157 relations: Adyghe language, Albanian alphabet, Albanian language, Andalusian Spanish, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Armenian alphabet, Armenian language, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Asturian language, Avar language, Basque language, Belgian French, Bengali alphabet, Bengali language, Berber languages, Brazilian Portuguese, Brescia, Cantonese, Cantonese phonology, Chechen language, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Christian Classics Ethereal Library, Consonant, Croatian language, Cypriot Greek, Cyrillic script, Danish language, Danish orthography, Danish phonology, Devanagari, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, Eastern Armenian, Eastern Lombard dialect, English language, English orthography, English phonology, Faroese language, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, Finnish phonology, French language, French orthography, French phonology, Fricative consonant, ..., Friesland, Gaj's Latin alphabet, Georgian language, Georgian scripts, German language, German orthography, Glottal consonant, Greek alphabet, Greek language, H-dropping, Hangul, Hawaiian alphabet, Hawaiian language, Hawaiian phonology, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hindi, Hindustani phonology, Hmong language, Holland, Honda, Hungarian language, Hungarian orthography, Hungarian phonology, Index of phonetics articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italian phonology, Japanese language, Japanese phonology, Jyutping, Kabardian language, Kana, Korean language, Korean phonology, Language, Lao alphabet, Lao language, Leonese dialect, Lezgian language, Liège, Limburg (Netherlands), Malay alphabet, Malay language, Manner of articulation, Masa languages, Modern Hebrew phonology, Mutsun language, Nastaʿlīq script, Navajo language, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian phonology, Nuosu language, Old Spanish language, Pashto, Persian alphabet, Persian language, Persian phonology, Phonetics, Phonology, Pirahã language, Place of articulation, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Revised Romanization of Korean, Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Romanization of Japanese, Romanized Popular Alphabet, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbo-Croatian, Serbo-Croatian phonology, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Speech, Standard German phonology, Swedish language, Swedish orthography, Swedish phonology, Syriac alphabet, Thai alphabet, Thai language, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Turkish phonology, Tuscan dialect, Ubykh language, Ubykh phonology, Urdu, Val Camonica, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Voiced glottal fricative, Voiceless nasal glottal approximant, Voicelessness, Vowel, Welsh language, Welsh orthography, West Frisian language, X-SAMPA, Yi script. Expand index (107 more) » « Shrink index
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгaбзэ, adyghabze), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian.
The modern Albanian alphabet is a Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters: Note: The vowels are shown in bold.
Albanian (shqip or gjuha shqipe, meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by five million people, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Greece, but also in other areas of Southeastern Europe in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and the Preševo Valley of Serbia.
The Andalusian varieties of Spanish (Spanish: andaluz). are spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla, and Gibraltar.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayots grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayots aybuben) is a graphically unique alphabetical writing system that has been used to write the Armenian language.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenians.
Asturian (autonym: asturianu,Art. 1 de la. or bable) is a Romance language of the West Iberian group, Astur-Leonese subgroup, spoken in Asturias (Spain).
Avar (self-designation магӏарул мацӏ maharul macʼ "language of the mountains" or Авар мацӏ awar macʼ "Avar language") is a language that belongs to the Avar–Andic group of the Northeast Caucasian family.
Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.
Belgian French (français de Belgique) is the variety of French spoken mainly in the French Community of Belgium, alongside related minority regional languages such as Walloon, Picard, Champenois and Lorrain (Gaumais), as well as in the capital city of Brussels.
The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা লিপি Bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and is the 6th most widely used writing system in the world.
Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা) is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises the present-day nation of Bangladesh and of the Indian states West Bengal, Tripura and southern Assam.
Berber or the Amazigh languages or dialects (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or Português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Brescia (Lombard: Brèsa, or; Brixia) is a city and comune in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy.
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.
The standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Guangzhou, also known as Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province.
The Chechen language (Нохчийн Мотт / Noxčiyn Mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in Chechnya and by Chechen people elsewhere.
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.
Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) is a digital library that provides free electronic copies of Christian scripture and literature texts.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries.
Cypriot Greek (κυπριακά) is the variety of Modern Greek that is spoken by the majority of the Cypriot populace and diaspora Greek Cypriots.
The Cyrillic script is an alphabetic writing system employed across Eastern Europe and north and central Asia.
Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.
Danish is a Scandinavian language related closely to Swedish and Norwegian, and more distantly to Icelandic and Faroese as well as to the other Germanic languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी devanāgarī a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī"), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal.
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch has a similar phonology or pronunciation to other West Germanic languages.
Eastern Armenian (arevelahayeren) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian.
Eastern Lombard is a group of related languages, spoken in eastern Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua, in the area around Crema and in a part of Trentino.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the orthography used in writing the English language, including English spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
Like many languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
Faroese (føroyskt) is a North Germanic language spoken as a native language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 28 letters.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in Häme Province in central south Finland.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
This article mainly discusses the phonological system of standard French based on the Parisian dialect.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Friesland (Fryslân) or Frisia is a province in the northwest of the Netherlands.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin).
Georgian (ქართული ენა tr. kartuli ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC.
Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
H-dropping or aitch-dropping is the deletion of the voiceless glottal fricative or "H sound",.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul in South Korea and elsewhere and as Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea and China, is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century.
The Hawaiian alphabet (in ka pīʻāpā Hawaiʻi) is an alphabet used to write Hawaiian.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
The phonological system of the Hawaiian language is based on documentation from those who developed the Hawaiian alphabet during the 1820s as well as scholarly research conducted by lexicographers and linguists from 1949 to present.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script, is used in the writing of the Hebrew language, as well as of other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic.
Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.
Hindi (हिन्दी hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (मानक हिन्दी mānak hindī), is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindustani is the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan, and through its two standardized registers, Hindi and Urdu, an official language of India and Pakistan.
Hmong (RPA: Hmoob) or Mong (RPA: Moob), known as First Vernacular Chuanqiandian Miao in China, is a dialect continuum of the West Hmongic branch of the Hmongic languages spoken by the Hmong people of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.
is a Japanese public multinational corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles and power equipment.
Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
Hungarian orthography (Hungarian: helyesírás, lit. ‘correct writing’) consists of rules defining the standard written form of the Hungarian language.
The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent use of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
This article deals with the phonology (i.e. the sound system) of Standard Japanese.
Jyutping, (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993.
Kabardian (Kabardian: адыгэбзэ or къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ or къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ or къэбэртай адыгабзэ or къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language, closely related to the Adyghe language.
are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan as kanji (漢字).
New!!: Voiceless glottal fricative and Kana ·
Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean. Korean has many allophones, so it is important here to distinguish morphophonemes (written inside vertical pipes) from corresponding phonemes (written inside slashes) and allophones (written inside brackets).
Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The Lao alphabet, Akson Lao (Lao: ອັກສອນລາວ), is the main script used to write the Lao language and other minority languages in Laos.
Lao or Laotian (ພາສາລາວ, BGN/PCGN: phasa lao) is a tonal language of the Tai–Kadai language family.
Leonese (llionés), in the narrow sense of this article, is a set of certain vernacular Romance dialects that are spoken in northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca), and in a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
Lezgian, also called Lezgi or Lezgin, is a language that belongs to the Lezgic languages.
Liège (Luik,; Lidje; Lüttich; Leodium) is a major city and a municipality in Belgium.
Limburg (Dutch and Limburgish: (Nederlands-)Limburg; Limbourg) is the southernmost of the 12 provinces of the Netherlands.
The modern Malay alphabet (in Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore, Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", in Indonesia, "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet without any diacritics.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu; Jawi script: بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family.
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
The Masa languages are a group of a dozen closely related Chadic languages of West Africa.
Modern Israeli Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.
Mutsun (also known as San Juan Bautista Costanoan) is an Utian language that was spoken in Northern California by the division of the Ohlone people who lived in the Mission San Juan Bautista area.
(also anglicized as Nastaleeq; in Persian) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Perso-Arabic script, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Native American language of the Athabaskan branch of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
Nuosu (or Nosu) (Nuosu: Pronunciation: Nuosuhxop), also known as Northern Yi, Liangshan Yi, and Sichuan Yi, is the prestige language of the Yi people; it has been chosen by the Chinese government as the standard Yi language (in Mandarin: Yí yǔ, 彝語/彝语) and, as such, is the only one taught in schools, both in its oral and written forms.
Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo, romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), is an early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.
The Persian alphabet or Perso-Arabic script is a writing system based on the Arabic script.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Persian language has six vowel phonemes and twenty-three consonant phonemes.
Phonetics (pronounced, from the φωνή, phōnē, 'sound, voice') is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Pirahã (also spelled Pirahá, Pirahán), or Múra-Pirahã, is the indigenous language of the isolated Pirahã people of Amazonas, Brazil.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
The Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary considerably between dialects, in extreme cases leading to difficulties in intelligibility.
The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; lit. Roman letter notation of national language) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, replacing the older McCune–Reischauer system.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: română, limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.
The romanization of Japanese is the application of the Latin script to write the Japanese language.
The Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA) or Hmong RPA (also Roman Popular Alphabet), is a system of romanization for the various dialects of the Hmong language.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language with four national standards.
Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
Speech is the vocalized form of human communication.
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish orthography is the system used to write the Swedish language.
Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD.
Thai script (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai language and other languages in Thailand.
Thai, also known precisely as Siamese or Central Thai, is the national and official language of Thailand and the native language of the Thai people and the vast majority of Thai Chinese.
The Turkish alphabet is an alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia.
A notable feature of Turkish phonology is a system of vowel harmony that causes vowels in most words to be either front or back and either rounded or unrounded.
The Tuscan dialect (dialetto toscano) is an Italo-Dalmatian lect mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
Ubykh or Ubyx is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).
Ubykh, a recently extinct Northwest Caucasian language, has the largest consonant inventory of all documented languages that do not use clicks, and also has the most disproportional ratio of phonemic consonants to vowels.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:;, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a standardised register of the Hindustani language.
New!!: Voiceless glottal fricative and Urdu ·
Val Camonica (also Valcamonica or Camonica Valley, in camunian dialect Al Camònega, poetic Camunia) is one of the largest valleys of the central Alps, in eastern Lombardy, about 90 km long.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally national language script) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of Vietnam and is the national and official language of the country.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
The voiceless nasal glottal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, a nasal approximant, used in some oral languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English "ah!" or "oh!", pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London.
The Yi script (Yi: ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma) is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi language; Classical Yi, an ideogram script, the later Yi Syllabary.