109 relations: Addison's disease, Adrenal gland, Adrenal insufficiency, Afamelanotide, Albinism, Alopecia areata, Alphos, Amelanism, Amino acid, Ancient history, Atharvaveda, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmunity, Biopsy, Blacklight, Book of Leviticus, Caspase 1, Caspase 7, Cell (biology), Chimpanzee, Coeliac disease, Conserved sequence, Contagious disease, Corticosteroid, Cosmetic camouflage, Cosmetics, Cytokine, De Medicina, Depigmentation, Dermabrasion, Dermatology, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Dorsal root of spinal nerve, Ebers Papyrus, Erythrism, Galago, Glucocorticoid, Gluteal muscles, Gluten, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Heterochromia iridum, Hippocrates, Histidine, Hydroquinone, Hyperpigmentation, Hyperthyroidism, Hypopigmentation, Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis, Immunosuppressive drug, ..., Inflammation, Interleukin 1 beta, Interleukin 18, Leprosy, Lesion, Leucism, Light skin, Light therapy, List of counseling topics, Locus (genetics), Melanin, Melanism, Melanizing agents, Melanocyte, Melanoma, Mequinol, Monobenzone, Mood disorder, National Health Service, Navel, Nevus depigmentosus, Nostril, Old Testament, Piebaldism, Pimecrolimus, Pityriasis alba, Postinflammatory hypopigmentation, Progressive macular hypomelanosis, Psoralen, Psoriasis, Psychological stress, Public health genomics, PUVA therapy, Quadrichrome vitiligo, Quran, Rhesus macaque, Rheumatoid arthritis, Scleroderma, Sex organ, Shinto, Skin, Skin grafting, Social stigma, Spinal cord, Steroid, Sun tanning, Sunburn, Sunscreen, Symmetry, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Tacrolimus, Tinea versicolor, Tofacitinib, Tuberculoid leprosy, Tyrosinase, Tzaraath, Ultraviolet, Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, Xanthochromism. Expand index (59 more) » « Shrink index
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
Afamelanotide ((INN) (brand name Scenesse), also known as melanotan I (or melanotan-1), originally developed at the University of Arizona and now by Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals, is a synthetic peptide and analogue of the naturally occurring melanocortin peptide hormone α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) that has been shown to induce the production of darkening dermal pigmentation through melanogenesis and thereby subsequently reduce sun (UV) damage to UV light-exposed skin in preliminary research and human clinical trials. Its amino acid sequence is Ac-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Nle-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Val-NH2, and it is additionally known as -α-MSH, which is sometimes abbreviated as NDP-MSH or NDP-α-MSH (especially in the scientific literature). Afamelanotide is the International Nonproprietary Name for the molecule α-MSH initially researched and developed as melanotan-1 and later, CUV1647 (by Clinuvel). A marketing trade name for one brand of afamelanotide was approved in 2010 by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Name Review Group (NRG) and the agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) as Scenesse (pronounced "sen-esse"). On May 5, 2010 the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA, or Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco) became the first governmental health organization ever (even before the drug received approval in Europe) to authorize afamelanotide as a medicine for therapeutic treatment of Italian citizens to reduce painful dermal photosensitivity stemming from the orphan disease erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). This approval allowed the drug to be immediately available for prescription in Italy and reimbursable under the country's national health system. Authorities in Switzerland have also allowed prescription of the drug for EPP with reimbursement approved by two unnamed insurers. Afamelanotide is currently being trialed in the form of a "grain of rice"-sized bioabsorbable subcutaneous implant as a potential therapeutic photoprotection-inducing agent for a series of light-related skin indications as well as a potential dermal repigmentation agent for vitiligo. Afamelanotide, as of October 24, 2014, has been approved by the EMA in Europe for the treatment of EPP. Clinuvel now intends to seek approval of afamelanotide in the United States. Unlicensed and untested powders sold as "melanotan" are found on the Internet and are reported to be used by tens of thousands of members of the general public for sunless tanning. Multiple regulatory bodies have warned consumers that the peptides may be unsafe and ineffective in usage, with one regulatory agency warning that consumers who purchase any product labeled "melanotan" risk buying a counterfeit drug. Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals, the developer of afamelanotide, and medical researchers have warned consumers that counterfeit products sold using the names "melanotan I and II", could "pose a hazard to public health". on counterfeit products. February 10, 2009. Clinuvel has stated publicly that products sold online as "melanotan" are not afamelanotide.
Albinism in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.
Alopecia areata, also known as spot baldness, is a condition in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body.
Alphos (from Greek ἀλφός alphos "a dull white leprosy") is a form of non-contagious leprosy, formerly described by the physician Celsus under the name of vitiligo, a term now used for another skin disease.
Amelanism (also known as amelanosis) is a pigmentation abnormality characterized by the lack of pigments called melanins, commonly associated with a genetic loss of tyrosinase function.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
A blacklight (or often black light), also referred to as a UV-A light, Wood's lamp, or simply ultraviolet light, is a lamp that emits long-wave (UV-A) ultraviolet light and not much visible light.
The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament.
Caspase-1/Interleukin-1 converting enzyme (ICE) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursors of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and interleukin 18 as well as the pyroptosis inducer Gasdermin D, into active mature peptides.
Caspase-7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase, also known as CASP7, is a human protein encoded by the CASP7 gene.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).
A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cosmetic camouflage is the application of make-up creams and/or powders to conceal colour or contour irregularities or abnormalities of the face or body.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
De Medicina is a 1st-century medical treatise by Aulus Cornelius Celsus, a Roman encyclopedist and possibly (but not likely) a practicing physician.
Depigmentation is the lightening of the skin, or loss of pigment.
Dermabrasion is a type of surgical skin planing, typically performed in a professional medical setting by a dermatologist or plastic surgeon trained specifically in this procedure.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
The dorsal root of spinal nerve (or posterior root of spinal nerve) is one of two "roots" which emerge from the spinal cord.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
Erythrism or erythrochroism refers to an unusuaI reddish pigmentation of an animal's fur, hair, skin, feathers, or eggshells.
Galagos, also known as bushbabies, bush babies, or nagapies (meaning "little night monkeys" in Afrikaans), are small nocturnal primates native to continental Africa, and make up the family Galagidae (also sometimes called Galagonidae).
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
The gluteal muscles are a group of three muscles which make up the buttocks: the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed.
Heterochromia is a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2.
Hyperpigmentation is the darkening of an area of skin or nails caused by increased melanin.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypopigmentation is the loss of skin color.
Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis (also known as "leukopathia symmetrica progressiva") is a very common acquired disorder that affects women more frequently than men, presenting with skin lesions that occur chiefly on sun exposed regions of the skin, suggesting sun exposure may play a role.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) also known as leukocytic pyrogen, leukocytic endogenous mediator, mononuclear cell factor, lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene.
Interleukin-18 (IL18, also known as interferon-gamma inducing factor) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the IL18 gene.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
Leucism is a condition in which there is partial loss of pigmentation in an animal resulting in white, pale, or patchy coloration of the skin, hair, feathers, scales or cuticle, but not the eyes.
Light skin is a naturally occurring human skin color, which has little eumelanin pigmentation and which has been adapted to environments of low UV radiation.
Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.
Counseling is the activity of the counselor, or a professional who counsels people, especially on personal problems and difficulties.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Melanism is a development of the dark-colored pigment melanin in the skin or its appendages and is the opposite of albinism.
Melanizing agents are drugs that increase sensitivity to solar radiation and promote re-pigmentation of de-pigmented areas of skin.
Melanocytes are melanin-producing neural crest-derived cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis, the middle layer of the eye (the uvea), the inner ear, vaginal epithelium, meninges, bones, and heart.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Mequinol, MeHQ or 4-methoxyphenol, is a phenol used in dermatology and organic chemistry.
Monobenzone, also called 4-(Benzyloxy)phenol and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH) is an organic chemical in the phenol family with chemical formula C6H5CH2OC6H4OH.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The navel (clinically known as the umbilicus, colloquially known as the belly button, or tummy button) is a hollowed or sometimes raised area on the abdomen at the attachment site of the umbilical cord.
Nevus depigmentosus or nevus achromicus is a loss of pigment in the skin which can be easily differentiated from vitiligo.
A nostril (or naris, plural nares) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Piebaldism is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development.
Pimecrolimus is an immunomodulating agent of the calcineurin inhibitor class used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema).
Pityriasis alba is a common skin condition mostly occurring in children and usually seen as dry, fine-scaled, pale patches on the face.
Postinflammatory hypopigmentation is a cutaneous condition characterized by decreased pigment in the skin following inflammation of the skin.
Progressive macular hypomelanosis is a common skin condition, a disorder, observed more frequently in young women with darkly pigmented skin who originate from or reside in tropical climates.
Psoralen (also called psoralene) is the parent compound in a family of natural products known as furocoumarins.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
Public health genomics is the use of genomics information to benefit public health.
PUVA (psoralen and ultraviolet A) is an ultraviolet light therapy treatment for eczema, psoriasis, graft-versus-host disease, vitiligo, mycosis fungoides, large-plaque parapsoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma using the sensitizing effects of the drug psoralen.
Quadrichrome vitiligo is another variant of vitiligo, a cutaneous condition, which reflects the presence of a fourth color (dark brown) at sites of perifollicular repigmentation.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Scleroderma is a group of autoimmune diseases that may result in changes to the skin, blood vessels, muscles, and internal organs.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Skin grafting is a type of graft surgery involving the transplantation of skin.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Sun tanning or simply tanning is the process whereby skin color is darkened or tanned.
Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.
Sunscreen, also known as sunblock, sun cream or suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn.
Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
Tinea versicolor is a condition characterized by a skin eruption on the trunk and proximal extremities.
Tofacitinib, sold under the brand Xeljanz among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ulcerative colitis.
Tuberculoid leprosy is a form of leprosy characterized by solitary skin lesions that are asymmetrically distributed with few lesions and well demarcated edges.
Tyrosinase is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin.
The Hebrew noun tzaraath (Hebrew צרעת, Romanized Tiberian Hebrew ṣāraʻaṯ and numerous variants of English transliteration, including saraath, tzaraas, tzaraat, tsaraas and tsaraat) describes disfigurative conditions of the skin, hair of the beard and head, clothing made of linen or wool, or stones of homes located in the land of Israel.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not enough red blood cells are produced due to a deficiency of vitamin B12.
Xanthochromism (also called xanthochroism or xanthism) is an unusually yellow pigmentation in an animal.
Leucoderma, Leukoderma, Leukodermia, Linear leukoderma, Segmental vitiligo, Trichrome vitiligo, Viitligo prevention, Vilitigo, Vitalgo, Vitilago, Vitilgo, Vitiligo association, Vitiligo surgery, Vitiligous.