79 relations: Academy of sciences, Admiralty Board (Russian Empire), Alaska, Aleksei Chirikov, Aleutian Islands, Alexander Archipelago, Andrey Osterman, Anna of Russia, Avacha Bay, Bering Glacier, Bering Island, Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Beringia, Cape Chukotsky, Cape Horn, Commander Islands, Cornelius Kruys, Denmark, Dmitry Laptev, Dutch East Indies, Exploration of the Pacific, First Kamchatka expedition, Georg Wilhelm Steller, Gerhard Friedrich Müller, Great Northern Expedition, Great Northern War, Horsens, Ilimsk, Irkutsk, Irtysh River, James Cook, Johann Georg Gmelin, Julian calendar, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kamchatka River, Kayak Island, Kodiak Island, Kuril Islands, Lena River, Lightering, Lutheranism, Martin Spangberg, Mikhail Gvozdev, Mount Saint Elias, National Library of Sweden, North America, Ob River, Okhotsk, Peter the Great, ..., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Ruble, Russia, Russian America, Russian Empire, Russian Navy, Scurvy, Sea of Azov, Sea of Okhotsk, Semyon Dezhnev, Shantar Islands, Shumagin Islands, St. Lawrence Island, Steller's jay, Steller's sea cow, Stepan Krasheninnikov, Surgut, Tallinn, Tobolsk, Treaty of Nerchinsk, University of Copenhagen, Ural Mountains, Ust-Kut, Vasili Pronchishchev, Vologda, Vyborg, World Digital Library, Yakutsk, Yeniseysk. Expand index (29 more) » « Shrink index
An academy of sciences is a type of learned society or academy (as special scientific institution) dedicated to sciences that may or may not be state funded.
Admiralty Board (Адмиралтейств-коллегия, Admiralteystv-Kollegiya) was a supreme body for the administration of the Imperial Russian Navy in the Russian Empire, established by Peter the Great on December 12, 1718, and headquartered in the Admiralty building, Saint Petersburg.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Aleksei Ilyich Chirikov (Алексе́й Ильи́ч Чи́риков) (1703 – November 1748) was a Russian navigator and captain who along with Bering was the first Russian to reach North-West coast of North America.
The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.
The Alexander Archipelago is a long archipelago, or group of islands, of North America off the southeastern coast of Alaska.
Count Andrey Ivanovich Osterman (Андрей Иванович Остерман) (9 June 1686 31 May 1747) was a German-born Russian statesman who came to prominence under Tsar Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great) and served until the accession of the Tsesarevna Elizabeth.
Anna Ioannovna (Анна Иоанновна; –), also spelled Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and then ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.
Avacha Bay (Авачинская губа, Авачинская бухта) is a Pacific Ocean bay on the southeastern coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Bering Glacier is a glacier in the U.S. state of Alaska.
Bering Island (о́стров Бе́ринга, ostrov Beringa) is located off the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Bering Sea.
The Bering Sea (r) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.
The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Cape Chukotsky is located in the south-east of the Chukotka Peninsula, at the east entrance to the Providence Bay and the northern boundary of Gulf of Anadyr; it borders the Bering Sea and Bering Strait.
Cape Horn (Cabo de Hornos) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island.
The Commander Islands or Komandorski Islands or Komandorskie Islands (Командо́рские острова́, Komandorskiye ostrova) are a group of treeless, sparsely populated islands in the Bering Sea located about east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East.
Cornelius Cruys (Крюйс, Корнелий Иванович) (1655 – 1727) was a Norwegian-Dutch admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy and the first commander of the Russian Baltic Fleet.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dmitry Yakovlevich Laptev (Дмитрий Яковлевич Лаптев) (1701 -) was a Russian Arctic explorer and Vice Admiral (1762).
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
--> Polynesians reached nearly all the Pacific islands by about 1200 AD, followed by Asian navigation in Southeast Asia and West Pacific.
The First Kamchatka expedition was commissioned in December 1724 by Peter I of Russia to explore the northern part of the Pacific Ocean and confirm the presence of the strait between Asia and America.
Several animals described by and named for Georg Steller, of whom no portrait is known to exist.
Gerhard Friedrich Müller (Russian: Фёдор Ива́нович Ми́ллер, Fyodor Ivanovich Miller, 29 October 1705 – 22 October 1783) was a historian and pioneer ethnologist.
The Great Northern Expedition (Великая Северная экспедиция) or Second Kamchatka expedition (Вторая Камчатская экспедиция) was one of the largest exploration enterprises in history, mapping most of the Arctic coast of Siberia and some parts of the North America coastline, greatly reducing "white areas" on maps.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
Horsens is a city in east Jutland region of Denmark.
Ilimsk (Илимск) was a small town in Siberia, within today's Irkutsk Oblast of Russia.
Irkutsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.
The Irtysh River (Эрчис мөрөн, Erchis mörön, "erchleh", "twirl"; Иртыш; Ертіс, Ertis, هرتىس; Chinese: 额尔齐斯河, pinyin: É'ěrqísī hé, Xiao'erjing: عَعَرٿِسِ حْ; Uyghur: ئېرتىش, Ertish; ﻴﺋرتئش, Siberian Tatar: Эйәртеш, Eya’rtes’) is a river in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
Johann Georg Gmelin (8 August 1709 – 20 May 1755) was a German naturalist, botanist and geographer.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
The Kamchatka River (Камча́тка) runs eastward for through Kamchatka Krai in the Russian Far East towards the Pacific Ocean.
Kayak Island, (Eyak: Qe'yiłteh) which includes the Bering Expedition Landing Site, is located in the Gulf of Alaska, 100 km (62 mi) SE of Cordova, Alaska Malaspina Coastal Plain, on the eastern edge of Chugach National Forest.
Kodiak Island (Alutiiq: Qikertaq, Кадьякъ) is a large island on the south coast of the U.S. state of Alaska, separated from the Alaska mainland by the Shelikof Strait.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
The Lena (Ле́на,; Зүлхэ; Елюенэ; Өлүөнэ) is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob' and the Yenisey).
Lightering (also called lighterage) is the process of transferring cargo between vessels of different sizes, usually between a barge and a bulker or oil tanker.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Martin Spangberg or Martyn Petrovich Shpanberg (Мартын Петрович Шпанберг) was a Danish naval lieutenant in Russian service who took part with his compatriot Vitus Bering in both Kamchatka expeditions as second in command.
Mikhail Spiridonovich Gvozdev (Михаи́л Спиридо́нович Гво́здев) (1700-04 — after 1759) was a Russian military geodesist and a commander of the expedition to northern Alaska in 1732, when the Alaskan shore was for the first time sighted by Russians.
Mount Saint Elias, also designated Boundary Peak 186, is the second highest mountain in both Canada and the United States, being situated on the Yukon and Alaska border.
The National Library of Sweden (Kungliga biblioteket, KB, meaning "the Royal Library") is the national library of Sweden.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The Ob River (p), also Obi, is a major river in western Siberia, Russia, and is the world's seventh-longest river.
Okhotsk (p) is an urban locality (a work settlement) and the administrative center of Okhotsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia, located at the mouth of the Okhota River on the Sea of Okhotsk.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский) is a city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai, Russia.
The ruble or rouble (p) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian America (Русская Америка, Russkaya Amerika) was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.
The Sea of Okhotsk (Ohōtsuku-kai) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, the island of Hokkaido to the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a long stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north.
Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev (p; sometimes spelled Dezhnyov; c. 1605 – 1673) was a Russian explorer of Siberia and the first European to sail through the Bering Strait, 80 years before Vitus Bering did.
The Shantar Islands (translit) are a group of fifteen islands located off the northwestern shore of the Sea of Okhotsk east of Uda Gulf and north of Academy Bay.
The Shumagin Islands (Unangan: Qagiiĝun) are a group of 20 islands in the Aleutians East Borough south of the mainland of Alaska, United States, at 54°54'–55°20' North 159°15'–160°45' West.
The Steller's jay (Cyanocitta stelleri) is a jay native to western North America, closely related to the blue jay found in the rest of the continent, but with a black head and upper body.
Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) is an extinct sirenian discovered by Europeans in 1741.
Stepan Petrovich Krasheninnikov (Степа́н Петро́вич Крашени́нников) (–) was a Russian explorer of Siberia, naturalist and geographer who gave the first full description of Kamchatka in the early 18th century.
Surgut (p) is a city in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on the Ob River near its junction with the Irtysh River.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Tobolsk (Тобо́льск) is a town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers.
The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 (Нерчинский договор, Nerčinskij dogovor; Manchu:,Möllendorff: nibcoo-i bade bithe;, Xiao'erjing: نِبُچُ تِيَوْيُؤ) was the first treaty between Russia and China.
The University of Copenhagen (UCPH) (Københavns Universitet) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Ust-Kut (Усть-Кут) is a town and the administrative center of Ust-Kutsky District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located from Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast.
Vasili Vasilyevich Pronchishchev (Василий Васильевич Прончищев) (1702–) was a Russian explorer.
Vologda (p) is a city and the administrative, cultural, and scientific center of Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the Vologda River within the watershed of the Northern Dvina.
Vyborg (p; Viipuri,; Viborg; Wiborg; Viiburi) is a town in, and the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
Yakutsk (p; Дьокуускай, D'okuuskay) is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located about south of the Arctic Circle.
Yeniseysk (p) is a town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River.