127 relations: Abkhaz alphabet, Abkhaz language, Abkhaz phonology, Adyghe language, Afrikaans, Afrikaans phonology, Aleut language, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Archi language, Armenian alphabet, Armenian language, Avar language, Basque alphabet, Basque language, Berber Arabic alphabet, Berber languages, Biblical Hebrew, Brazilian Portuguese, Cape Province, Catalan language, Chilcotin language, Consonant, County Durham, Cyrillic script, Danish language, Danish orthography, Danish phonology, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, Dyfed, East Flanders, Eastern Armenian, English language, English of Northumbria, English orthography, English phonology, European Portuguese, French Basque Country, French language, French orthography, French phonology, German language, German orthography, Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Guttural, Guttural R, ..., Gwynedd, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hiberno-English, History of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Index of phonetics articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, Inuit languages, Italian language, Italian orthography, José Ignacio Hualde, Judaeo-Spanish, Kabardian language, Kabyle language, Kazakh alphabets, Kazakh language, Kyrgyz language, Labiodental approximant, Lakota language, Language, Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Limburg (Belgium), Luxembourgish, Luxembourgish phonology, Malay alphabet, Malay language, Malay phonology, Marten, Modern Hebrew, Modern Hebrew phonology, Modern Standard Arabic, Northumberland, Northumbrian burr, Norwegian dialects, Norwegian language, Norwegian phonology, Occitan language, Ossetian language, Palgrave Macmillan, Parma, Perak, Phonetic transcription, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Randstad, Register (sociolinguistics), Relative articulation, Rhotic consonant, Rio de Janeiro (state), Setúbal, Sierra Leonean English, South Region, Brazil, Speech, Standard German phonology, Standard Zhuang, Swabian German, Swedish language, Swedish phonology, Tatar language, Tifinagh, Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil, Tsez language, Ubykh language, Ubykh phonology, Uvular trill, Uzbek alphabet, Uzbek language, Voiced pharyngeal fricative, Voiced uvular fricative, Voiced velar fricative, Voiceless uvular fricative, Walter de Gruyter, Welsh English, Yakut language, Yakut scripts, Yiddish. Expand index (77 more) » « Shrink index
The Abkhaz alphabet uses letters from the Cyrillic script for the Abkhaz language which consists of 62 letters.
Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.
Abkhaz is a language of the Northwest Caucasian family which, like the other Northwest Caucasian languages, is very rich in consonants.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afrikaans has a similar phonology to other West Germanic languages, especially Dutch.
Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is the language spoken by the Aleut people (Unangax̂) living in the Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands, Commander Islands, and the Alaskan Peninsula (in Aleut Alaxsxa, the origin of the state name Alaska).
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
Archi is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by the Archis in the village of Archib, southern Dagestan, Russia, and the six surrounding smaller villages.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Avar (self-designation Магӏарул мацӏ Maⱨarul maⱬ "language of the mountains" or Авар мацӏ Avar maⱬ "Avar language"), also known as Avaric, is a language that belongs to the Avar–Andic group of the Northeast Caucasian family.
The Basque alphabet is a Latin alphabet used to write the Basque language.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Berber Arabic alphabet is an Arabic-based alphabet that was used to write various Berber languages in the Middle Ages.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
The Province of the Cape of Good Hope (Provinsie van die Kaap die Goeie Hoop), commonly referred to as the Cape Province (Kaapprovinsie) and colloquially as The Cape (Die Kaap), was a province in the Union of South Africa and subsequently the Republic of South Africa.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Chilcotin (also Tsilhqot’in, Tsilhqut’in, Tzilkotin) is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken in British Columbia by the Tsilhqot’in people.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
County Durham (locally) is a county in North East England.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.
The phonology of Danish is similar to that of the other Scandinavian languages such as Swedish and Norwegian, but it also has distinct features setting it apart from the phonologies of its most closely related languages.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch phonology is similar to that of other West Germanic languages.
Dyfed is a preserved county of Wales. It was created on 1 April 1974, as an amalgamation of the three pre-existing counties of Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. It was abolished twenty-two years later, on 1 April 1996, when the three original counties were reinstated, Cardiganshire being renamed Ceredigion the following day. The name "Dyfed" is retained for certain ceremonial and other purposes. It is a mostly rural county in southwestern Wales with a coastline on the Irish Sea and the Bristol Channel.
East Flanders (Dutch: Oost-Vlaanderen, (Province de) Flandre-Orientale, Ostflandern) is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium.
Eastern Armenian (arevelahayeren) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Northumbrian language or Northumbria English is an English language or dialect of English ("Northumbrian Language" may only refer to the broadly spoken Northumbrian whereas Northumbrian English may just refer to the Standard English as spoken in Northumbria and featuring various Northumbrian words and forms), and a variant of Northern English with the Geordie dialect being one of the subsets of Northumbrian the others being Northern (north of the River Coquet), Western (from Allendale through Hexham up to Kielder), Southern or Pitmatic (the mining towns such as Ashington and much of Durham) Mackem (Wearside) and Smoggie (Teesside). It is spoken mainly if not exclusively in the modern day counties of Northumberland, Tyne and Wear and Durham.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Iparralde (i.e. 'the Northern Region'), Pays basque français, País Vasco francés) is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
French phonology is the sound system of French.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
Ghil'ad Zuckermann (גלעד צוקרמן,, born 1 June 1971) is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity.
Guttural speech sounds are those with a primary place of articulation near the back of the oral cavity.
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
Gwynedd is a county in Wales, sharing borders with Powys, Conwy, Anglesey over the Menai Strait, and Ceredigion over the River Dyfi.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
The International Phonetic Alphabet was created soon after the International Phonetic Association was established in the late 19th century.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The Inuit languages are a closely related group of indigenous American languages traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
José Ignacio Hualde is a linguist from Navarre, specialised in Basque linguistics and in Spanish synchronic and diachronic phonology, professor of Linguistics and Latin American and Caribbean Studies in the Department of Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, and in the Department of Linguistics, at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.
Kabyle, or Kabylian (native name: Taqbaylit), is a Berber language spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria.
Three alphabets are used to write the Kazakh language: the Cyrillic, Latin and Arabic script.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Lakota (Lakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew is a scholarly book written by linguist Ghil'ad Zuckermann, published in 2003 by Palgrave Macmillan.
Limburg (Dutch and Limburgish: Limburg; Limbourg) is a province in Belgium.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
This article aims to describe the phonology and phonetics of central Luxembourgish, which is regarded as the emerging standard.
The modern Malay alphabet or Indonesian alphabet (Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore: Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", Indonesia: "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet without any diacritics.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
This article explains the phonology of the Malay language based on the pronunciation of Standard Malay, which is the official language in Brunei, Singapore, Malaysia (as Malaysian) and Indonesia (as Indonesian).
The martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Mustelinae, in the family Mustelidae.
Modern Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.
The Northumbrian burr is the distinctive uvular pronunciation of R in the traditional dialects of Northumberland, Tyneside ('Geordie'), and northern County Durham, but it is now prevalent only in the older residents of rural Northumberland.
The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, 'Northern Norwegian' (nordnorsk), 'Central Norwegian' (trøndersk), 'Western Norwegian' (vestlandsk), and 'Eastern Norwegian' (østnorsk).
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Parma (Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary between dialects, in extreme cases leading to some difficulties in intelligibility.
The Randstad is a megalopolis in the central-western Netherlands consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) and their surrounding areas.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
In phonetics and phonology, relative articulation is description of the manner and place of articulation of a speech sound relative to some reference point.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil.
Setúbal (or; Caetobrix) is a city and a municipality in Portugal.
Sierra Leonean English is the dialect of English spoken by Sierra Leoneans.
The South Region of Brazil (Região Sul do Brasil) is one of the five regions of Brazil.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Standard Zhuang (autonym) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages.
Swabian is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German that belong to the High German dialect continuum.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
Tifinagh (also written Tifinaɣ in the Berber Latin alphabet; Neo-Tifinagh:; Tuareg Tifinagh: or) is an abjad script used to write the Berber languages.
The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil occurred with the strategic retreat of Queen Maria I of Portugal, Prince Regent John, also referred to as Dom João or Dom João VI, and the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807.
Tsez, also known as Dido (цезйас мец cezyas mec or цез мец cez mec in Tsez) is a Northeast Caucasian language with about 15,354 speakers (2002) spoken by the Tsez, a Muslim people in the mountainous Tsunta District of southwestern Dagestan in Russia.
Ubykh, or Ubyx, is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).
Ubykh, an extinct Northwest Caucasian language, has the largest consonant inventory of all documented languages that do not use clicks, and also has the most disproportional ratio of phonemic consonants to vowels.
The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Uzbek language has been written in various scripts: Arabic, Cyrillic and Latin.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.
The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Welsh English refers to the dialects of English spoken by Welsh people.
Yakut, also known as Sakha, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation by the Yakuts.
There have been three major Yakut writing systems in use since the early 20th century.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.