167 relations: Abaza language, Adyghe language, Afrikaans, Afrikaans phonology, Aleut language, Allophone, Ancient Greek, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Art, Assamese alphabet, Assamese language, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Avar language, Azerbaijani alphabet, Azerbaijani language, Ḥ, Basque language, Brazilian Portuguese, Breton language, Bulgarian alphabet, Bulgarian language, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Close vowel, Consonant, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Devanagari, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, Ejective consonant, English language, English orthography, English phonology, Esperanto, Esperanto orthography, Esperanto phonology, Eyak language, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, Finnish phonology, French language, French orthography, French phonology, Gaj's Latin alphabet, ..., Georgian language, Georgian scripts, German language, German orthography, Germanic languages, Grammatical gender, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Grimm's law, Gurmukhī alphabet, Guttural, Hangul, Hebrew alphabet, Hindustani language, Hindustani phonology, Hungarian language, Hungarian orthography, Hungarian phonology, Index of phonetics articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, Irish language, Irish orthography, Irish phonology, Kabardian language, Korean language, Korean phonology, Labialization, Language, Lenition, Limburgish language, Linguistic reconstruction, Lithuanian language, Loch, Lojban, Macedonian alphabet, Macedonian language, Macedonian phonology, Malay language, Mandarin Chinese, Manx language, Modern Greek, Modern Greek phonology, Nastaʿlīq script, Nuosu language, Ohrid, Old English, Palatalization (phonetics), Persian alphabet, Persian language, Persian phonology, Phonological history of English fricatives and affricates, Pinyin, Polish language, Polish orthography, Polish phonology, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Punjabi language, Revised Romanization of Korean, Rio de Janeiro (state), Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Romanization of Bulgarian, Romanization of Greek, Romanization of Macedonian, Romanization of Russian, Russian language, Russian orthography, Russian phonology, Scottish English, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic orthography, Scottish Gaelic phonology, Scouse, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbo-Croatian, Serbo-Croatian phonology, Slovak language, Slovak orthography, Somali language, Somali phonology, Sound change, South Swedish dialects, Spain, Spanish language, Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Speech, Standard Chinese, Standard German phonology, Swedish language, Swedish orthography, Swedish phonology, Tilquiapan Zapotec, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian phonology, Uzbek language, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Voiceless glottal fricative, Voiceless palatal fricative, Voiceless uvular fricative, Weert dialect, West Frisian language, Xhosa language, Yaghan language, Yi script, Yiddish language, Yiddish phonology, Zapotec languages. Expand index (117 more) » « Shrink index
The Abaza language (абаза бызшва, abaza byzšwa; абазэбзэ) is a language of the Caucasus mountains in the Russian Karachay–Cherkess Republic spoken by the Abazins.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгaбзэ, adyghabze), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian.
Afrikaans is one of the official languages of South Africa.
Afrikaans has a similar phonology to other West Germanic languages, especially Dutch.
Aleut (Unangam Tunuu), also known as Unangan, is a language of the Eskimo–Aleut language family.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
New!!: Voiceless velar fricative and Arabic ·
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities, usually involving imaginative or technical skill.
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The Assamese script) is a writing system of the Assamese language. It used to be the script of choice in the Brahmaputra valley for Sanskrit as well as other languages such as Bodo (now Devanagari), Khasi (now Roman), Mising (now Roman) etc. The current form of the script has seen continuous development from the 5th-century Umachal/Nagajari-Khanikargaon rock inscriptions written in an eastern variety of the Gupta script, adopting significant traits from the Siddhaṃ script along the way. By the 17th century three styles of Assamese script could be identified (baminiya, kaitheli and garhgaya) that converged to the standard script following typesetting required for printing. The present standard is identical to the Bengali alphabet except for three letters. The Buranjis were written during the Ahom dynasty in the Assamese language using the Assamese alphabet. In the 14th century Madhava Kandali used Assamese script to compose the famous Saptakanda Ramayana, which is the first translation of Ramayana in a regional Indian language after Valmiki's Ramayana in Sanskrit. Later, Sankardev used it in the 15th and 16th centuries to compose his oeuvre in Assamese and Brajavali dialect, the literary language of the bhakti poems (borgeets) and dramas. The Ahom king Supangmung, (1663–1670) was the first ruler who started issuing Assamese coins for his kingdom. A similar script with minor differences is used to write Maithili, Bengali, Meithei and Sylheti.
Assamese or Asamiya (অসমীয়া Ôxômiya) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language used mainly in the state of Assam, where it is an official language.
Avar (self-designation магӏарул мацӏ maharul macʼ "language of the mountains" or Авар мацӏ awar macʼ "Avar language") is a language that belongs to the Avar–Andic group of the Northeast Caucasian family.
The Azerbaijani alphabet of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a Latin alphabet used for writing the Azerbaijani language.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, sometimes referred to as Azerbaijani Turkish or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijani people, who are concentrated mainly in the South Caucasus geographical region.
(minuscule) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from H with the addition of a dot diacritic.
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Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or Português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany (Breton: Breizh; Bretagne), France.
The Bulgarian alphabet is used to write the Bulgarian language.
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.
Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel, is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Cyrillic script is an alphabetic writing system employed across Eastern Europe and north and central Asia.
Czech (čeština), formerly known as Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language spoken by over 10 million people.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
Devanagari (देवनागरी devanāgarī a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī"), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal.
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch has a similar phonology or pronunciation to other West Germanic languages.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the orthography used in writing the English language, including English spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
Like many languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Esperanto is written in a Latin alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
The creator of Esperanto, L. L. Zamenhof, illustrated Esperanto pronunciation by comparing its letters with their equivalents in several major European languages and declaring a principle of "one letter, one sound".
Eyak is an extinct Na-Dené language historically spoken by the Eyak people, indigenous to south-central Alaska, near the mouth of the Copper River.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 28 letters.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in Häme Province in central south Finland.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
This article mainly discusses the phonological system of standard French based on the Parisian dialect.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin).
Georgian (ქართული ენა tr. kartuli ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun-class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, or verbs.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC.
Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
Grimm's Law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule), named after Jakob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
Gurmukhi is an alphabetic abugida developed from the Laṇḍā scripts and was standardised during the 16th century by Guru Angad, the second guru of Sikhism.
Guttural speech sounds are those with a primary place of articulation near the back of the oral cavity.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul in South Korea and elsewhere and as Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea and China, is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century.
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The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script, is used in the writing of the Hebrew language, as well as of other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ||lit.
Hindustani is the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan, and through its two standardized registers, Hindi and Urdu, an official language of India and Pakistan.
Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
Hungarian orthography (Hungarian: helyesírás, lit. ‘correct writing’) consists of rules defining the standard written form of the Hungarian language.
The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent use of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
Irish (Gaeilge), sometimes referred to as Gaelic or Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.
The phonology of the Irish language varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of Irish.
Kabardian (Kabardian: адыгэбзэ or къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ or къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ or къэбэртай адыгабзэ or къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language, closely related to the Adyghe language.
Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean. Korean has many allophones, so it is important here to distinguish morphophonemes (written inside vertical pipes) from corresponding phonemes (written inside slashes) and allophones (written inside brackets).
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous (vowel-like).
Limburgish, also called Limburgian or Limburgic (Limburgish: Limburgs Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois), is a group of East Low Franconian language varieties spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, along the Dutch–Belgian–German border.
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union.
Loch, is the Irish and Scottish Gaelic word for a lake and a sea inlet.
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Lojban (pronounced) is a constructed, syntactically unambiguous human language based on predicate logic, succeeding the Loglan project.
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The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
Macedonian (македонски јазик, makedonski jazik) is a South Slavic language, spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
This article discusses the phonological system of Standard Macedonian (unless otherwise noted) based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu; Jawi script: بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Modern Greek (νέα ελληνικά or νεοελληνική γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
This article deals with the phonology and phonetics of Standard Modern Greek.
(also anglicized as Nastaleeq; in Persian) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Perso-Arabic script, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.
Nuosu (or Nosu) (Nuosu: Pronunciation: Nuosuhxop), also known as Northern Yi, Liangshan Yi, and Sichuan Yi, is the prestige language of the Yi people; it has been chosen by the Chinese government as the standard Yi language (in Mandarin: Yí yǔ, 彝語/彝语) and, as such, is the only one taught in schools, both in its oral and written forms.
Ohrid (Охрид) is a city in the Republic of Macedonia and the seat of Ohrid Municipality.
New!!: Voiceless velar fricative and Ohrid ·
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
In linguistics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
The Persian alphabet or Perso-Arabic script is a writing system based on the Arabic script.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Persian language has six vowel phonemes and twenty-three consonant phonemes.
The phonological history of English fricatives and affricates is part of the phonological history of the English language in terms of changes in the phonology of fricative and affricate consonants.
Pinyin, or Hanyu Pinyin, is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in China, Taiwan, and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and a pinyin without diacritic markers is often used in foreign publications to spell Chinese names familiar to non-Chinese and may be used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers. The Hanyu Pinyin system was developed in the 1950s based on earlier forms of romanization. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone rather than for educational and computer input purposes. The word Hànyǔ means the spoken language of the Han people and pīnyīn literally means "spelled-out sounds".
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Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
The Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary considerably between dialects, in extreme cases leading to difficulties in intelligibility.
Proto-Germanic (PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages.
Punjabi (Shahmukhi: پنجابی; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 130 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 9th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; lit. Roman letter notation of national language) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, replacing the older McCune–Reischauer system.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 states of Brazil.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: română, limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.
Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet.
Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
Romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin alphabet.
Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian orthography (p) is formally considered to encompass spelling (p) and punctuation (p).
This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian based on the Moscow dialect (unless otherwise noted).
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic (Gàidhlig), is a Celtic language native to Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic orthography has evolved over many centuries.
This article is about the phonology of the Scottish Gaelic language.
Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.
New!!: Voiceless velar fricative and Scouse ·
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language with four national standards.
Slovak (slovenský jazyk,; slovenčina; not to be confused with slovenski jezik or slovenščina, the native names of the Slovene language) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, Silesian, Kashubian, and Sorbian).
Slovak orthography uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language, belonging to that family's Cushitic branch.
This article describes the phonology of the Somali language.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
South Swedish dialects (Swedish: sydsvenska mål) is one of the main dialect groups of Swedish.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
New!!: Voiceless velar fricative and Spain ·
Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
Spanish language in the Americas refers to the Spanish language spoken in the Americas, as opposed to Peninsular Spanish and Spanish spoken elsewhere, such as in Africa and Asia.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
Speech is the vocalized form of human communication.
New!!: Voiceless velar fricative and Speech ·
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin and Putonghua, sometimes simply referred to as "Mandarin", is a standard language that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish orthography is the system used to write the Swedish language.
Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.
Tilquiapan Zapotec (Zapoteco de San Miguel Tilquiápam) is an Oto-Manguean language of the Zapotecan branch, spoken in southern Oaxaca, Mexico.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
This article deals with the phonology of the standard Ukrainian language.
Uzbek is a Turkic language and the official language of Uzbekistan.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally national language script) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of Vietnam and is the national and official language of the country.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Weert dialect or Weert Limburgish (natively Wieërts, Standard Dutch: Weerts) is the city dialect and variant of Limburgish spoken in the Dutch city of Weert alongside the Dutch language (with which it is not mutually intelligible).
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
The Xhosa language (or; Xhosa: isiXhosa) is one of the official languages of South Africa.
Yagán (originally Yahgan, but also now spelled Yaghan, Jagan, Iakan), also known as Yámana and Háusi Kúta, is one of the indigenous languages of Tierra del Fuego, spoken by the Yagán people.
The Yi script (Yi: ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma) is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi language; Classical Yi, an ideogram script, the later Yi Syllabary.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, literally "Jewish"; in older sources also "Yiddish-Taitsh" (Judaeo-German)) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
There is significant phonological variation among the various dialects of the Yiddish language.
The Zapotec languages are a group of closely related indigenous Mesoamerican languages that constitute a main branch of the Oto-Manguean language family and which is spoken by the Zapotec people from the southwestern-central highlands of Mexico.