116 relations: Abraham Lincoln, Alexander R. Todd, Angular cheilitis, Antibody, Antigen, Atrophic gastritis, Autoimmunity, B cell, Blood film, Blood test, Bone marrow examination, Cestoda, Cobalamin, Coeliac disease, Cognitive disorder, Complete blood count, Cubilin, Cyanocobalamin, Cytopenia, Depression (mood), Dermis, Diarrhea, Differential diagnosis, Diphyllobothrium, DNA replication, Edwin Joseph Cohn, Electrospinning, Epidermis, Epithelium, Fatigue, Fever, First pass effect, Folate deficiency, Frieda Robscheit-Robbins, Gastrectomy, Gastric mucosa, Gastrin, Gastritis, George Minot, George Whipple, Glossitis, Haptocorrin, Helicobacter pylori, Hematology, Hemolysis, Homocysteine, Hydroxocobalamin, Hypertension, Hypotension, Ileum, ..., Indigestion, Intrinsic factor, James Scarth Combe, Jaundice, Karl August Folkers, Levomefolic acid, Liver, Liver disease, Macrocytic anemia, Mary Todd Lincoln, Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, Mean corpuscular volume, Megaloblastic anemia, Methionine, Methionine synthase, Methyl group, Methylcobalamin, Methylmalonyl-CoA, Michael Anton Biermer, Molecular mimicry, Mucous membrane, Multiple myeloma, Muscle weakness, Myeloproliferative neoplasm, Nasal administration, Neuropathic pain, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Normochromic anemia, Nucleated red blood cell, Oral contraceptive pill, Pallor, Paresthesia, Parietal cell, Pathognomonicity, Polycaprolactone, Pregnancy, Proprioception, Purine, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Recombinant DNA, Red blood cell, Reflex, Reticulocyte, Richard Clarke Cabot, Schilling test, Sensitivity and specificity, Serum (blood), Shortness of breath, Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, Stomach, Stomach cancer, Stratum corneum, Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, Sublingual administration, Succinyl-CoA, Tetrahydrofolic acid, Thomas Addison, Thymidine monophosphate, Transcobalamin, Transdermal patch, Veganism, Vitamin B12, William Bosworth Castle, William P. Murphy, Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. Expand index (66 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Alexander Robertus Todd, Baron Todd (2 October 1907 – 10 January 1997) was a British biochemist whose research on the structure and synthesis of nucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleotide coenzymes gained him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
Angular cheilitis (AC) is inflammation of one or both corners of the mouth.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Atrophic gastritis (also known as Type A or Type B Gastritis more specifically) is a process of chronic inflammation of the stomach mucous membrane (mucosa), leading to loss of gastric glandular cells and their eventual replacement by intestinal and fibrous tissues.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
A blood film—or peripheral blood smear—is a thin layer of blood smeared on a glass microscope slide and then stained in such a way as to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Bone marrow examination refers to the pathologic analysis of samples of bone marrow obtained by bone marrow biopsy (often called a trephine biopsy) and bone marrow aspiration.
Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.
Cobalamin (Cbl) is a general term that is referred to a number of compounds, that have cobalt ion in the middle, hence the name of the compound.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Cognitive disorders (CDs), also known as neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem solving.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Cubilin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CUBN gene.
Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of 12.
Cytopenia is a reduction in the number of mature blood cells.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Diphyllobothrium is a genus of tapeworms which can cause diphyllobothriasis in humans through consumption of raw or undercooked fish.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Edwin Joseph Cohn (December 17, 1892 – October 1, 1953) was an early protein scientist.
Electrospinning is a fiber production method which uses electric force to draw charged threads of polymer solutions or polymer melts up to fiber diameters in the order of some hundred nanometers.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.
Folate deficiency is a low level of folic acid and derivatives in the body.
Frieda S. Robscheit-Robbins (8 June 1888 – 18 December 1973) was a German-born American pathologist who worked closely with George Hoyt Whipple, conducting research into the use of liver tissue in treatment of pernicious anaemia, co-authoring 21 papers between 1925 and 1930.
A gastrectomy is a partial or total surgical removal of the stomach.
The gastric mucosa is the mucous membrane layer of the stomach which contains the glands and the gastric pits.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
George Richards Minot (December 2, 1885 – February 25, 1950) was an American medical researcher who shared the 1934 Nobel Prize with George Hoyt Whipple and William P. Murphy for their pioneering work on pernicious anemia.
George Hoyt Whipple (August 28, 1878 – February 1, 1976) was an American physician, pathologist, biomedical researcher, and medical school educator and administrator.
Glossitis can mean soreness of the tongue, or more usually inflammation with depapillation of the dorsal surface of the tongue (loss of the lingual papillae), leaving a smooth and erythematous (reddened) surface, (sometimes specifically termed atrophic glossitis).
Haptocorrin also known as transcobalamin-1 (TC-1) or cobalophilin is a transcobalamin protein that in humans is encoded by the TCN1 gene.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).
Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic α-amino acid.
Hydroxocobalamin, also known as vitamin B12a and hydroxycobalamin, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is a condition of impaired digestion.
Intrinsic factor (IF), also known as gastric intrinsic factor (GIF), is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach.
Dr James Scarth Combe FRSE, FRCSE (1796–1883) was a Scottish surgeon.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Karl August Folkers (September 1, 1906 – December 7, 1997) was an American biochemist who made major contributions to the isolation and identification of bioactive natural products.
Levomefolic acid (INN) (also known as L-5-MTHF, L-methylfolate and L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and (6S)-5-MTHF) is the primary biologically active form of folate used at the cellular level for DNA reproduction, the cysteine cycle and the regulation of homocysteine.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
The term macrocytic is from Greek words meaning "large cell".
Mary Ann Todd Lincoln (December 13, 1818 – July 16, 1882) was the wife of the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, and as such the First Lady of the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, a measure of the concentration of haemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cells.
The mean corpuscular volume, or mean cell volume (MCV), is a measure of the average volume of a red blood corpuscle (or red blood cell).
Megaloblastic anemia (or megaloblastic anaemia) is an anemia (of macrocytic classification) that results from inhibition of DNA synthesis during red blood cell production.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
Methionine synthase also known as MS, MeSe, MetH is responsible for the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Methylcobalamin (mecobalamin, MeCbl, or MeB) is a cobalamin, a form of 12.
Methylmalonyl-CoA is the thioester consisting of coenzyme A linked to methylmalonic acid.
Michael Anton Biermer (October 18, 1827 – October 15, 1892) was a German internist who was a native of Bamberg.
Molecular mimicry is defined as the theoretical possibility that sequence similarities between foreign and self-peptides are sufficient to result in the cross-activation of autoreactive T or B cells by pathogen-derived peptides.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.
The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), previously myeloproliferative diseases (MPDs), are a group of diseases of the bone marrow in which excess cells are produced.
Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Normochromic is a form of anemia in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the red blood cells is within the standard range.
With the exception of mammals, all vertebrate organisms have hemoglobin-containing cells in their blood and all of these red blood cells contain a nucleus.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
Pallor is a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin and is visible in skin conjuctivae or mucous membrane.
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.
Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor.
Pathognomonic (rarely spelled pathognomic and sometimes misspelled as pathomnemonic) is a term, often used in medicine, that means characteristic for a particular disease.
Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable polyester with a low melting point of around 60 °C and a glass transition temperature of about −60 °C.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells, typically composing about 1% of the red blood cells in the human body.
Richard Clarke Cabot (May 21, 1868 – May 7, 1939) was an American physician who advanced clinical hematology, was an innovator in teaching methods, and was a pioneer in social work.
The Schilling test is a medical investigation used for patients with 12 (cobalamin) deficiency.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), also termed bacterial overgrowths, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SBBOS), is a disorder of excessive bacterial growth in the small intestine.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
The stratum corneum (Latin for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes).
Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, also known as Lichtheim's disease, refers to degeneration of the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency (most common), vitamin E deficiency, and copper deficiency.
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
Succinyl-Coenzyme A, abbreviated as Succinyl-CoA or SucCoA, is a combination of succinic acid and coenzyme A.
Tetrahydrofolic acid, or tetrahydrofolate, is a folic acid derivative.
Thomas Addison (April 179329 June 1860) was an English physician and scientist.
Thymidine monophosphate (TMP), also known as thymidylic acid (conjugate base thymidylate), deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), or deoxythymidylic acid (conjugate base deoxythymidylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in DNA.
Transcobalamins are carrier proteins which bind cobalamin (B12).
A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream.
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
William Bosworth Castle (October 21, 1897 – August 9, 1990) was an American physician and physiologist who transformed hematology from a "descriptive art to a dynamic interdisciplinary science.".
William Parry Murphy (Stoughton, Wisconsin, February 6, 1892 – October 9, 1987) was an American physician who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934 with George Richards Minot and George Hoyt Whipple for their combined work in devising and treating macrocytic anemia (specifically, pernicious anemia).
Zollinger–Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a disease in which tumors cause the stomach to produce too much acid, resulting in peptic ulcers.
Addison's anaemia, Addison's anemia, Addison-Biermer anaemia, Addison-Biermer anemia, Addison–Biermer anemia, Anemia, Pernicious, Anemia, pernicious, B12 deficiency anemia, B12 deficient anemia, Biermer anaemia, Biermer's anemia, Congenital pernicious anemia, Juvenile pernicious anemia, Macrocytic achylic anemia, Pernicious Anaemia, Pernicious anaemia, Pernicious anemia, Vitamin B12 deficient anemia.