129 relations: Acne, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Alpha-Carotene, Anorexia (symptom), Apoptosis, Apricot, Bell pepper, Beta-Carotene, Beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase, Birth defect, Bitot's spots, Broccoli, Burkina Faso, Butter, Butternut squash, Cantaloupe, Carbohydrate, Carotene, Carotenoid, Carotenosis, Carrot, Cheddar cheese, Child mortality, Cod liver oil, Collard greens, Color vision, Cone, Cryptoxanthin, David Adriaan van Dorp, Dendritic cell, Dietary Reference Intake, Egg as food, Elmer McCollum, Enamel hypoplasia, Epithelium, Ester, European Food Safety Authority, Fat, Food, François Magendie, Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Gamma-Carotene, Ghee, Gram, Growth factor, Haematopoiesis, Harry Steenbock, Hematopoietic stem cell, Herbivore, ..., Hormone, Hox gene, Human tooth, Hypervitaminosis A, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Immune system, Immunoglobulin A, Insomnia, Interleukin 2, International unit, Ionone, Isoprene, Isotretinoin, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Kale, Keratomalacia, Keratosis pilaris, Kidney failure, Kilogram, Lafayette Mendel, Liver (food), Low-fat diet, Mango, Marguerite Davis, Microgram, Milk, Millennium Development Goals, Mucous membrane, Myth, National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Nuclear receptor, Opsin, Orange (colour), Organic compound, Papaya, Paul Karrer, Pea, Photopsin, Postpartum period, Protein, Provitamin, Pumpkin, Reference Daily Intake, Regulatory T cell, Retina, Retinal, Retinoic acid, Retinoid, Retinol, Retinyl acetate, Retinyl palmitate, Rhodopsin, Rod cell, Royal Air Force, Scotopic vision, Small intestine, Spinach, Spirulina (dietary supplement), Squamous metaplasia, Sweet potato, Taraxacum, Teratology, Thomas Burr Osborne (chemist), Tomato, Transforming growth factor beta, UNICEF, United Nations, United States Department of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Veganism, Vitamer, World Health Organization, World War II, Xanthophyll, Xeroderma, Xerophthalmia, Yale University, Zinc. Expand index (79 more) » « Shrink index
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
α-Carotene is a form of carotene with a β-ionone ring at one end and an α-ionone ring at the opposite end.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
The bell pepper (also known as sweet pepper, pepper or capsicum) is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.
β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.
In enzymology, β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase is an enzyme with systematic name beta-carotene:oxygen 15,15'-dioxygenase (bond-cleaving).
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Bitot's spots are the buildup of keratin located superficially in the conjunctiva, which are oval, triangular or irregular in shape.
Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.
Butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata), sometimes known in Australia and New Zealand as butternut pumpkin or gramma, is a type of winter squash that grows on a vine.
Cantaloupe (muskmelon, mushmelon, rockmelon, sweet melon) or spanspek (South Africa) is a variety of the Cucumis melo species in the Cucurbitaceae family.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi).
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
An excess of dietary carotenoids may cause a marked orange discoloration of the outermost skin layer.
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
Cheddar cheese is a relatively hard, off-white (or orange if spices such as annatto are added), sometimes sharp-tasting, natural cheese.
Child mortality, also known as child death, refers to the death of children under the age of 14 and encompasses neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and mortality of children aged 5-14.
Cod liver oil is a dietary supplement derived from liver of cod fish (Gadidae).
Collard greens (collards) describes certain loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea, the same species as many common vegetables, including cabbage (Capitata Group) and broccoli (Botrytis Group).
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.
Cryptoxanthin is a natural carotenoid pigment.
David 'Davy' Adriaan van Dorp (April 27, 1915 in Amsterdam – February 19, 1995 in Vlaardingen) was a Dutch chemist.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
Elmer Verner McCollum (March 3, 1879 – November 15, 1967) was an American biochemist known for his work on the influence of diet on health.
Enamel hypoplasia is a defect of the teeth in which the enamel is hard but thin and deficient in amount, caused by defective enamel matrix formation.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
François Magendie (6 October 1783 – 7 October 1855) was a French physiologist, considered a pioneer of experimental physiology.
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947) was an English biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins, even though Casimir Funk, a Polish biochemist, is widely credited with discovering vitamins.
γ-Carotene is a carotenoid, and is a biosynthetic intermediate for cyclized carotenoid synthesis in plants.
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated from the Indian subcontinent.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
Harry Steenbock (August 16, 1886, Charlestown, Wisconsin – December 25, 1967, Madison, Wisconsin) was a Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the stem cells that give rise to other blood cells.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hox genes, a subset of homeotic genes, are a group of related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the head-tail axis.
The human teeth function to mechanically break down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digesting.
Hypervitaminosis A refers to the toxic effects of ingesting too much preformed vitamin A. Symptoms arise as a result of altered bone metabolism and altered metabolism of other fat-soluble vitamins.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.
The ionones are a series of closely related chemical substances that are part of a group of compounds known as rose ketones, which also includes damascones and damascenones.
Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2.
Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid (and colloquially referred to by its former brand name Accutane or Roaccutane), is a medication primarily used to treat severe acne.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1905.
Kale or leaf cabbage are certain cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown for their edible leaves.
Keratomalacia is an eye disorder that results from vitamin A deficiency.
Keratosis pilaris (KP) (also follicular keratosis, lichen pilaris, or colloquially "chicken skin") is a common, autosomal dominant, genetic condition of the skin's hair follicles characterized by the appearance of possibly pruritic, small, gooseflesh-like bumps, with varying degrees of reddening or inflammation.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Lafayette Benedict Mendel (February 5, 1872 – December 9, 1935) was an American biochemist known for his work in nutrition, with longtime collaborator Thomas B. Osborne, including the study of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, lysine and tryptophan.
The liver of mammals, fowl, and fish is commonly eaten as food by humans.
A low-fat diet is one that restricts fat and often saturated fat and cholesterol as well.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
Marguerite Davis (September 16, 1887 – September 19, 1967) was an American biochemist, co-discoverer of vitamins A and B with Elmer Verner McCollum in 1913.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in society, such as foundational tales.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.
Prof Paul Karrer FRS FRSE FCS (21 April 1889 – 18 June 1971) was a Swiss organic chemist best known for his research on vitamins.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
Photopsins (also known as Cone opsins) are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A provitamin is a substance that may be converted within the body to a vitamin.
A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.
Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development.
The retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are vitamers of vitamin A or are chemically related to it.
Retinol, also known as Vitamin A1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Retinyl acetate (retinol acetate, vitamin A acetate) is a natural form of vitamin A which is the acetate ester of retinol.
Retinyl palmitate, or vitamin A palmitate, is the ester of retinol (vitamin A) and palmitic acid, with formula C36H60O2.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Scotopic vision is the vision of the eye under low-light levels.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.
Spirulina represents a biomass of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be consumed by humans and other animals.
Squamous metaplasia is a benign non-cancerous change (metaplasia) of surfacing lining cells (epithelium) to a squamous morphology.
The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.
Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Thomas Burr Osborne (August 5, 1859 – January 29, 1929) was a biochemist and early discoverer of Vitamin A. He is known for his work isolating and characterizing seed proteins, and for determining protein nutritional requirements.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
A vitamer of a particular vitamin is any of a number of chemical compounds, generally having a similar molecular structure, each of which shows vitamin-activity in a vitamin-deficient biological system.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xanthophylls (originally phylloxanthins) are yellow pigments that occur widely in nature and form one of two major divisions of the carotenoid group; the other division is formed by the carotenes.
Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers.
Xerophthalmia (from Ancient Greek xērós (ξηρός) meaning dry and ophthalmos (οφθαλμός) meaning eye) is a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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