88 relations: Approximant consonant, Australian English, Australian English phonology, Škofja Loka, Basque language, Brazilian Portuguese, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Consonant, Creaky-voiced glottal approximant, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Danish language, Danish orthography, Danish phonology, Debuccalization, Devanagari, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, English language, English orthography, English phonology, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, Finnish phonology, Fricative consonant, Glottal consonant, Gurmukhi script, Guttural R, Hangul, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hindustani language, Hindustani phonology, International Phonetic Alphabet, Kalabari language, Korean language, Korean phonology, Kresy, Language, Limburgish, Lithuanian language, Lithuanian phonology, Littoral dialect group, Maastrichtian dialect, Manner of articulation, Modern Hebrew phonology, Murmured voice, ..., Nastaʿlīq script, North coast Portuguese, Peve language, Phonation, Phonetics, Phonology, Place of articulation, Planina, Postojna, Podhale, Polish alphabet, Polish language, Polish phonology, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Punjabi language, Received Pronunciation, Revised Romanization of Korean, Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Rovte dialect group, Silesian language, Slovak language, Slovene dialects, Slovene language, South African English, Speech, Sylheti language, Sylheti Nagari, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian phonology, Vocal folds, Vowel, Wu Chinese, X-SAMPA, Zulu language. Expand index (38 more) » « Shrink index
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
Australian English (AuE) is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians.
Škofja Loka (Bischoflack) is a town in Slovenia.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The creaky-voiced glottal approximant is a consonant sound in some languages.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.
The phonology of Danish is similar to that of the other Scandinavian languages such as Swedish and Norwegian, but it also has distinct features setting it apart from the phonologies of its most closely related languages.
Debuccalization is a sound change in which an oral consonant loses its original place of articulation and moves it to the glottis (usually,, or). The pronunciation of a consonant as is sometimes called aspiration but in phonetics, aspiration is the burst of air accompanying a stop.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch phonology is similar to that of other West Germanic languages.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in the former Häme Province in central south Finland.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Hindustani is the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan, and through its two standardized registers, Hindi and Urdu, an official language of India and Pakistan.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Kalabari is an Ijaw language of Nigeria spoken in Rivers State and Bayelsa State.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
LimburgishLimburgish is pronounced, whereas Limburgan, Limburgian and Limburgic are, and.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
This article is about the phonology of the Lithuanian language.
The Littoral dialect group (primorska narečna skupina) is a group of very heterogeneous dialects of Slovene.
Maastrichtian (Mestreechs) or Maastrichtian Limburgish (Mestreechs-Limburgs) is the dialect and variant of Limburgish spoken in the Dutch city of Maastricht alongside the Dutch language (with which it is not mutually intelligible).
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
Modern Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
North coast dialect dialeto da costa norte, also called cearense dialect, is a dialect of Portuguese in the Brazilian state of Ceará, having many internal variations, like in the regions Jaguaribe and Sertões (backcountries).
Pévé, also called Lamé after its chief dialect, is an Afro-Asiatic language of Chad and Cameroon.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
Planina is a village in the Municipality of Postojna in the Inner Carniola region of Slovenia.
Podhale (literally "under the Mountain meadows") is Poland's southernmost region, sometimes referred to as the "Polish highlands".
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary between dialects, in extreme cases leading to some difficulties in intelligibility.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer system.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.
The Rovte dialect group (rovtarska narečna skupina, rovtarščina) is a group of closely related dialects of Slovene.
Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka, ślůnsko godka (Silesian pronunciation), Slezština, język śląski / etnolekt śląski, Wasserpolnisch) is a West Slavic lect, part of its Lechitic group.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovene dialects (slovenska narečja) are the regional spoken varieties of Slovene, a South Slavic language.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in the Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam.
Sylheti Nagari (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ Silôṭi Nagri) is an endangered script used for writing Sylheti.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
This article deals with the phonology of the standard Ukrainian language.
The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA;, /%Eks"s.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.