215 relations: Adaptive immune system, Adipose tissue, Adolf Windaus, Adrenal gland, Adrenal medulla, Agaricus bisporus, Alfred Fabian Hess, Alzheimer's disease, Anorexia (symptom), Antarafacial and suprafacial, Anthony W. Norman, Asthma, Autoimmune disease, Azotemia, B cell, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Bone density, Bone fracture, Bone remodeling, Bone resorption, Brain, Breakfast cereal, Breast, Calbindin, Calcifediol, Calcification, Calcitonin, Calcitriol, Calcitriol receptor, Calcium, Calcium metabolism, Calorie restriction, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Cell growth, Cell nucleus, Cellular differentiation, Cereal, Cerebrovascular disease, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical structure, Cholecalciferol, Cholesterol, Cladonia, Coccolithophore, Cod liver oil, Cognitive deficit, Connective tissue, Conrotatory and disrotatory, ..., Coronary artery disease, Crohn's disease, CYP27A1, CYP2R1, Cytokine, Dark skin, Denver, Dermis, Diabetes mellitus, Dietary Reference Intake, Dorothy Hodgkin, Double bond, Edward Mellanby, Egg as food, Electrocyclic reaction, Elmer McCollum, Emiliania huxleyi, Energy bar, Epidermis, Ergocalciferol, Ergosterol, European Food Safety Authority, Falling (accident), Fibroblast growth factor 23, Flour, Food additive, Food and Drug Administration, Food fortification, Fungus, Gene expression, Gestational diabetes, Glutathione, Gonad, Harry Steenbock, Health Canada, Heart, Hector DeLuca, Hedgehog signaling pathway, Hepatocyte, HIV, Hormone, Human musculoskeletal system, Hydroxylation, Hypercalcaemia, Hyperparathyroidism, Hypertension, Immune system, Indoor tanning, Infant formula, Inflammatory bowel disease, Innate immune system, International unit, Isomer, Itch, J. B. S. Haldane, John Desmond Bernal, Kenneth Callow, Keratinocyte, Kidney failure, Lanolin, Lichen, Ligand, Lipophilicity, Liver, Long bone, Los Angeles Times, Lumisterol, Mackerel, Macrophage, Magnesium, Malaria, Marguerite Davis, Meal replacement, Medical Research Council (United Kingdom), Meta-analysis, Metastatic calcification, Methyl group, Michael F. Holick, Microsome, Milk, Monocyte, Morphogenesis, Multiple sclerosis, Myocardial infarction, Naked mole-rat, National Academy of Medicine, National Health Service, National Health Service (England), National Institute for Medical Research, National Institutes of Health, Negative feedback, Neurotrophic factors, Nitric oxide synthase, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nuclear receptor, Nutrition facts label, Obesity, Organ (anatomy), Ossification, Osteoarthritis, Osteoclast, Osteomalacia, Osteoporosis, Pain, Parathyroid hormone, Phosphate, Photodissociation, Plant milk, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Pre-eclampsia, Previtamin D3, Prostate, Proteinuria, Public Health England, Quart, Reference Daily Intake, Respiratory tract infection, Rickets, Salmon, Sardines as food, Secosteroid, Signal transduction, Skin cancer, Soy protein, Steroid, Steroid hormone receptor, Stratum basale, Stratum corneum, Stratum granulosum, Stratum lucidum, Stratum spinosum, Stress fracture, Stroke, Sunlight, Sunscreen, T cell, Teaspoon, Thallus, Toxicity, Transcription factor, TRPV6, Tuberculosis, Tuna, Tyrosine hydroxylase, Ulcerative colitis, Ultraviolet, United States Department of Agriculture, University of Göttingen, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Urinary cast, Viral disease, Vitamer, Vitamin, Vitamin D deficiency, Vitamin D-binding protein, Vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase, Vitamin D5, Wavelength, White blood cell, Yogurt, 22-Dihydroergocalciferol, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase, 7-Dehydrocholesterol, 7-Dehydrositosterol. Expand index (165 more) » « Shrink index
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (25 December 1876 – 9 June 1959) was a German chemist who won a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1928 for his work on sterols and their relation to vitamins.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
Agaricus bisporus is an edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America.
Alfred Fabian Hess (9 October 1875 in New York City – 5 December 1933) was an American physician known for his work on the role of nutrition in scurvy and rickets and for describing the Hess test.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Antarafacial (Woodward-Hoffmann symbol a) and suprafacial (s) are two topological concepts in organic chemistry describing the relationship between two simultaneous chemical bond making and/or bond breaking processes in or around a reaction center.
Anthony W. Norman is a distinguished professor emeritus of biochemistry and biomedical sciences at the University of California, Riverside and one of the world's foremost experts on vitamin D.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Azotemia (azot, "nitrogen" + -emia, "blood condition") is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of nitrogen-containing compounds (such as urea, creatinine, various body waste compounds, and other nitrogen-rich compounds) in the blood.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
Bone remodeling (or bone metabolism) is a lifelong process where mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called bone resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called ossification or new bone formation).
Bone reabsorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone tissue to the blood.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Breakfast cereal is a food product made from processed cereal grains that is often eaten as a breakfast in primarily Western societies.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Calbindin refers to several calcium-binding proteins.
Calcifediol (INN), also known as calcidiol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (abbreviated 25(OH)D), is a prehormone that is produced in the liver by hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) by the enzyme cholecalciferol 25-hydroxylase which was isolated by Michael F. Holick.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid gland, and in many other animals in the ultimopharyngeal body.
Calcitriol (INN), also called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, or 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and other variants, is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D which has three hydroxyl groups.
The calcitriol receptor, more commonly known as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and also known as NR1I1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 1), is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium metabolism refers to the movements and regulation of calcium ions (Ca2+) into and out of various body compartments, such as the gastrointestinal tract, the blood plasma, the extracellular and the intracellular fluid, and bone tissue.
Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some foods, and taken as a dietary supplement.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Cladonia (cup lichen) is a genus of moss-like lichens in the family Cladoniaceae.
A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).
Cod liver oil is a dietary supplement derived from liver of cod fish (Gadidae).
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
An electrocyclic reaction can either be classified as conrotatory or disrotatory based on the rotation at each end of the molecule.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
CYP27A1 is a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 oxidase, and is commonly known as sterol 27-hydroxylase.
Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase also known as cytochrome P450 2R1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2R1 gene.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Dark skin is a naturally occurring human skin color that is rich in eumelanin pigments and having a dark color.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (12 May 1910 – 29 July 1994) was a British chemist who developed protein crystallography, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
Sir Edward Mellanby (8 April 1884 – 30 January 1955) discovered vitamin D and its role in preventing rickets in 1919.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
In organic chemistry, an electrocyclic reaction is a type of pericyclic rearrangement where the net result is one pi bond being converted into one sigma bond or vice versa.
Elmer Verner McCollum (March 3, 1879 – November 15, 1967) was an American biochemist known for his work on the influence of diet on health.
Emiliania huxleyi, often abbreviated "EHUX", is a species of coccolithophore found in almost all ocean ecosystems the equator to sub-polar regions, and from nutrient rich upwelling zones to nutrient poor oligotrophic waters.
Energy bars are supplemental bars containing cereals and other high energy foods targeted at people who require quick energy but do not have time for a meal.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
Ergocalciferol, also known as vitamin D2 and calciferol, is a type of vitamin D found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Falling is the second leading cause of accidental death worldwide and is a major cause of personal injury, especially for the elderly.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 or FGF23 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF23 gene.
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Harry Steenbock (August 16, 1886, Charlestown, Wisconsin – December 25, 1967, Madison, Wisconsin) was a Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Hector F. DeLuca, born in Pueblo, Colorado in 1930, is an emeritus University of Wisconsin–Madison professor and former chairman of the university's biochemistry department.
The Hedgehog signaling pathway is a signaling pathway that transmits information to embryonic cells required for proper cell differentiation.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.
Hyperparathyroidism is an increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Indoor tanning involves using a device that emits ultraviolet radiation to produce a cosmetic tan.
Infant formula, or baby formula, is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water).
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.
John Desmond Bernal (10 May 1901 – 15 September 1971) was an Irish scientist who pioneered the use of X-ray crystallography in molecular biology.
Robert Kenneth Callow, FRS (15 February 1901 – 1983) was a British biochemist.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Lanolin (from Latin ‘wool’, and ‘oil’), also called wool wax or wool grease, is a wax secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Lumisterol is a compound that is part of the vitamin D family of steroid compounds.
Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Marguerite Davis (September 16, 1887 – September 19, 1967) was an American biochemist, co-discoverer of vitamins A and B with Elmer Verner McCollum in 1913.
A meal replacement is a drink, bar, soup, etc.
The Medical Research Council (MRC) is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Metastatic calcification is deposition of calcium salts in otherwise normal tissue, because of elevated serum levels of calcium, which can occur because of deranged metabolism as well as increased absorption or decreased excretion of calcium and related minerals, as seen in hyperparathyroidism.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Michael F. Holick (born 1946) is an American adult endocrinologist, specializing in the field of vitamin D, such as the identification of both calcidiol, the major circulating form of vitamin D, and calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D. His work has been the basis for diagnostic tests and therapies for vitamin D-related diseases.
In cell biology, microsomes are vesicle-like artifacts re-formed from pieces of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when eukaryotic cells are broken-up in the laboratory; microsomes are not present in healthy, living cells.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), also known as the sand puppy, is a burrowing rodent native to parts of East Africa.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded national healthcare system for England and one of the four National Health Services for each constituent country of the United Kingdom.
The National Institute for Medical Research (commonly abbreviated to NIMR), was a medical research institute based in Mill Hill, on the outskirts of London, England.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules – nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins – that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons.
Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
The nutrition facts label (also known as the nutrition information panel, and other slight variations) is a label required on most packaged food in many countries.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Ossification (or osteogenesis) in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.
An osteoclast is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue.
Osteomalacia is the softening of the bones caused by impaired bone metabolism primarily due to inadequate levels of available phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, or because of resorption of calcium.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), also called parathormone or parathyrin, is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that is important in bone remodeling, which is an ongoing process in which bone tissue is alternately resorbed and rebuilt over time.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
Plant milk has been consumed for centuries in various cultures, both as a regular drink (such as the Spanish horchata) and as a substitute for dairy milk.
Polydipsia is excessive thirst or excess drinking.
Polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.
Previtamin D3 is an intermediate in the production of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.
Public Health England (PHE) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom that began operating on 1 April 2013.
The quart (abbreviation qt.) is an English unit of volume equal to a quarter gallon.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Sardines are a nutrient-rich fish widely consumed by humans and fish.
A secosteroid (sec·o·ster·oid, sek'ō-stēr'oyd) is a type of steroid with a "broken" ring.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.
Soy protein is a protein that is isolated from soybean.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.
The stratum basale (basal layer, sometimes referred to as stratum germinativum) is the deepest layer of the five layers of the epidermis, the outer covering of skin in mammals.
The stratum corneum (Latin for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes).
The stratum granulosum (or granular layer) is a thin layer of cells in the epidermis.
The stratum lucidum (Latin for "clear layer") is a thin, clear layer of dead skin cells in the epidermis named for its translucent appearance under a microscope.
The stratum spinosum (or spinous layer/prickle cell layer) is a layer of the epidermis found between the stratum granulosum and stratum basale.
Stress fracture is a fatigue-induced fracture of the bone caused by repeated stress over time.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Sunscreen, also known as sunblock, sun cream or suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
A teaspoon is an item of cutlery, a measuring instrument, of approximately 5ml, or a unit of measurement of volume (usually abbreviated tsp.).
Thallus (plural: thalli), from Latinized Greek θαλλός (thallos), meaning "a green shoot" or "twig", is the undifferentiated vegetative tissue of some organisms in diverse groups such as algae, fungi, some liverworts, lichens, and the Myxogastria.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
TRPV6 is a membrane calcium channel which is particularly involved in the first step in calcium absorption in the intestine.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).
Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
Urinary casts are microscopic cylindrical structures produced by the kidney and present in the urine in certain disease states.
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.
A vitamer of a particular vitamin is any of a number of chemical compounds, generally having a similar molecular structure, each of which shows vitamin-activity in a vitamin-deficient biological system.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin D deficiency, or hypovitaminosis D, most commonly results from inadequate sunlight exposure (in particular sunlight with adequate ultraviolet B rays).
Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), also/originally known as gc-globulin (group-specific component), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GC gene.
Vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) is an enzyme with systematic name calcitriol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (24-hydroxylating).
Vitamin D5 is a form of vitamin D. Analogues have been proposed for use as antitumor agents.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
22-Dihydroergocalciferol is a form of vitamin D, also known as vitamin D4.
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (VD3 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP27B1 gene.
7-Dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) is a zoosterol that functions in the serum as a cholesterol precursor, and is converted to vitamin D3 in the skin, therefore functioning as provitamin-D3.
7-Dehydrositosterol is a sterol which serves as a precursor for sitocalciferol (vitamin D5).