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Vitreous enamel

Index Vitreous enamel

Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between. [1]

102 relations: Advertising, Agnes of Rome, American English, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Art Nouveau, Basse-taille, Bathtub, British English, British Museum, Bronze, Burgundian Netherlands, Bus station, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine enamel, Cast iron, Celts, Ceramic glaze, Champlevé, Chasse (casket), Chemical reactor, China, Cloisonné, Cobalt, Cookware and bakeware, David Dunbar Buick, Death of the Virgin, Decorative arts, Dunstable Swan Jewel, Einar Hákonarson, En résille, Enamel paint, Enamel sign, Enamelled glass, Farm, Filling station, Franz Ullrich, Fred Uhl Ball, Frit, George Stubbs, Georgia (country), Glass, Gothic art, Grisaille, Holy Thorn Reliquary, Home appliance, Iran, Iron, Jean Chardin, Jewellery, ..., Jingtai Emperor, Julio-Claudian dynasty, Leonid Efros, Limoges, Limoges enamel, Livery, Louis George, Lustron house, Magnet wire, Major appliance, Margret Craver, Mérode Cup, Meenakari, Melting, Metal, Middle Ages, Migration Period, Ming dynasty, Neodymium, Nineveh, Office of Public Sector Information, Oskar Schindler, Oven, Overglaze decoration, Persian people, Peter Carl Fabergé, Pigment, Plique-à-jour, Pope Gregory I, Portrait miniature, Praseodymium, Reliquary, Roman Empire, Romanesque art, Ronde-bosse, Rostov, Royal Gold Cup, Safavid dynasty, Safed chalwan, Screen printing, Sgraffito, Silo, Smelting, Staffordshire Moorlands Pan, Stations of the Cross, Stavelot Triptych, Stencil, The Cloisters, Thermal expansion, Trulla, Victoria and Albert Museum, Xuande Emperor. Expand index (52 more) »


Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.

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Agnes of Rome

Agnes of Rome is a virgin–martyr, venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism.

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American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.

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Basse-taille (bahss-tah-ee) is an enamelling technique in which the artist creates a low-relief pattern in metal, usually silver or gold, by engraving or chasing.

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A bathtub, bath, or tub (informal) is a large or small container for holding water in which a person or animal may bathe.

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British English

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.

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British Museum

The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.

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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Burgundian Netherlands

In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands (Pays-Bas Bourguignons., Bourgondische Nederlanden, Burgundeschen Nidderlanden, Bas Payis borguignons) were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482.

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Bus station

A bus station is a structure where city or intercity buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantine enamel

The craft of cloisonné enameling is a metal and glass-working tradition practiced in the Byzantine Empire from the 6th to the 12th century.

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Cast iron

Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.

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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Ceramic glaze

Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.

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Champlevé is an enamelling technique in the decorative arts, or an object made by that process, in which troughs or cells are carved, etched, die struck, or cast into the surface of a metal object, and filled with vitreous enamel.

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Chasse (casket)

A chasse, châsse or box reliquary is a shape commonly used in medieval metalwork for reliquaries and other containers.

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Chemical reactor

A chemical reactor is an enclosed volume in which a chemical reaction takes place.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Cloisonné is an ancient technique for decorating metalwork objects.

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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Cookware and bakeware

Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a kitchen.

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David Dunbar Buick

David Dunbar Buick (September 17, 1854 – March 5, 1929) was a Scottish-born American Detroit-based inventor, best known for founding the Buick Motor Company.

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Death of the Virgin

The Death of the Virgin Mary is a common subject in Western Christian art, the equivalent of the Dormition of the Theotokos in Eastern Orthodox art.

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Decorative arts

The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.

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Dunstable Swan Jewel

The Dunstable Swan Jewel is a gold and enamel brooch in the form of a swan made in England or France in about 1400 and now in the British Museum, where it is on display in Room 40.

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Einar Hákonarson

Einar Hákonarson (born 14 January 1945, in Reykjavík, Iceland) is one of Iceland's best known artists.

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En résille

Émail en résille sur verre ("enamel in a network on glass") is a rare and difficult enameling technique first practiced for a brief period in seventeenth-century France.

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Enamel paint

Enamel paint is paint that air dries to a hard, usually glossy, finish, used for coating surfaces that are outdoors or otherwise subject to hard wear or variations in temperature; it should not be confused with decorated objects in "painted enamel", where vitreous enamel is applied with brushes and fired in a kiln.

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Enamel sign

A selection of historic enamel signs advertising a variety of products, Herefordshire, Great Britain An enamel sign is a sign made using vitreous enamel.

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Enamelled glass

Enamelled glass is glass which has been decorated with vitreous enamel (powdered glass, possibly mixed with a binder) and then fired to fuse the glasses.

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A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production.

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Filling station

A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles.

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Franz Ullrich

Franz Ullrich (1830–1891) was a German industrialist, and co-founder of the "Gebrüder Ullrich" in the Rhineland-Palatinate.

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Fred Uhl Ball

Fred Uhl Ball was an American enamelist.

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A frit is a ceramic composition that has been fused in a special fusing oven, quenched to form a glass, and granulated.

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George Stubbs

George Stubbs (25 August 1724 – 10 July 1806) was an English painter, best known for his paintings of horses.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Gothic art

Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.

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A grisaille (or; gris 'grey') is a painting executed entirely in shades of grey or of another neutral greyish colour.

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Holy Thorn Reliquary

The Holy Thorn Reliquary was probably created in the 1390s in Paris for John, Duke of Berry, to house a relic of the Crown of Thorns.

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Home appliance

Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Jean Chardin

Jean Chardin (16 November 1643 – 5 January 1713), born Jean-Baptiste Chardin, and also known as Sir John Chardin, was a French jeweller and traveller whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on Persia and the Near East in general.

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Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.

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Jingtai Emperor

The Jingtai Emperor (景泰) (21 September 1428 – 14 March 1457), born Zhu Qiyu, was Emperor of China from 1449 to 1457.

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Julio-Claudian dynasty

The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero—or the family to which they belonged.

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Leonid Efros

Leonid Efros (Леонид Эфрос) is a Russian oil painter and enamellist best known for making drawings and paintings of European royalty, including Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen Mother, Princess Anne and Princess Michael of Kent.

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Limoges (Occitan: Lemòtges or Limòtges) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and was the administrative capital of the former Limousin region in west-central France.

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Limoges enamel

Limoges enamel has been produced at Limoges, in south-western France, over several centuries up to the present.

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A livery is a uniform, insignia or symbol adorning, in a non-military context, a person, an object or a vehicle that denotes a relationship between the wearer of the livery and an individual or corporate body.

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Louis George

Louis George was a Prussian master watchmaker of the late baroque era.

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Lustron house

Lustron houses are prefabricated enameled steel houses developed in the post-World War II era United States in response to the shortage of homes for returning GIs.

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Magnet wire

Magnet wire or enameled wire is a copper or aluminium wire coated with a very thin layer of insulation.

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Major appliance

A major appliance, or domestic appliance, is a large machine in home appliance used for routine housekeeping tasks such as cooking, washing laundry, or food preservation.

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Margret Craver

Margret Craver (October 11, 1907–November 22, 2010) was an American artist and arts educator.

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Mérode Cup

The Mérode Cup is a medieval silver-gilt cup decorated with finely engraved birds, fruit and vine leaves made in France in Burgundy in about 1400 and named for the ancient Belgian family of Mérode, to whom it once belonged.

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Meenakari is the art of coloring and ornamenting the surface of metals by fusing over it brilliant colors that are decorated in an intricate design.

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Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.

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Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.

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Office of Public Sector Information

The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.

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Oskar Schindler

Oskar Schindler (28 April 1908 – 9 October 1974) was a German industrialist and a member of the Nazi Party who is credited with saving the lives of 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust by employing them in his enamelware and ammunitions factories in occupied Poland and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.

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An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking.

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Overglaze decoration

Overglaze decoration, overglaze enamelling or on-glaze decoration is a method of decorating pottery, most often porcelain, where the coloured decoration is applied on top of the already glazed surface, done in a special firing.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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Peter Carl Fabergé

Peter Carl Fabergé, also known as Karl Gustavovich Fabergé (Карл Гу́ставович Фаберже́, Karl Gustavovich Faberzhe; 30 May 1846 – 24 September 1920), was a Russian jeweller best known for the famous Fabergé eggs made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than more mundane materials.

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A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

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Plique-à-jour (French for "letting in daylight") is a vitreous enamelling technique where the enamel is applied in cells, similar to cloisonné, but with no backing in the final product, so light can shine through the transparent or translucent enamel.

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Pope Gregory I

Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.

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Portrait miniature

A portrait miniature is a miniature portrait painting, usually executed in gouache, watercolour, or enamel.

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Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59.

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A reliquary (also referred to as a shrine or by the French term châsse) is a container for relics.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romanesque art

Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or later, depending on region.

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Ronde-bosse, en ronde bosse or encrusted enamel is an enamelling technique developed in France in the late 14th century that produces small three-dimensional figures, or reliefs, largely or entirely covered in enamel.

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Rostov (p) is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring.

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Royal Gold Cup

The Royal Gold Cup or Saint Agnes Cup is a solid gold covered cup lavishly decorated with enamel and pearls.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Safed chalwan

Safed Chalwan is a kind of white translucent enamel used for encrusting gems and precious stones for making jewels.

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Screen printing

Screen printing is a printing technique whereby a mesh is used to transfer ink onto a substrate, except in areas made impermeable to the ink by a blocking stencil.

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Sgraffito (plural: sgraffiti; sometimes spelled scraffito) is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface, or in pottery, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers of contrasting slip or glaze, and then in either case scratching so as to reveal parts of the underlying layer.

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A silo (from the Greek σιρός – siros, "pit for holding grain") is a structure for storing bulk materials.

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Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.

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Staffordshire Moorlands Pan

Staffordshire Moorlands Pan. The Staffordshire Moorlands Pan, sometimes known as the Ilam Pan, is a 2nd-century AD enamelled bronze trulla with an inscription relating to the forts of Hadrian's Wall.

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Stations of the Cross

The Stations of the Cross or the Way of the Cross, also known as the Way of Sorrows or the Via Crucis, refers to a series of images depicting Jesus Christ on the day of his crucifixion and accompanying prayers.

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Stavelot Triptych

The Stavelot Triptych is a medieval reliquary and portable altar in gold and enamel intended to protect, honor and display pieces of the True Cross.

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Stencilling produces an image or pattern by applying pigment to a surface over an intermediate object with designed gaps in it which create the pattern or image by only allowing the pigment to reach some parts of the surface.

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The Cloisters

The Cloisters is a museum in Fort Tryon Park in Washington Heights, Upper Manhattan, New York City specializing in European medieval architecture, sculpture and decorative arts, with a focus on the Romanesque and Gothic periods.

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Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.

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Trulla is a fungal genus in the family Steccherinaceae containing six species of polypores.

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Victoria and Albert Museum

The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 2.3 million objects.

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Xuande Emperor

The Xuande Emperor (16 March 1399 31 January 1435), personal name Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基), was the fifth emperor of the Ming dynasty of China, ruling from 1425 to 1435.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitreous_enamel

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