262 relations: Acid strength, Adenosine triphosphate, Albert Szent-Györgyi, Alzheimer's disease, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Apple, Apricot, Ascorbate peroxidase, Ascorbyl palmitate, Asparagus, Auxotrophy, Avocado, Axel Holst, BASF, Bat, Beijing, Bell pepper, Bird, Blackberry, Blackcurrant, Blood plasma, Blood vessel, Blueberry, Broccoli, Brussels sprout, Cabbage, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Cancer, Cantaloupe, Capybara, Cardiovascular disease, Carnitine, Carrot, Cartilage, Casimir Funk, Catabolism, Catalysis, Cataract, Cauliflower, Causality, Caviidae, Charles Glen King, Chemical decomposition, Chemical synthesis, Chemotherapy, Cherry, China, Cider, Circadian rhythm, ..., Citrus, Cochrane (organisation), Cofactor (biochemistry), Collagen, Common cold, Cranberry, Dehydroascorbic acid, Dementia, Dene, Developing country, Dichlorophenolindophenol, Dietary Reference Intake, Dietary supplement, Dopamine, Dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Drink mix, DSM (company), East India Company, Electron donor, Enantiomer, Endothelial dysfunction, Endothelium, Enzyme, European Commission, European Food Safety Authority, Evaporated milk, Fatty acid, Fermentation, First Nations, Fructose, Galactose, Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase, Generic drug, Genetic drift, Glossary of names for the British, Gluconic acid, Glucose, Glucuronic acid, GLUT1, GLUT3, Glutathione, Glycogen, Granulation tissue, Grape, Grapefruit, Great roundleaf bat, Guava, Guinea pig, Haplorhini, Hawaiian Islands, Health system, Helix, Hippocrates, Hippophae, HIV, Hoffmann-La Roche, Hominidae, Honeydew (melon), Hydroxide, Hydroxylation, Immune system, International Year of Chemistry, Inuit, Ionization, Iron overload, Irwin Stone, Jacques Cartier, James Cook, James Lind, Johann Bachstrom, John Woodall, Kale, Kidney stone disease, Kilogram, Kiwifruit, L-gulonolactone oxidase, Leaching (chemistry), Lemon, Leschenault's rousette, Lime (fruit), Linus Pauling, Liver, Liver spot, Loganberry, Lymphocyte, Lysine, Lysyl hydroxylase, Malpighia emarginata, Malt, Mammal, Mango, Mannose, Matthias Rath, Métis in Canada, Meal replacement, Merck Group, Microsome, Mitochondrion, Monosaccharide, Mucous membrane, Myocardial infarction, Myrciaria dubia, National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, National Institutes of Health, Natural killer cell, Netherlands, Neurotransmitter, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Norepinephrine, Norman Haworth, North China Pharmaceutical Group Corp, Nutrient, Onion, Orange (fruit), Orthomolecular medicine, Over-the-counter drug, Oxidizing agent, P4HA1, Papaya, Passerine, Passiflora edulis, Patrick Holford, Peach, Peptide hormone, Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase, PH, Phyllanthus emblica, Pineapple, Plum, Poland, Portable soup, Potato, Pregnancy, Primate, Procollagen-proline dioxygenase, Proline, Pseudogene, Pus, Radiation therapy, Raspberry, Reactive oxygen species, Red blood cell, Redcurrant, Redox, Redoxon, Reducing agent, Reference Daily Intake, Reichstein process, Reptile, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rose hip, Royal Navy, Rubus chamaemorus, Saint Lawrence River, Sambucus, Sauerkraut, Science Daily, Scotland, Scurvy, Seawater, Serous fluid, Shijiazhuang, Shijiazhuang Pharma Group, Simian, SLC23A1, SLC23A2, Sodium ascorbate, Spinach, Strawberry, Strepsirrhini, Stroke, Substrate (chemistry), Sugar acid, Sulfuric acid, Swiss Post, Tadeusz Reichstein, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Tarsier, Tarsiiformes, Teleost, Terminalia ferdinandiana, Thiamine deficiency, Thuja, Tissue (biology), Tomato, Tooth, Trimethyllysine dioxygenase, Tyrosine, University of Montpellier, University of Oxford, Uric acid, Urine, Vasco da Gama, Vertebrate, Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Vinegar, Vitamer, Vitamin, Vitamin C, Vitamin C and the Common Cold (book), Washington State University, Watermelon, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, World Health Organization, Yukon, 2008 Summer Olympics, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. Expand index (212 more) » « Shrink index
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrápolt (nagyrápolti Szent-Györgyi Albert; September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
Ascorbate peroxidase (or APX) is a member of the family of heme-containing peroxidases.
Ascorbyl palmitate is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and palmitic acid creating a fat-soluble form of vitamin C. In addition to its use as a source of vitamin C, it is also used as an antioxidant food additive (E number E304).
Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.
Auxotrophy (αὐξάνω "to increase"; τροφή "nourishment") is the inability of an organism to synthesize a particular organic compound required for its growth (as defined by IUPAC).
The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
Axel Holst (6 September 1860 – 26 April 1931) was a Norwegian Professor of Hygiene and Bacteriology at the University of Oslo.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The bell pepper (also known as sweet pepper, pepper or capsicum) is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus Rubus in the family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus Rubus, and hybrids between the subgenera Rubus and Idaeobatus.
The blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) is a woody shrub in the family Grossulariaceae grown for its piquant berries.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries.
Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable.
The Brussels sprout is a member of the Gemmifera Group of cabbages (Brassica oleracea), grown for its edible buds.
Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is a regulatory agency that is dedicated to the safeguarding of food, animals, and plants, which enhance the health and well-being of Canada's people, environment and economy.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cantaloupe (muskmelon, mushmelon, rockmelon, sweet melon) or spanspek (South Africa) is a variety of the Cucumis melo species in the Cucurbitaceae family.
The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is a mammal native to South America.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 – November 19, 1967 Casimir Funk A Biographical Sketch (1884–1967). Journal of Nutrition 1972 Sep;102(9):1105–13.. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/102/9/1105.full.pdf), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins, which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, which is in the family Brassicaceae.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
The cavy family (Caviidae) is a family of rodents native to South America, including the domestic guinea pig, wild cavies, and the capybara, among other animals.
Charles Glen King (October 22, 1896 – January 23, 1988) was an American biochemist who was a pioneer in the field of nutrition research and who isolated vitamin C at the same time as Albert Szent-Györgyi.
Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a single chemical compound into its two or more elemental parts or to simpler compounds.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.
Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium.
Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) is an oxidized form of ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
The Dené people are an aboriginal group of First Nations who inhabit the northern boreal and Arctic regions of Canada.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
2,6-Dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP, DCIP or DPIP) is a chemical compound used as a redox dye.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), also known as dopamine beta-monooxygenase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DBH gene.
A drink mix, or powdered drink mix is a processed-food product, a powder designed to mix usually with water to produce a beverage resembling fruit juice or soda in flavor.
Koninklijke DSM N.V. (Royal DSM, commonly known as DSM), is a Dutch multinational active in the fields of health, nutrition and materials.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
An electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electrons to another compound.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
In vascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction is a systemic pathological state of the endothelium.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Evaporated milk, known in some countries as unsweetened condensed milk, is a shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.
Gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase (also known as BBOX, GBBH or γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BBOX1 gene.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Alternative names for people from the United Kingdom include nicknames and terms, including affectionate ones, neutral ones, and derogatory ones to describe British people, and more specifically English, Welsh, Scottish and Northern Irish people.
Gluconic acid is an organic compound with molecular formula C6H12O7 and condensed structural formula HOCH2(CHOH)4COOH.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glucuronic acid (from Greek γλυκύς "sweet" and οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the name).
Glucose transporter 1 (or GLUT1), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1), is a uniporter protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A1 gene.
Glucose transporter 3 (or GLUT3), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 3 (SLC2A3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC2A3 gene.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Granulation tissue is new connective tissue and microscopic blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet, somewhat bitter fruit.
The great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger) is a species of bat in the family Hipposideridae found in China, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Guavas (singular guava) are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions.
The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.
Haplorhini (the haplorhines or the "dry-nosed" primates, the Greek name means "simple-nosed") is a suborder of primates containing the tarsiers and the simians (Simiiformes or anthropoids), as sister of the Strepsirrhini.
The Hawaiian Islands (Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some from the island of Hawaiokinai in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hippophae is a genus of sea buckthorns, deciduous shrubs in the family Elaeagnaceae.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
A honeydew melon, also known as a honeymelon, is the fruit of one cultivar group of the muskmelon, Cucumis melo in the gourd family.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
The International Year of Chemistry 2011 (IYC 2011) was a year-long commemorative event for the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to humankind.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Iron overload (variously known as haemochromatosis, hemochromatosis, hemochromocytosis, Celtic curse, Irish illness, British gene, Scottish sickness and bronzing diabetes) indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.
Irwin Stone (1907–1984) was an American biochemist, chemical engineer, and author.
Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
James Lind (4 October 1716 – 13 July 1794) was a Scottish physician.
Jan Fryderyk or Johann Friedrich Bachstrom (24 December 1688, near Rawitsch, now Rawicz, Poland - June 1742, Nieswiez, now Nyasvizh, Belarus) was a writer, scientist and Lutheran theologian who spent the last decade of his life in Leiden.
John Woodall (1570–1643) was an English military surgeon, Paracelsian chemist, businessman, linguist and diplomat.
Kale or leaf cabbage are certain cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown for their edible leaves.
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Kiwifruit (often abbreviated as kiwi), or Chinese gooseberry is the edible berry of several species of woody vines in the genus Actinidia.
L-gulonolactone oxidase (EC) is an enzyme that produces vitamin C, but is non-functional in Haplorrhini (including humans), in some bats, and in guinea pigs.
Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either naturally or through an industrial process.
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
Leschenault's rousette (Rousettus leschenaultii) is a species of fruit bat.
A lime (from French lime, from Arabic līma, from Persian līmū, "lemon") is a hybrid citrus fruit, which is typically round, lime green, in diameter, and contains acidic juice vesicles.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver spots (also known as age spot, solar lentigo, "lentigo senilis", "old age spot", "senile freckle") are blemishes on the skin associated with aging and exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
The loganberry (Rubus × loganobaccus) is a hybrid of blackberry (Rubus ursinus) and raspberry (''Rubus idaeus''). The plant and the fruit resemble the blackberry more than the raspberry, but the fruit color is a dark red, rather than black as in blackberries.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Lysyl hydroxylases (or procollagen-lysine 5-dioxygenases) are alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent hydroxylases enzymes that catalyze the hydroxylation of lysine to hydroxylysine.
Malpighia emarginata is a tropical fruit-bearing shrub or small tree in the family Malpighiaceae.
Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement "d-mannose", is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates.
Matthias Rath (born 1955 in Stuttgart, Germany) is a controversial doctor, businessman, and vitamin salesman.
The Métis in Canada are a group of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers.
A meal replacement is a drink, bar, soup, etc.
Merck KGaA, branded and commonly known as Merck, is a German multinational pharmaceutical, chemical and life sciences company headquartered in Darmstadt, with around 50,000 employees in around 70 countries.
In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Myrciaria dubia, commonly known as camu camu, camucamu, cacari, or camocamo, is a small bushy riverside tree from the Amazon rainforest in Peru and Brazil, which grows to a height of and bears a red/purple cherry-like fruit.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) is an Indian Public health, Biotechnology and Translational research center located in Hyderabad, India.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Sir (Walter) Norman Haworth FRS.
North China Pharmaceutical Group Corp. (NCPC), is a leading pharmaceutical manufacturer in China.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
Orthomolecular medicine, a form of alternative medicine, aims to maintain human health through nutritional supplementation.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the P4HA1 gene.
The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.
A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species.
Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower that is native to southern Brazil through Paraguay and northern Argentina.
Patrick Holford is a British author and entrepreneur who endorses a range of controversial vitamin tablets.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
Peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase is an enzyme that is required for the biosynthesis of many signaling peptides.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phyllanthus emblica, also known as emblic, emblic myrobalan, myrobalan, Indian gooseberry, Malacca tree, or amla from Sanskrit amalaki is a deciduous tree of the family Phyllanthaceae.
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Portable soup was a kind of dehydrated food used in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Procollagen-proline dioxygenase, commonly known as prolyl hydroxylase, is a member of the class of enzymes known as alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent hydroxylases.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The redcurrant, or red currant (Ribes rubrum) is a member of the genus Ribes in the gooseberry family.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Redoxon was the brand name of the first artificially synthesized ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
The Reichstein process in chemistry is a combined chemical and microbial method for the production of ascorbic acid from D-glucose that takes place in several steps.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
The rose hip, also called rose haw and rose hep, is the accessory fruit of the rose plant.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rubus chamaemorus is a rhizomatous herb native to cool temperate, alpine, arctic tundra and boreal forest, producing amber-colored edible fruit similar to the raspberry or blackberry.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Sambucus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae.
Sauerkraut is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
In physiology, the term serous fluid or serosal fluid (originating from the Medieval Latin word serosus, from Latin serum) is any of various body fluids resembling serum, that are typically pale yellow and transparent and of a benign nature.
Shijiazhuang is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province.
CSPC Pharmaceutical Group (China Pharma) researches, develops, manufactures and sells pharmaceutical products.
The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are monkeys and apes, cladistically including: the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes (including humans).
Solute carrier family 23 member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC23A1 gene.
Solute carrier family 23 member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC23A2 gene.
Sodium ascorbate is one of a number of mineral salts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.
The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.
Strepsirrhini or Strepsirhini is a suborder of primates that includes the lemuriform primates, which consist of the lemurs of Madagascar, galagos, ("bushbabies") and pottos from Africa, and the lorises from India and southeast Asia.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Sugar acids are monosaccharides with a carboxyl group.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Swiss Post (La Poste suisse, La Posta Svizzera, Die Schweizerische Post, La Posta Svizra) is the national postal service of Switzerland.
Tadeusz Reichstein (20 July 1897 – 1 August 1996) was a Polish-Swiss chemist and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate (1950).
is the largest pharmaceutical company in Japan and Asia and a top 15 pharmaceutical company in the world.
Tarsiers are any haplorrhine primates of the family Tarsiidae, which is itself the lone extant family within the infraorder Tarsiiformes.
Tarsiiformes are a group of primates that once ranged across Europe, northern Africa, Asia, and North America, but whose extant species are all found in the islands of Southeast Asia.
The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.
Terminalia ferdinandiana, also called the gubinge, billygoat plum, Kakadu plum, green plum, salty plum, murunga or mador, is a flowering plant in the family Combretaceae, native to Australia, widespread throughout the tropical woodlands from northwestern Australia to eastern Arnhem Land.
Thiamine deficiency is a medical condition of low levels of thiamine (vitamin B1).
Thuja is a genus of coniferous trees in the Cupressaceae (cypress family).
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
In enzymology, a trimethyllysine dioxygenase (TMLH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction TMLH is a member of the alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent hydroxylases superfamily.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
The University of Montpellier (Université de Montpellier) is a French public research university in Montpellier in south-east of France.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vilhjalmur Stefansson (Vilhjálmur Stefánsson) (November 3, 1879 – August 26, 1962) was a Canadian Arctic explorer and ethnologist.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
A vitamer of a particular vitamin is any of a number of chemical compounds, generally having a similar molecular structure, each of which shows vitamin-activity in a vitamin-deficient biological system.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin C and the Common Cold is a popular book by Linus Pauling, first published in 1970, on vitamin C, its interactions with common cold and the role of vitamin C megadosage in human health.
Washington State University (WSU) is a public research university in Pullman, Washington, in the Palouse region of the northwest United States. Founded in 1890, WSU (colloquially "Wazzu") is a land-grant university with programs in a broad range of academic disciplines. It is ranked in the top 140 universities in America with high research activity, as determined by U.S. News & World Report. With an undergraduate enrollment of 24,470 and a total enrollment of 29,686, it is the second largest institution of higher education in Washington state behind the University of Washington. The university also operates campuses across Washington known as WSU Spokane, WSU Tri-Cities, WSU Everett and WSU Vancouver, all founded in 1989. In 2012, WSU launched an Internet-based Global Campus, which includes its online degree program, WSU Online. These campuses award primarily bachelor's and master's degrees. Freshmen and sophomores were first admitted to the Vancouver campus in 2006 and to the Tri-Cities campus in 2007. Enrollment for the four campuses and WSU Online exceeds 29,686 students. This includes 1,751 international students. WSU's athletic teams are called the Cougars and the school colors are crimson and gray. Six men's and nine women's varsity teams compete in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference. Both men's and women's indoor track teams compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation.
Citrullus lanatus is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from Africa.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), also known as α-ketoisocaproate dioxygenase (KIC dioxygenase), is an Fe(II)-containing non-heme oxygenase that catalyzes the second reaction in the catabolism of tyrosine - the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate into homogentisate.
(R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-((S)- 1,2-dihydroxyethyl)furan-2(5H)-one, (R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-((S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl)furan-2(5H)-one, ATC code G01AD03, ATC code S01XA15, ATCvet code QG01AD03, ATCvet code QS01XA15, Adenex, Allercorb, Antiscorbic Vitamin, Antiscorbutic Vitamin, Arco-Cee, Ascoltin, Ascor-B.I.D., Ascorb, Ascorbajen, Ascorbate, Ascorbate metabolism, Ascorbic, Ascorbic (acid), Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbic acid, Ascorbicab, Ascorbicap, Ascorbicin, Ascorbin, Ascorbutina, Ascorin, Ascorteal, Ascorvit, C Vitamin, C-Level, C-Long, C-Quin, C-Vimin, Cantan, Cantaxin, Catavin C, Ce Lent, Cebicure, Cebion, Cebione, Cee-Caps Td, Cee-Vite, Cegiolan, Ceglion, Celaskon, Cemagyl, Cemill, Cenetone, Cenolate, Cereon, Cergona, Cescorbat, Cetamid, Cetane-Caps Tc, Cetane-Caps Td, Cetebe, Cetemican, Cevalin, Cevatine, Cevex, Cevi-Bid, Cevimin, Cevitamic Acid, Cevitamin, Cevitan, Cevitex, Cewin, Ciamin, Cipca, Citriscorb, Colascor, Concemin, Davitamon C, Duoscorb, Evolution of Vitamin C, Evolution of vitamin c, Hexuronic, Hicee, Hybrin, IDO-C, Kyselina Askorbova, L-ascorbate, L-ascorbic acid, Laroscorbine, Lemascorb, Liposomal vitamin c, Liqui-Cee, List of foods containing Vitamin C, Meri-C, Natrascorb, Planavit C, Proscorbin, Roscorbic, Scorbacid, Scorbu-C, Secorbate, Sodascorbate, Testascorbic, Vicelat, Vicin, Vicomin C, Viforcit, Viscorin, Vit c, Vitace, Vitacee, Vitacimin, Vitacin, Vitamin C Foundation, Vitamin C Overdose, Vitamin c, VitaminC, Vitamine C, Vitamisin, Vitascorbol, Vitimin C, Xitix.