simple eye in invertebrates

A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

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Sleep

Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.

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Somatosensory system

The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.

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Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Spider monkey

Spider monkeys are New World monkeys belonging to the genus Ateles, part of the subfamily Atelinae, family Atelidae.

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Squirrel monkey

Squirrel monkeys are New World monkeys of the genus Saimiri. They are the only genus in the subfamily Saimirinae. The name of the genus is of Tupi origin (sai-mirim or gai-mbirin Simpson, George Gaylord. 1941. "Vernacular Names of South American Mammals." In Journal of Mammalogy 22(1): 1-17. and was also used as an English name by early researchers. Squirrel monkeys live in the tropical forests of Central and South America in the canopy layer. Most species have parapatric or allopatric ranges in the Amazon, while S. oerstedii is found disjunctly in Costa Rica and Panama. The common squirrel monkey is captured for the pet trade and for medical research but it is not threatened. Two squirrel monkey species are threatened: the Central American squirrel monkey and the black squirrel monkey are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN.

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Superior colliculus

The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.

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Suprachiasmatic nucleus

The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.

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Swordfish

Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill.

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Tears

Tearing, lacrimation, or lachrymation is the secretion of tears, which often serves to clean and lubricate the eyes in response to an irritation of the eyes.

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Thalamus

The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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Transducer

A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.

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Two-streams hypothesis

The two-streams hypothesis is a widely accepted and influential model of the neural processing of vision as well as hearing.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus

The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), also known as the intermediate nucleus of the preoptic area (IPA), is a small cluster of neurons situated in the anterior hypothalamus, sitting just above and to the side of the optic chiasm in the brain of humans and other animals.

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Vestibular system

The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution to the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals.

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Vision in fishes

Vision is an important sensory system for most species of fish.

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Visual acuity

Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision.

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Visual agnosia

Visual agnosia is an impairment in recognition of visually presented objects.

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Visual cortex

The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.

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Visual field

The visual field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments".

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Visual hierarchy

Visual hierarchy refers to the arrangement or presentation of elements in a way that implies importance.

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Visual modularity

In cognitive neuroscience, visual modularity is an organizational concept concerning how vision works.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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Visual phototransduction

Visual phototransduction is the sensory transduction of the visual system.

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Visual processing

Visual processing is the sequence of steps that information takes as it flows from visual sensors to cognitive processing organs.

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Warnowiaceae

The Warnowiaceae are a family of athecate dinoflagellates (a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotes).

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Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Human visual system, Koniocellular pathway, Magnocellular pathway, Optic pathway, Parvocellular pathway, Seeing system, Visual, Visual System, Visual pathway, Visual pathways, Visual sensation, Visual sensor, Visual systems.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_system

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