414 relations: "Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder, A People's Tragedy, A&E (TV channel), Absolute monarchy, Agent provocateur, Agrarian socialism, Albert Resis, Aleksandr Kurdyumov, Aleksandr Ulyanov, Alexander Bogdanov, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander III of Russia, Alexander Kerensky, Alexei Rykov, Alexei Sklyarenko, Alfred A. Knopf, All-Russian Congress of Soviets, Anatoly Lunacharsky, Anna Ulyanova, Anti-imperialism, Anti-Leninism, Antisemitism, Apostasy in Judaism, April Theses, Aristocracy, Aristotle, Armavir, Russia, Armenia, Asteroid, Atheism, Austria-Hungary, Azerbaijan, Basic Books, Bern, Bertrand Russell, Biały Dunajec, Biography (TV series), Black market, Black Repartition, Bloody Sunday (1905), Bolsheviks, Bombon, Seine-et-Marne, Boris Yeltsin, Bourgeoisie, British Museum, Capital: Critique of Political Economy, Capitalism, Capri, Censorship in the Soviet Union, Central Committee elected by the 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), ..., Central Committee elected by the 11th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), Central Committee elected by the 12th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), Central Committee elected by the 6th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks), Central Committee elected by the 7th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), Central Committee elected by the 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), Central Committee elected by the 9th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central committees elected by the 1st–3rd congresses of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, Central Powers, Cerebral hemorrhage, Charisma, Charlotte Corday, Cheka, Chekism, Chemical warfare, Christian socialism, Chuvash people, Class conflict, Class consciousness, Communism, Communist International, Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist society, Constitutional monarchy, Copenhagen, Corsier, Council of Labor and Defense, Council of People's Commissars, Cryonics, Cult of personality, Da Capo Press, David Remnick, Decossackization, Decree on Land, Decree on Peace, Democracy and Totalitarianism, Dictatorship, Dictatorship of the proletariat, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dmitri Volkogonov, Dmitry Ilyich Ulyanov, Dmitry Pisarev, Dogma, Don Cossacks, Donald Rayfield, Duke University Press, Economic collapse, Eduard Bernstein, Emancipation of Labour, Emancipation reform of 1861, Embalming, Encyclopædia Britannica, Enemy of the people, Ernst Mach, Erysipelas, Euromaidan, Execution warrant, Fanny Kaplan, February Revolution, Federalism, Felix Dzerzhinsky, Feminism, Feudalism, Fidel Castro, Finland Station, Free education, Free Press (publisher), Friedrich Engels, Fritz Platten, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Geopolitics, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George G. 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"Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder (Russian: Детская болезнь "левизны" в коммунизме; Transliteration: Detskaya Bolezn' "Levizny" v Kommunizme) is a work by Vladimir Lenin attacking assorted critics of the Bolsheviks who claimed positions to their left.
A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution: 1891–1924 is an award-winning book written by British historian Orlando Figes.
A&E (an initialism for its former name, the Arts & Entertainment NetworkCarmody, John, "The TV Column"; The Washington Post, May 2, 1995. "The Arts & Entertainment cable network has officially changed its name to A&E Network."), is an American cable and satellite television channel that serves as the flagship television property of A+E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Corporation and Disney–ABC Television Group (both of which maintain a 50% ownership interest).
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Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.
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An agent provocateur (French for "inciting agent") is a person who commits, or who acts to entice another person to commit an illegal or rash act or falsely implicate them in partaking in an illegal act.
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Agrarian socialism is a socioeconomic political system which combines an agrarian way of life with socialist economic policies.
Albert Resis (born December 16, 1921) is an American historian, Professor of History at Northern Illinois University 1964-1992.
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Aleksandr Borisovich Kurdyumov (Александр Борисович Курдюмов, also transliterated Alexander Kurdumov; born November 26, 1967) is a member of the State Duma.
Aleksandr Ilyich Ulyanov (Алекса́ндр Ильи́ч Улья́нов; April 12, 1866 – May 8, 1887) was a Russian revolutionary and older brother of Vladimir Lenin.
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Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Богда́нов; born Alyaksandr Malinovsky, Алякса́ндр Алякса́ндравіч Маліно́ўскі) (–7 April 1928) was an Russian and Soviet physician, philosopher, science fiction writer, and revolutionary of Belarusian ethnicity.
Alexander II (p; in Moscow – in Saint Petersburg) was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881.
Alexander III (p), or Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov (p; 10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) was the penultimate Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Prince of Finland from until his death on.
Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский,; 2 May 1881 – 11 June 1970) was a Russian lawyer and politician, who served as the second Minister-Chairman of the Russian Provisional Government in July–November 1917.
Alexei Ivanovich Rykov (p; 25 February 188115 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician most prominent as Premier of Russia and the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1929 and 1924 to 1930 respectively.
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Alexei Pavlovich Skliarenko (1870 – July 1916) was a participant is Russia's revolutionary movement.
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Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. (pronounced, with an audible k and silent p) is an award-winning New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. in 1915.
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The All-Russian Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917–22 and of the Soviet Union until 1936.
Anatoly Vasilyevich Lunacharsky (Анато́лий Васи́льевич Лунача́рский, Анатолій Васильович Луначарський, – December 26, 1933) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and the first Soviet People's Commissar of Education responsible for culture and education.
Anna Ilyinichna Yelizarova-Ulyanova (Nizhny Novgorod - October 19, 1935, Moscow) was a Russian revolutionary and a Soviet stateswoman.
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Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements, who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
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Anti-Leninism is the opposition to thought known as Leninism or Bolshevism.
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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group.
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In Judaism, apostasy refers to the rejection of Judaism and possible defection to another religion by a Jew.
The April Theses (Russian: апрельские тезисы, transliteration) were a series of directives issued by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin upon his return to Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), Russia from his exile in Austria via Germany and Finland.
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Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent," and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.
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Armavir (Армави́р) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the left bank of the Kuban River.
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Armenia (Հայաստան, tr. Hayastan), officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, tr. Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun), is a mountainous country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
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Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
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Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.
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Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn; Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.
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Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası), is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
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Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York.
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The city of Bern or Berne (Bern,; Berne; Berna; Berna; Bernese German: Bärn) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
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Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic and political activist.
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Biały Dunajec, (Biely Dunajec) is a village in southern Poland situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999; it was previously in Nowy Sącz Voivodeship from 1975-1998.
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Biography is a documentary television series that had three original runs, twice on CBS and the current one on A&E, The Biography Channel and then FYI.
A black market or underground economy is a market in which goods or services are traded illegally.
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Black Repartition (Чёрный передел in Russian, or Chyornyi peredel; also known as Black Partition), Party of Socialists-Federalists, a revolutionary populist organization in Russia in the early 1880s.
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Bloody Sunday (p) is the name given to the events of Sunday, in St Petersburg, Russia, when unarmed demonstrators led by Father Georgy Gapon were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
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Bombon is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
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The bourgeoisie (Eng.), is a polysemous French term, because it means.
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The British Museum is a museum dedicated to human history, art, and culture, located in the Bloomsbury area of London.
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Capital: A Critique of Political Economy (1867-1883) (Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Ökonomie in German by Karl Marx is a foundational theoretical text in communist philosophy, economics and politics. Marx aimed to reveal the economic patterns underpinning the capitalist mode of production, in contrast to classical political economists such as Adam Smith, David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill.
Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.
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Capri is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy.
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Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced.
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 10th Congress, and sat from 16 March 1921 until 2 April 1922.
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 11th Congress, and sat from 2 April 1922 until 25 April 1923.
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 12th Congress, and sat from 25 April 1923 until 31 May 1924.
Central Committee elected by the 6th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks)
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 6th Congress, and sat from 3 August 1917 until 8 March 1918.
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 7th Congress, and sat from 8 March 1918 until 23 March 1919.
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 8th Congress, and sat from 23 March 1919 until 5 April 1920.
The Central Committee (CC) composition was elected by the 9th Congress, and sat from 5 April 1920 until 16 March 1921.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Центра́льный комите́т Коммунисти́ческой па́ртии Сове́тского Сою́за – ЦК КПСС, Tsentralniy Komitet Kommunistitcheskoi Partii Sovetskogo Soyuza – TsK KPSS), abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, "Tse-ka", was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses.
The 1st, 2nd and 3rd Central Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Party Party were elected by the 1st, 2nd and 3rd congresses respectively, and were in session from 1898 until 1907.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
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A cerebral hemorrhage (also spelled haemorrhage; also known as a cerebral hematoma) is a type of intracranial hemorrhage (intracranial hematoma) that occurs within the brain tissue.
The term charisma (pl. charismata, adj. charismatic) has two senses: (1) compelling attractiveness or charm that can inspire devotion in others, (2) a divinely conferred power or talent.
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Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont (27 July 1768 – 17 July 1793), known to history as Charlotte Corday, was a figure of the French Revolution.
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Cheka (ЧК – чрезвыча́йная коми́ссия chrezvychaynaya komissiya, Emergency Committee) was the first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations.
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Chekism (from Cheka, the first Soviet secret police organization) is a term to describe the situation in the Soviet Union and contemporary Russia, where the secret political police control everything in society.
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Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
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Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
The Chuvash people (чăваш; чуваши) are a Turkic ethnic group, native to an area stretching from the Volga Region to Siberia.
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Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
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Class consciousness is a term used in social sciences and political theory, particularly Marxism, to refer to the beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
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The Communist International, abbreviated as Comintern and also known as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF) (Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации; КПРФ; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, KPRF) is a Communist party in Russia.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза, КПСС), abbreviated in English as CPSU, was the founding and ruling political party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
A communist society or communist system is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces in Marxist thought, representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of Communism.
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A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.
Copenhagen (København), historically known as the capital of the Denmark-Norway union, is the capital and most populated city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,263,698 and a metropolitan population of 1,992,114.
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Corsier (locally) is a municipality of the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland.
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The Council of Labor and Defense (Russian: Совет труда и обороны, Latin acronym: STO), first established as the Council of Workers' and Peasants' Defense in November 1918, was an agency responsible for the central management of the economy and production of military materiel in the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and in its successor state, the Soviet Union.
The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных коммиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.
Cryonics (from Greek κρύος 'kryos-' meaning 'icy cold') is the low-temperature preservation of animals and humans who cannot be sustained by contemporary medicine, with the hope that healing and resuscitation may be possible in the future.
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A cult of personality arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealized, heroic, and at times, worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
Da Capo Press is an American publishing company with headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts.
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David Remnick (born October 29, 1958) is a progressive American journalist, writer, and magazine editor.
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Decossackization (Russian: Расказачивание, Raskazachivaniye) was the Bolshevik policy of systematic repressions against Cossacks of the Russian Empire, especially of the Don and the Kuban, between 1917 and 1933 aimed at the elimination of the Cossacks as a separate ethnic, political, and economic entity.
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The Decree on Land, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies on 26 October 1917, following the success of the October Revolution.
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The Decree On Peace, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies on the, following the success of the October Revolution.
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Democracy and Totalitarianism is a book by French philosopher and political scientist Raymond Aron.
Dictatorship is a form of government where political authority is monopolized by a person (dictator) or political entity, and exercised through various mechanisms to ensure the entity's power remains strong.
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In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union was formally enacted on December 26, 1991, as a result of the declaration no.
Dmitri Antonovich Volkogonov (Дми́трий Анто́нович Волкого́нов) (22 March 1928 – 6 December 1995) was a Russian historian and colonel-general who was head of the Soviet military's psychological warfare department.
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Dmitri Ilyich Ulyanov (Дми́трий Ильи́ч Улья́нов) (– July 16, 1943) was a Russian physician and revolutionary, the younger brother of Aleksandr Ulyanov and Vladimir Lenin.
Dmitry Ivanovich Pisarev (Дми́трий Ива́нович Пи́сарев;, Znamenskoye, Yelets Uyezd, Oryol Governorate –, Dubulti) was a radical Russian writer and social critic who, according to Georgi Plekhanov, "spent the best years of his life in a fortress".
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Dogma is a principle or set of principles laid down by an authority as incontrovertibly true.
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Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.
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Donald Rayfield (born 1942, Oxford) is professor of Russian and Georgian at Queen Mary University of London.
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Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
There is no precise definition of an economic collapse.
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Eduard Bernstein (6 January 185018 December 1932) was a German social democratic political theorist and politician, a member of the Social Democratic Party (SDP), and the founder of evolutionary socialism, social democracy and revisionism.
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Emancipation of Labour group (Освобождение труда) was the first Russian Marxist group.
The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia (Крестьянская реформа 1861 год, Krestyanskaya reforma 1861 goda, literally: "the Peasant Reform of 1861") was the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign (1855-1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.
Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The term enemy of the people is a fluid designation of political or class opponents of the group using the term.
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves.
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Erysipelas (Greek ἐρυσίπελας— "red skin"; also known as "ignis sacer", "holy fire", and "St. Anthony's fire" in some countries) is an acute infection typically with a skin rash, usually on any of the legs and toes, face, arms, and fingers.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Erysipelas ·
Euromaidan (Євромайдан, Евромайдан,, literally "Euro Square") was a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, which began on the night of 21 November 2013 with public protests in Maidan Nezalezhnosti ("Independence Square") in Kiev, demanding closer European integration.
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An execution warrant (also called death warrant or black warrant) is a writ which authorizes the execution of a judgment of death (capital punishment) on an individual.
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Fanya Yefimovna Kaplan (Фа́нни Ефи́мовна Капла́н; real name Feiga Haimovna Roytblat; Фейга Хаимовна Ройтблат; February 10, 1890 – September 3, 1918), was a Russian revolutionary who tried to assassinate Vladimir Lenin.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Fanny Kaplan ·
The February Revolution (p) of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917.
Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.
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Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Russian: Фе́ликс Эдму́ндович Дзержи́нский; Polish: Feliks Dzierżyński; 20 July 1926), nicknamed Iron Felix, was a Soviet statesman of Polish descent and a prominent member of revolutionary movements.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Felix Dzerzhinsky ·
Feminism is a range of movements and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, personal, and social rights for women.
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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
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Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926) is a Cuban politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of the Republic of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and then President from 1976 to 2008.
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St Petersburg-Finlyandsky (Станция Санкт-Петербург-Финля́ндский), is a railway station in St. Petersburg, Russia, handling transport to northern destinations including Helsinki and Vyborg.
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Free education refers to education that is funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition fees.
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Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. or;; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German social scientist, author, journalist, businessman, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, together with Karl Marx.
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Fritz Platten (8 July 1883 – 22 April 1942) was a Swiss Communist, born in the Canton of St. Gallen to an Old Catholic family.
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Galicia (Галичина, Halychyna; Galicja; Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция/Галичина, Galitsiya/Galichina; Rusyn: Галичина, Halychyna; Halič; גאַליציע, Galytsye) is a historical and geographic region in Eastern Europe, once a small kingdom, that straddles the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ ge "earth, land" and πολιτική politikē "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on international politics and international relations.
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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher of the late Enlightenment.
George G. Harrap, Ltd (officially: George G. Harrap and Company Limited, London, Bombay) is a now defunct publisher of high quality specialty books, many of them educational, such as the memoirs of Winston Churchill, or highly illustrated with line drawings, engravings or etchings, such as the much republished classic educational children's book The Cave Boy of the Age of Stone from at least 1901 into the 1980s Sometime after 1986, George G. Harrap and Co.
Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (a; 29 November 1856 – 30 May 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician.
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The Georgian Affair of 1922 (Грузинское дело) was a political conflict within the Soviet leadership about the way in which social and political transformation was to be achieved in the Georgian SSR.
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The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces — not including the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Kaiserliche Marine — of the German Empire.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
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A given name (also known as a personal name, first name, forename, or Christian name) is a part of a person's full nomenclature.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Given name ·
Gleb Ivanovich Uspensky (Глеб Ива́нович Успе́нский; October 25, 1843 – April 6, 1902), was a Russian writer, and a prominent figure of the Narodnik movement.
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GOELRO plan (план ГОЭЛРО) was the first-ever Soviet plan for national economic recovery and development.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and GOELRO plan ·
A goitre or goiter (see spelling differences; from the Latin gutteria, struma) is a swelling of the neck or larynx resulting from enlargement of the thyroid gland (thyromegaly), associated with a thyroid gland that is not functioning properly.
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Gorki Leninskiye (Го́рки Ле́нинские) is an urban locality (a work settlement) in Leninsky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, located south of Moscow city limits and the Moscow Ring Road.
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The Government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was known officially as the Council of People's Commissars (1917–1946), the Council of Ministers (1946–1978) and the Council of Ministers – Government (1978–1991).
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Правительство СССР) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Magnus Ducatus Finlandiæ, Великое княжество Финляндское) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евсе́евич Зино́вьев,; – August 25, 1936), born Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, known also under the name Hirsch Apfelbaum (Овсей-Гершен Аронович Радомысльский, and Апфельбаум), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Grigory Zinoviev ·
Gyumri (Գյումրի)(Western Armenian: Գիւմրի), is the second largest city in Armenia and the capital of the Shirak Province in the northwestern part of the country.
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Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Haymarket Books is a self-described, non-profit, radical book publisher and distributor.
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Helsinki (Helsingfors) is the capital and largest city of Finland.
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The German minority in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union, self-termed as Russaki was created from several sources and in several waves.
The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.
Hồ Chí Minh (Northern Vietnamese pronunciation:, Southern Vietnamese pronunciation:; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, or Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister (1945–55) and president (1945–69) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam).
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Ho Chi Minh ·
The House of the Unions (Дом союзов) (also called "Palace of Unions") is a historical building in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow, Russia.
Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov (Илья́ Никола́евич Улья́нов; —, Simbirsk) was a Russian public figure in the field of public education.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Ilya Ulyanov ·
Imperialism is a type of advocacy of empire.
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Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917), by Vladimir Lenin, describes the function of financial capital in generating profits from imperialist colonialism, as the final stage of capitalist development to ensure greater profits.
Indiana State University (ISU) is a public university located in Terre Haute, Indiana, United States.
Inessa Fyodorovna Armand (born Elisabeth-Inès Stéphane d'Herbenville; May 8, 1874 – September 24, 1920) was a French-Russian communist politician and member of the Bolsheviks who spent most of her life in Russia.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Inessa Armand ·
Infallibility is a term with a variety of meanings related to knowing truth with certainty.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Infallibility ·
Institute for Nobles (Дворянский Институт) was a form of boys-only boarding school in the Russian Empire that provided secondary education in the 19th century.
An intellectual is a person who engages in critical study, thought, and reflection about the reality of society, and proposes solutions for the normative problems of that society, and, by such discourse in the public sphere, he or she gains authority within the public opinion.
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International Affairs is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal of international relations established in 1922.
The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences was first published in 1968 and was edited by David L. Sills and Robert K. Merton.
International Socialism is a British-based quarterly journal published by the Socialist Workers Party which discusses socialist theory.
The International Socialist Congress, Stuttgart 1907 was the Seventh Congress of the Second International.
Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation among nations and peoples.
Iskra (Искра́,, Spark) was a political newspaper of Russian socialist emigrants established as the official organ of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP).
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Iskra ·
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Ivan Pavlov ·
Ivanovo (p) is a city and the administrative center of Ivanovo Oblast, Russia, located from Moscow and approximately from Yaroslavl, Vladimir, and Kostroma.
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Izvestia (p) is a long-running high-circulation daily broadsheet newspaper in Russia.
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John Archibald Getty, III (born November 30, 1950) is an American historian and professor at the University of California, Los Angeles.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and J. Arch Getty ·
Jacobin is a quarterly magazine based in New York.
The Jagiellonian University (Uniwersytet Jagielloński, often shortened to UJ; historical names include Studium Generale, University of Kraków, Kraków Academy, The Main Crown School, and Main School of Kraków) is a research university founded in 1364 by Casimir III the Great in Kraków.
Jean-Paul Marat (24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a physician, political theorist and scientist best known for his career in France as a radical journalist and politician during the French Revolution.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Jean-Paul Marat ·
John Silas "Jack" Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 17, 1920) was an American journalist, poet, and socialist activist, best remembered for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days That Shook the World.
Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin ·
Julius Martov or L. Martov (Ма́ртов; real name Yuliy Osipovich Tsederbaum (a) (November 24, 1873 – April 4, 1923) was a Russian politician who became the leader of the Mensheviks in early twentieth century Russia.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov ·
The July Days refers to events in 1917 that took place in Petrograd, Russia, between 3 July and 7 July (Julian calendar) (16 July – 20 July, Gregorian calendar), when soldiers and industrial workers engaged in spontaneous armed demonstrations against the Russian Provisional Government.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and July Days ·
The Kalmyk people (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Hal'mgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Khalimag) or Kalmyks are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Kalmyk people ·
Karl Johann Kautsky (October 16, 1854 – October 17, 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician.
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Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
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Katorga (p; from medieval Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire.
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Kazan (p; Qazan) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
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Kazan (Volga region) Federal University (Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет; Qazan federal universitetı) is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia.
Kharkiv (Харків), or Kharkov (p), is the second-largest city of Ukraine.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Kharkiv ·
Khujand (Tajik:, خجند; Худжанд Khudzhand), formerly Khodjend or Khodzhent until 1936 and Leninabad (Leninobod, Ленинобод, لنینآباد) until 1991, is the second-largest city of Tajikistan and the capital of the northernmost province of Tajikistan, now called Sughd.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Khujand ·
Kiev or Kyiv (Київ; Киев) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Kiev ·
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Austrian Poland, was a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy since the First Partition of Poland in 1772, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule.
The Kornilov affair, or the Kornilov putsch (Kornilov coup) as it is sometimes referred to, was an attempted military coup d'état by the then Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, General Lavr Kornilov, in August 1917 against the Russian Provisional Government headed by Alexander Kerensky.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Kornilov affair ·
Kraków also Cracow, or Krakow is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Kraków ·
Krasnodar (p) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River, approximately northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk.
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The Kronstadt rebellion (Kronshtadtskoye vosstaniye) was a major unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks in the later years of the Russian Civil War.
Kuban (Кубань; Кубань; Пшызэ) is a geographic region of Southern Russia surrounding the Kuban River, on the Black Sea between the Don Steppe, Volga Delta and the Caucasus, and separated from the Crimean Peninsula to the west by the Kerch Strait.
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Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские кaзаки, Kubanskiye Kаzaki; Кубанські козаки, Kubans'ki Kozaky) or Kubanians (кубанцы, кубанці) are Cossacks who live in the Kuban region of Russia.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Kuban Cossacks ·
Kulaks (a, p) "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuls in Ukraine, also used in Russian texts (in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of relatively affluent farmers in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and early Soviet Union.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Kulak ·
The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz), a Turkic people, live primarily in the Kyrgyz Republic.
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A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor.
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Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law.
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Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (Лавр Гео́ргиевич Корни́лов,; 18 August 1870 – 13 April 1918) was a military intelligence officer, explorer, and general in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Lavr Kornilov ·
Law and Contemporary Problems is a quarterly, interdisciplinary, faculty-edited publication of Duke University School of Law.
In 1917, the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party split between those who supported the Provisional Government, established after the February Revolution, and those who supported the Bolsheviks who favoured a communist insurrection.
Left-wing politics are political positions or activities that accept or support social equality, often in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality.
A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Legal guardian ·
The Lena (Ле́на,; Зүлгэ, Zülge, Buryat: Зүлхэ, Zülhe; Өлүөнэ, Ölüöne) is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob River and the Yenisei River).
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Lena River ·
The International Lenin Peace Prize (международная Ленинская премия мира) was the Soviet Union's award named in honor of Vladimir Lenin.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Lenin Peace Prize ·
The Lenin Prize (Ленинская премия) was one of the most prestigious awards of the Soviet Union, presented to individuals for accomplishments relating to science, literature, arts, architecture, and technology.
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Lenin's Mausoleum (p), also known as Lenin's Tomb, situated in Red Square in the center of Moscow, is the mausoleum that serves as the current resting place of Vladimir Lenin.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Lenin's Mausoleum ·
Lenin's Testament is the name given to a document written by Vladimir Lenin in the last weeks of 1922 and the first week of 1923.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Lenin's Testament ·
Leningrad Oblast (lʲɪnʲɪnˈgratskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Leningrad Oblast ·
In Marxist philosophy, Leninism is the body of political theory for the democratic organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party, and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat, as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
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Lenino-Kokushkino (Tatar and Ле́нино-Коку́шкино; Lenino-Kokuşkino), informally called Apaqay (Апакай), is a village (selo) in Pestrechinsky District, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, located 10 km north of Pestretsy, district's administrative center.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Lenino-Kokushkino ·
Leon Trotsky (Лев Дави́дович Тро́цкий;; born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein; – 21 August 1940) was a Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky ·
Leonard Bertram Naman Schapiro (22 April 1908, Glasgow - 2 November 1983, London) was a British academic and scholar of Russian politics.
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Leonid Borisovich Krasin (Леони́д Бори́сович Кра́син;, Kurgan — 24 November 1926) was a Russian engineer, social entrepreneur and Soviet Bolshevik politician and diplomat.
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Leszek Kołakowski (23 October 1927 – 17 July 2009) was a Polish philosopher and historian of ideas.
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Lev Borisovich Kamenev (Лев Бори́сович Ка́менев,; – 25 August 1936), born Rozenfeld (Ро́зенфельд), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Lev Kamenev ·
As both "conservatism" and "liberalism" have had different meanings over time and across countries, the term liberal conservatism has been used in quite different senses.
The Political party LDPR (Политическая партия ЛДПР), http://ldpr.ru/events/The_Charter_LDPR_changes/ formerly the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (Либерально-Демократическая Партия России – Liberal'no-Demokraticheskaya Partiya Rossii), is a far-right political party in the Russian Federation.
Approximately 57 people have been head of the Russian government since its establishment in 1726.
This is a list of heritage damaged during Euromaidan.
This is a list of leaders of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) from 1917 to 1991.
Under the 1977 Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the Chairman of the Council of Ministers was the head of government and the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was the head of state.
Louis Fischer (29 February 1896 – 15 January 1970) was a Jewish-American journalist.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Louis Fischer ·
Louise Bryant (December 5, 1885 – January 6, 1936) was an American journalist known for her sympathetic coverage of Russia and the Bolsheviks during the Russian Revolution.
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Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (July 28, 1804 – September 13, 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including both Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Ludwig Feuerbach ·
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther—a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer, and theologian.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Lutheranism ·
Lying in state is the tradition in which a coffin is placed on view to allow the public at large to pay their respects to the deceased.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Lying in state ·
Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
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Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova (born Maria Alexandrovna Blank; Мария Александровна Ульянова; &mdash) was the mother of Vladimir Lenin, the Bolshevik revolutionary leader and founder of the Soviet Union.
Maria Fyodorovna Andreyeva (Мари́я Фёдоровна Андре́ева, Mariya Fyodorovna Andreyeva) was the stage name of Maria Fyodorovna Yurkovskaya (Мари́я Фёдоровна Юрко́вская) (July 4, 1868 – December 8, 1953), a Russian/Soviet actress and Bolshevik administrator.
Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova (6 (18) February 1878, Simbirsk - 12 June 1937, Moscow) was Russian Bolshevik, a younger sister of Vladimir Lenin and Anna Ulyanova.
Marquette University Press is a university press managed and supported by Marquette University.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation.
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Marxism–Leninism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of Marxism and Leninism, and seeks to establish socialist states and develop them further.
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Marxist–Leninist atheism (Марксистско-ленинский атеизм) is a part of the wider Marxist–Leninist philosophy (the type of Marxist philosophy found in the Soviet Union), which rejects religion and clergymen as well as advocates a materialist understanding of nature.
Materialism and Empiriocriticism (Russian: Материализм и эмпириокритицизм, Materializm i empiriokrititsizm) is a major philosophical work by Vladimir Lenin, published in 1909.
Max Forrester Eastman (January 4, 1883 – March 25, 1969) was an American writer on literature, philosophy and society; a poet, and a prominent political activist.
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The Mensheviks (sometimes called Menshevists меньшевик) were a faction of the Russian socialist movement that emerged in 1904 after a dispute in the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party between Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov, leading to the party splitting into two factions, one being the Mensheviks and the other being the Bolsheviks.
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Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Михаи́л Ива́нович Кали́нин; 3 June 1946), known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Stalinist functionary, who served as the nominal head of state of Russia and later of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1946, but effectively subordinate to Joseph Stalin.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Mikhail Kalinin ·
The Military Revolutionary Committee (Военно Революционный Комитет; Voyenny Revolyutsionny Komitet), was the name for military organs created by Bolsheviks Party organizations under the soviets in preparation for the October Revolution (October 1917 - March 1918).
The Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation (MOI, Министерство внутренних дел, МВД, Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del, MVD) is the interior ministry of Russia.
Minusinsky District (Минуси́нский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #10-4765 and municipalLaw #13-3022 district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or free markets and economic interventionism.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Mixed economy ·
Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.
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Moral absolutism is an ethical view that particular actions are intrinsically right or wrong.
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The Mordvins, also Mordva, Mordvinians, Mordovians (эрзят/Erzyat, мокшет/Mokshet, мухшилар/Muhshilar, мордва/Mordva; for Qaratai: каратаи/Karatayi), are the members of a people speaking a Mordvinic language of the Uralic language family and living mainly in republic of Mordovia and other parts of the middle Volga River region of Russia The Mordvins are one of the larger indigenous peoples of Russia.
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Paveletsky station (Павелецкий вокзал) is one of Moscow's nine main railway stations.
Munich (also in UK English; München,, Minga) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
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The Museum of the Moscow Railway is situated next to Paveletsky Rail Terminal in Moscow.
Nadezhda Konstantinovna "Nadya" Krupskaya (Наде́жда Константи́новна Кру́пская, scientific transliteration Nadežda Konstantinovna Krupskaja) (– 27 February 1939) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and politician (she served as the Soviet Union's Deputy Minister of Education from 1929 until her death in 1939), and the wife of Vladimir Lenin from 1898 until his death in 1924.
Narodnaya Volya (p, The People’s Will or The People's Freedom) was a Russian revolutionary left-wing organization in the late 19th century, best known for the successful assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
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The Narodniks (народники) were a socially conscious movement of the Russian middle class in the 1860s and 1870s, some of whom became involved in revolutionary agitation against the Tsardom.
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National delimitation in the Soviet Union refers to the process of creating well-defined national territorial units (Soviet socialist republics – SSR, autonomous Soviet socialist republics – ASSR, autonomous provinces – oblasts, or autonomous national territories – okrugi) from the ethnic diversity of the Soviet Union and its subregions.
Nationalism is essentially a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture and/or ethnicity that holds that group together, this can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and Nationalism ·
Neurosyphilis is an infection of the brain or spinal cord caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum.
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For the Malaysian policy enacted in 1971, see Malaysian New Economic Policy. The New Economic Policy (NEP) (Новая экономическая политика, НЭП, Novaya Ekonomicheskaya Politika) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin, who called it "state capitalism".
Nicholas II (r) (– 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland.
Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Никола́й Ива́нович Буха́рин; – 15 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician and prolific author on revolutionary theory.
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Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky (Никола́й Гаври́лович Черныше́вский; 12 July 1828 – 17 October 1889) was a Russian revolutionary democrat, materialist philosopher, critic, and socialist (seen by some as a utopian socialist).
Nikolay Alexandrovich Dobrolyubov (a; February 5, 1836 – November 29, 1861) was a Russian literary critic, journalist, poet and revolutionary democrat.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is, with a population of 1,250,619, the fifth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
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Northern Illinois University (NIU) is a public research university located in DeKalb, Illinois, United States, with satellite centers in Hoffman Estates, Naperville, Rockford, and Oregon.
hesan The October Manifesto (Октябрьский манифест, Манифест 17 октября), officially The Manifesto on the Improvement of the State Order (Манифест об усовершенствовании государственного порядка), is a document that served as a precursor to the Russian Empire's first constitution, which would be adopted the next year.
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The October Revolution (p), officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution (r), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Odessa or Odesa (Оде́са,; p) is the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,003,705.
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Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are sometimes used with dates to indicate whether the Julian year has been adjusted to start on 1 January (N.S.), even though documents written at the time use a different start of year (O.S.), or whether a date conforms to the Julian calendar (O.S.), formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian (N.S.). web page of the.
One Step Forward, Two Steps Back - The Crisis in Our Party (Шаг вперёд, два шага назад) is a work written by Lenin published on May 6/19, 1904.
The Operation Faustschlag (Fist punch), also known as the Eleven Days War,Mawdsley (2007), p. 35 was a Central Powers offensive in World War I. It was the last major action on the Eastern Front.
The Order of Lenin (Russian: Орден Ленина, Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was the highest decoration bestowed by the Soviet Union.
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The Order of Saint Vladimir (Орден Святого Владимира) was an Imperial Russian Order established in 1782 by Empress Catherine II in memory of the deeds of Saint Vladimir, the Grand Prince and the Baptizer of the Kievan Rus.
Orlando Figes (born 20 November 1959) is a British historian and writer best known for his works on Russian history.
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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
The Paris Commune was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
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Paul Lafargue (15 January 1842 – 26 November 1911) was a French revolutionary Marxist socialist journalist, literary critic, political writer and activist; he was Karl Marx's son-in-law having married his second daughter, Laura.
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Pavel Borisovich Axelrod (Па́вел Бори́сович Аксельро́д; 25 August 1850 – 16 April 1928) was a Russian Menshevik.
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A peasant is a member of a traditional class of farmers, either laborers or owners of small farms, especially in the Middle Ages under feudalism, or more generally, in any pre-industrial society.
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Pelican Books is a non-fiction imprint of Penguin Books.
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Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
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The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy sovet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.
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A politburo is the executive committee for a number of (usually communist) political parties.
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The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS), was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Prague (Praha) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic.
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The Prague Conference, officially the 6th All-Russian Conference of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, was held in Prague, Austria-Hungary on January 5-17 1912.
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Pravda (a, "Truth") was the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was one of the most influential papers in the country.
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The office of Premier of the Soviet Union (Глава Правительства СССР) was synonymous with head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
Prodrazvyorstka (also Prodrazverstka; Продразвёрстка, продовольственная развёрстка) was a Bolshevik policy and campaign of confiscation of grain and other agricultural produce from the peasants for a nominal fixed price according to specified quotas (the noun razvyorstka, and the verb razverstat' refer to the partition of the requested total amount as obligations from the suppliers).
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A proletarian revolution is a social revolution in which the working class attempts to overthrow the bourgeoisie.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius) is a term used to describe the class of wage-earners (especially industrial workers), in a capitalist society, whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work); a member of such a class is a proletarian.
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A pseudonym is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from his or her original or true name (orthonym).
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Pskov (p, ancient Russian spelling "Плѣсковъ", Pleskov) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.
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Pyotr Nikitich Tkachev, also spelled Pyotr Nikitich Tkachyov (Russian: Петр Никитич Ткачев) (June 29, 1844 – January 4, 1886) was a Russian writer and critic who formulated many of the revolutionary principles that would later be further developed and put into action by Vladimir Lenin.
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Random House is the largest general-interest trade book publisher in the world.
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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Razliv railway station (Ста́нция Разли́в) is a railway station located near to Lake Razliv which is in the territory of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Red Guards (Красная гвардия) were paramilitary volunteer formations consisting mainly of factory workers, peasants, cossacks and partially of soldiers and sailors for "protection of the Soviet power".
Red Square (ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow, Russia.
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Red Terror was a campaign of mass killings, torture, and systematic oppression conducted by the Bolsheviks after they seized power in Petrograd and Moscow in 1917.
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Reichenbach im Kandertal is a village and municipality in the Frutigen-Niedersimmental administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.
Repino (Ре́пино) is a municipal settlement in Kurortny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, and a station of the Saint Petersburg-Vyborg railroad.
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Representative democracy (also indirect democracy or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (союзные республики, soyuznye respubliki) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based administrative units that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
Within the Marxist movement, the word revisionism is used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises.
The Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
A revolutionary is a person who either actively participates in, or advocates revolution.
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Revolutionary terror (also referred to as Revolutionary terrorism, or a reign of terror)) refers to the institutionalized application of force to counterrevolutionaries, particularly during the French Revolution from the years 1793 to 1794. The term Communist terrorism has also been used to describe the revolutionary terror, from the Red Terror in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) to the reign of the Khmer Rouge, and others. In contrast the reactionary terror, such as White Terror, has been used to subdue revolutions.
Richard Edgar Pipes (born July 11, 1923) is a Polish-American academic who specializes in Russian history, particularly with respect to the Soviet Union, who espoused a strong anti-communist point of view throughout his career.
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Right-wing politics are political positions or activities that view some forms of social stratification or social inequality as either inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable,J.
Robert Gellately (born 1943) is a Canadian academic who is one of the leading historians of modern Europe, particularly during World War II and the Cold War era.
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Robert John Service (born 29 October 1947) is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death.
Roman Vatslavovich Malinovsky (Рома́н Вацлавович Малино́вский, 1876–1918) was a prominent Russian Bolshevik politician before the revolution, while at the same time working as the best paid agent for the Okhrana.
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Rosa Luxemburg (also Rozalia Luxenburg; Róża Luksemburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist and revolutionary socialist of Polish-Jewish descent who became a naturalized German citizen.
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Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.
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RT (founded as "Russia Today") is a Russian state-funded television network which runs cable and satellite television channels, as well as Internet content directed to audiences outside the Russian Federation.
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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The Russian Civil War (Гражданская война́ в Росси́и Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiy) (November 1917-October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
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The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye sobraniye) was a constitutional body convened in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917.
Russian cosmism was a philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century.
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Aurora (p) is a 1900 Russian protected cruiser, currently preserved as a museum ship in St. Petersburg.
The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
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The Russian famine of 1921, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Bolshevik Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.
Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Rus', Russia or the Soviet Union.
The Russian nobility (Дворянство Dvoryanstvo) arose in the 14th century and made up most of the Russian government until the February Revolution of 1917.
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The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya Pravoslávnaya Tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy Patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Provisional Government (Временное правительство России, translit.) was a provisional government of the Russian Republic established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II (March 15, 1917).
The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (Russian Росси́йская социа́л-демократи́ческая рабо́чая па́ртия, РСДРП, Rossiyskaya sotsial-demokraticheskaya rabochaya partiya, RSDRP), also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; r) commonly referred to as Soviet Russia or simply as Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I was a sovereign state in 1917–22, the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union in 1922–91 and a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with own legislation in 1990–91.
Russification is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
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Sadistic personality disorder is a personality disorder diagnosis involving sadism which appeared in an appendix of the revised third edition of the APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R).
A safe house is, in a generic sense, a secret place for sanctuary or suitable to hide persons from the law, hostile actors or actions, or from retribution, threats or perceived danger.
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Saint Petersburg (p) is the second largest city in Russia, politically incorporated as a federal subject (a federal city).
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Saint Petersburg State University (SPbGU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.
Samara Oblast (p) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
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Samara (p), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (Куйбышев), is the sixth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Samara Oblast.
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Sassnitz (before 1993 in Saßnitz) is a town on the Jasmund peninsula, Rügen Island, in the Federal State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
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The Second International (1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889.
Secret police (sometimes called political police) are intelligence services or police and law enforcement agencies which operate in secrecy, and therefore have little to no transparency, accountability or oversight.
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The origins of serfdom in Russia are traced to Kievan Rus' in the 11th century.
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Sergei Petrovich Melgunov (Серге́й Петрович Мельгунов) (December 24 or 25, 1879 – May 26, 1956) was a Russian historian, publicist and politician best known for his opposition to the Soviet government and his numerous works on the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War.
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Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to a normal method of writing a language.
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Shushenskoye (Шу́шенское) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Shushensky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Yenisei and Big Shush.
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Simon & Schuster, Inc., a division of CBS Corporation, is a publisher founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard L. Simon and M. Lincoln ("Max") Schuster.
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A single-party state, one-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which a single political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Slavoj Žižek (born 21 March 1949) is a Slovenian philosopher, cultural critic, and Marxist intellectual.
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The Smolny Institute (Смольный институт, Smol'niy institut) is a Palladian edifice in St Petersburg that has played a major part in the history of Russia.
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The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Social justice is "justice in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities, and privileges within a society".
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Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership and/or social control of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.
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The Socialist Revolutionary Party, or Party of Socialists Revolutionaries (the SRs; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры) was a major political party in early 20th century Russia and a key player in the Russian Revolution.
The term socialist state or socialist republic usually refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the construction of a socialist society.
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The Socialist Workers Party (SWP) is a far-left party in Britain.
Soviets (singular: soviet; сове́т,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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Staatsbibliothek is the German word for State (in the context of "government") Library with legal deposit responsibilities.
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Stalin and His Hangmen: An Authoritative Portrait of a Tyrant and Those Who Served Him by Donald Rayfield, and the imprinted with another subtitle: Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him, is a 2004 political biography by Donald Rayfield, of Joseph Stalin and his subordinates who ran the Soviet secret police: Felix Dzerzhinsky, Vyacheslav Menzhinsky, Genrikh Yagoda, Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria.
State capitalism is usually described as an economic system in which commercial (i.e. for-profit) economic activity is undertaken by the state, where the means of production are organized and managed as business enterprises, including the processes of capital accumulation, wage labor, and centralized management.
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The State Duma or Imperial Duma was a legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire, which held its meetings in the Taurida Palace in St. Petersburg.
Stockholm () is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic region, with 914,909 people living in the municipality, approximately 1.4 million in the urban area, and 2.2 million in the metropolitan area.
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Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
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The Swedish diaspora consists of emigrants and their descendants, especially those that maintain some of the customs of their Swedish culture.
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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
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The Tambov Rebellion (Soviet misnomer Antonovshchina) which occurred between 1920 and 1921 was one of the largest and best-organized peasant rebellions challenging the Bolshevik regime during the Russian Civil War.
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Tampere (Swedish: Tammerfors or) is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland.
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The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book written by several European academics and edited by Stéphane Courtois, and documents a history of repressions, both political and civilian, by Communist states, including genocides, extrajudicial executions, deportations, and artificial famines.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Development of Capitalism in Russia was an early economic work by Lenin written whilst he was in exile in Siberia.
The Militant is an international Socialist newsweekly connected to the Socialist Workers Party (SWP) and the Pathfinder Press.
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The Moscow Times is an English-language daily newspaper published in Moscow, Russia, with a circulation of 35,000 copies.
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The State and Revolution (1917), by Vladimir Lenin, describes the role of the State in society, the necessity of proletarian revolution, and the theoretic inadequacies of social democracy in achieving revolution to establish the dictatorship of the proletariat.
Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.
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Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century is a compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people, published in Time magazine in 1999.
Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state holds total control over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.
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The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest, Belarus), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR officially created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), commonly known as the Soviet Union.
Trelleborg is a locality and the seat of Trelleborg Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden, with 28,290 inhabitants in 2010.
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Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) refers to a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire.
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Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a symptomatic bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi.
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Ufa (p; Өфө, Öfö) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic.
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The UNIAN or Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (Українське Незалежне Інформаційне Агентство, УНІАН; Ukrayins'ke Nezalezhne Informatsiyne Ahentstvo) is a Kiev-based Ukrainian news agency.
Ulyanovsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Volga River east from Moscow.
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Ulyanovsk Oblast (Улья́новская о́бласть, Ulyanovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
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A unitary state is a state governed as one single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.
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United Russia (Еди́ная Росси́я; Yedinaya Rossiya) is the current ruling political party in Russia.
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Universal health care, sometimes referred to as universal health coverage, universal coverage, or universal care, usually refers to a health care system which provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
In the context of the theory of Marxist revolutionary struggle, vanguardism is a strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat or working class, described as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards revolutionary politics and serve as manifestations of proletarian political power against its class enemies.
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Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (– 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
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War communism or military communism (Военный коммунизм) was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War, from 1918 to 1921.
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Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nationalities to gain independence.
Well-being, welfare or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group, for example their social, economic, psychological, spiritual or medical state; a high level of well-being means in some sense the individual or group's experience is positive, while low well-being is associated with negative happenings.
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What Is to Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement (Shto delat'?), is a political pamphlet written by the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin in 1901 and published in 1902.
What Is to Be Done? (Shto delat'?; also translated as "What Shall We Do?") is an 1863 novel written by the Russian philosopher, journalist and literary critic Nikolai Chernyshevsky.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армiя/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардiя/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya) or the Whites (Белые and белогвардейцы, "White Guardsmen"), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks (большевики, "Majority") in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
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The White Terror in Russia refers to the organized violence carried out by the White Army during the Russian Civil War (1917–23).
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
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Wilhelm Martin Philipp Christian Ludwig Liebknecht (29 March 1826 – 7 August 1900) was a German social democrat and one of the principal founders of the Social Democratic Party (SPD).
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
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The Winter Palace (p) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs.
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World government is the notion of a common political authority for all of humanity, yielding a global government and a single state.
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World revolution is the Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class.
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The World Socialist Web Site (WSWS) is a widely accessed international socialist news site and is the online news and information center of the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI).
World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Yenisey, Gorlog), also written as Yenisey, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
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Zürich or Zurich (Zürich, Swiss German: Züri, Zurich, Zurigo, Turitg) is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
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In late 19th century Russia, a zemlyachestvo was a society of men living away from their home regions.
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The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from 5 to 8 September 1915.
The 10th Politburo and the 10th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 10th Central Committee, in the immediate aftermath of the 10th Congress.
The 11th Politburo and the 11th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee, in the immediate aftermath of the 11th Congress.
The 12th Politburo and 12th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 12th Central Committee, in the immediate aftermath of the 12th Congress.
The 1907 Tiflis bank robbery, also known as the Yerevan Square expropriation, was an armed robbery on 26 June 1907 in the city of Tiflis (now Georgia's capital, Tbilisi).
The 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was held during July 30–August 23 (July 17–August 10, O.S.) 1903, starting in Brussels, Belgium (until August 6) and ending in London.
The 3rd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was held during 25 Apr - 10 May 1905 in London, UK.
The Fourth (Unity) Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party that took place in Stockholm, Sweden, from April 10-25 (April 23 to May 8), 1906.
The 5th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was held in London between May 13 and June 1, 1907.
The 7th Bureau and the 7th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by a Session of the 7th Central Committee in the immediate aftermath of the 7th Congress.
852 Wladilena is a minor planet orbiting the Sun.
New!!: Vladimir Lenin and 852 Wladilena ·
The 8th Politburo and the 8th Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 8th Central Committee in the immediate aftermath of the 8th Congress.
The 9th Politburo, the 9th Secretariat and the 9th Orgburo of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) were elected by the 1st Plenary Session of the 9th Central Committee, in the immediate aftermath of the 9th Congress.
Comrade Lenin, Lenin, Lenin, V. I., Lenin, V.I., Lennin, N. Lenin, Nicolai Lenin, Nikolai Lenin, Nikolay Lenin, V I Lenin, V. I. Lenin, V. I. Ulyanov, V. Lenin, V.I. Lenin, V.I. Ulyanov, VI Lenin, Vladimir I. Lenin, Vladimir Il'ich Lenin, Vladimir Ilich Lenin, Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov, Vladimir Illich Lenin, Vladimir Ilych Ulyanov, Vladimir Ilyich, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich Ulianov, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin, Vladimir Lennon, Vladimir Ulyanov, Vladimir lenin, Vladimir lennon, Vladmir Lenin, Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин, Влади́мир Ильи́ч Улья́нов, Владимир Ильич Ленин, Владимир Ленин, Ле́нин, Ленин, Ленина.