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Index Voltaire

François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state. [1]

301 relations: A few acres of snow, Aachen, Abbé, Abrahamic religions, Absolute monarchy, Adam and Eve, Adam Smith, Adenes Le Roi, Age of Enlightenment, Airvault, Alexander Pope, Anagram, Ancien Régime, André Grétry, Animal rights, Annals of the Empire, Anti-Judaism, Anti-Machiavel, Aristocracy, Arthur Hertzberg, Émilie du Châtelet, Baron d'Holbach, Barthélemy d'Herbelot, Bastille, Best of all possible worlds, Bible, Bibliography, Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum quos Unitarios vocant, Book burning, Boulevard Voltaire, Bourgeoisie, Burlesque, Cabaret Voltaire (band), Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich), Caen, Calais, Candide, Catherine Barton, Catherine the Great, Catholic Church, Cato Institute, César de Missy, Champagne (province), Charles Marie de La Condamine, Charles XII of Sweden, Charlottenburg Palace, Château, Chinese philosophy, Christianity, Christopher Hitchens, ..., Cirey-sur-Blaise, Civil and political rights, Classical liberalism, Claude Adrien Helvétius, Claude-Adrien Nonnotte, Colmar, Comédie-Française, Commentaires sur Corneille, Complete Works of Voltaire, Confucius, Constitutional monarchy, Cornu (horn), Court of Auditors (France), Covent Garden, Dada, David Strauss, Deimos (moon), Deism, Denis Diderot, Dennis Prager, Des singularités de la nature, Dictionary of National Biography, Dictionnaire philosophique, Dieppe, Discourse on Inequality, Doctor Akakia, Edict of Nantes, Edward Gibbon, Electorate of Saxony, Elements of the Philosophy of Newton, Emile, or On Education, Encyclopédie, Equestrian vaulting, Ernest Renan, Essai sur les mœurs et l'esprit des nations, Estates General (France), Evelyn Beatrice Hall, Everard Fawkener, Fausto Sozzini, Ferney-Voltaire, François-Jean de la Barre, France–Switzerland border, Francesco Algarotti, Francis Bacon, Frankfurt, Frederick the Great, Freedom of religion, Freedom of speech, Freemasonry, French alexandrine, French Guiana, French language, French livre, French nobility, French philosophy, French Revolution, Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, Friedrich Nietzsche, Geneva, George I of Great Britain, George Sale, German Academy of Sciences at Berlin, Giacomo Casanova, Gotha, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Guy Auguste de Rohan-Chabot, Hérode et Mariamne, Henri de Boulainvilliers, Henriade, Henry IV of France, Herman Boerhaave, Hermitage Museum, Hinduism, Historiography, History of Charles XII, Holland, Homer, Huguenots, Idées républicaines, Industrial music, Institut et Musée Voltaire, Isaac de Pinto, Isaac Newton, Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, James Boswell, Jean Calas, Jean François de Saint-Lambert, Jean-Baptiste Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jeremy Bentham, Joan of Arc, Johann Samuel König, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Gay, John Locke, John Lockman, John Milton, Jonathan Swift, Joseph Telushkin, Journal des sçavans, Joxe Azurmendi, Judaism, Julie, or the New Heloise, Karl Marx, Kassel, Kingdom of France, Kleve, Kuusankoski, L'Ingénu, L'Orphelin de la Chine, La princesse de Navarre, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Latin, Léon Poliakov, Le Mondain, Leipzig, Les Délices, Les Neuf Sœurs, Letters on the English, Limburg (Belgium), List of Cambridge Companions to Music, List of liberal theorists, List of minor planets: 5001–6000, List of monarchs of Prussia, Lord Byron, Lorraine, Louis Sala-Molins, Louis XV of France, Louis XVI of France, Lumières, Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Magi, Mahomet (play), Mainz, Mannheim, Marie Leszczyńska, Marie Louise Mignot, Martin Seymour-Smith, Mary Wollstonecraft, Max Müller, Metaphysics, Micromégas, Montesquieu, Moyland Castle, Nanine, Napoleon, National Assembly (France), National Library of Russia, Natural science, New France, Nicolas de Largillière, Normandy, Oedipus (Voltaire play), Optics, Optimism, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment, Panthéon, Paris, Pen name, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Peter Gay, Peter the Great, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philosophes, Philosophy, Philosophy of history, Pierre Bayle, Pierre Louis Maupertuis, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre-Paul Sirven, Plato's Dream, Poitou, Polemic, Political philosophy, Polygenism, Pope Benedict XIV, Pour le Mérite, Précis du siècle de Louis XV, Profile Books, Prose, Protestantism, Prussia, Psychological manipulation, Questions sur les Miracles, Quran, Random House, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Reformation, Religious fanaticism, Renaissance, René Pomeau, Rhetoric, Richard Holmes (biographer), Right to a fair trial, Roger Pearson (literary scholar), Rouen, Routledge, SAGE Publications, Saint Petersburg, Sanssouci, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, Satire, Separation of church and state, Seven Years' War, Simon & Schuster, Smallpox, Society of Jesus, Socinianism, Socrates (Voltaire), Spring and Autumn period, Strasbourg, Superstition, Tartuffe, Temple (Paris), The 100 Most Influential Books Ever Written, The Age of Louis XIV, The Friends of Voltaire, The Hague, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The Maid of Orleans (poem), The Orphan of Zhao, Theodore Besterman, Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Paine, Toleration, Treatise of the Three Impostors, Treatise on Tolerance, University of Chicago, University of Oxford, Urs App, Vedas, Vegetarianism, Verlan, Victor Hugo, Virgil, Voltaire (crater), Voltaire Foundation, Volte-face, Wandsworth, War of the Austrian Succession, Western philosophy, Will Durant, Willem 's Gravesande, William Godwin, William Shakespeare, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Zaïre (play), Zadig. Expand index (251 more) »

A few acres of snow

"A few acres of snow" (in the original French, "quelques arpents de neige",, with "vers le Canada") is one of several quotations from Voltaire, the 18th-century writer, which are representative of his sneering evaluation of Canada as lacking economic value and strategic importance to 18th-century France.

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Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.

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Abbé (from Latin abbas, in turn from Greek ἀββᾶς, abbas, from Aramaic abba, a title of honour, literally meaning "the father, my father", emphatic state of abh, "father") is the French word for abbot.

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Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.

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Absolute monarchy

Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.

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Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Adenes Le Roi

Adenes le Roi (born in Brabant c. 1240, died c. 1300), was French minstrel or trouvère.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Airvault is a commune in the Deux-Sèvres department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.

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Alexander Pope

Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.

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An anagram is a word or phrase formed by rearranging the letters of a different word or phrase, typically using all the original letters exactly once.

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Ancien Régime

The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.

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André Grétry

André Ernest Modeste Grétry (baptised 11 February 1741; died 24 September 1813) was a composer from the Prince-Bishopric of Liège (present-day Belgium), who worked from 1767 onwards in France and took French nationality.

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Animal rights

Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.

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Annals of the Empire

Annals of the Empire (Annales de l’Empire) is a history of Germany written by the French philosopher and author Voltaire in 1753.

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Anti-Judaism is the "total or partial opposition to Judaism—and to Jews as adherents of it—by persons who accept a competing system of beliefs and practices and consider certain genuine Judaic beliefs and practices as inferior." Anti-Judaism, as a rejection of a particular way of thinking about God, is distinct from antisemitism, which is more akin to a form of racism.

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Anti-Machiavel is an 18th-century essay by Frederick the Great, King of Prussia and patron of Voltaire, consisting of a chapter-by-chapter rebuttal of The Prince, the 16th-century book by Niccolò Machiavelli, and Machiavellianism in general.

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Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.

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Arthur Hertzberg

Arthur Hertzberg (June 9, 1921 – April 17, 2006) was a Conservative rabbi and prominent Jewish-American scholar and activist.

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Émilie du Châtelet

Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Marquise Du Châtelet (17 December 1706 – 10 September 1749) was a French natural philosopher, mathematician, physicist, and author during the early 1730s until her untimely death due to childbirth in 1749.

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Baron d'Holbach

Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach, was a French-German author, philosopher, encyclopedist and prominent figure in the French Enlightenment.

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Barthélemy d'Herbelot

Barthélemy d'Herbelot de Molainville (14 December 16258 December 1695) was a French Orientalist.

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The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine.

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Best of all possible worlds

The phrase "the best of all possible worlds" (le meilleur des mondes possibles; Die beste aller möglichen Welten) was coined by the German polymath Gottfried Leibniz in his 1710 work Essais de Théodicée sur la bonté de Dieu, la liberté de l'homme et l'origine du mal (Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man and the Origin of Evil).

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Bibliography (from Greek βιβλίον biblion, "book" and -γραφία -graphia, "writing"), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek -λογία, -logia).

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Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum quos Unitarios vocant

The Bibliotheca Fratrum Polonorum quos Unitarios vocant or Library of the Polish Brethren called Unitarians 1668 (not 1656 as incorrectly listed in some catalogues) is a collection of writings of the Polish Brethren published by Frans Kuyper, Daniel Bakkamude, and Benedykt's father Andrzej Wiszowaty Sr. (d.1678) in Amsterdam, with Pieter van der Meersche in Leiden.

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Book burning

Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials, usually carried out in a public context.

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Boulevard Voltaire

Boulevard Voltaire is a well-known boulevard in the 11th arrondissement of Paris.

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The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.

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A burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects.

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Cabaret Voltaire (band)

Cabaret Voltaire are an English music group formed in Sheffield in 1973 and initially composed of Stephen Mallinder, Richard H. Kirk, and Chris Watson.

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Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich)

Cabaret Voltaire was the name of a artistic nightclub in Zürich, Switzerland.

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Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.

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Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.

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Candide, ou l'Optimisme, is a French satire first published in 1759 by Voltaire, a philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment.

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Catherine Barton

Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece, probable mistress of Charles Montagu and later, the wife of John Conduitt.

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Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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César de Missy

César de Missy (1703–1775), theologian, chaplain to George III, scholar of the New Testament, and book collector.

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Champagne (province)

Champagne is a historical province in the northeast of France, now best known as the Champagne wine region for the sparkling white wine that bears its name.

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Charles Marie de La Condamine

Charles Marie de La Condamine (28 January 1701 – 4 February 1774) was a French explorer, geographer, and mathematician.

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Charles XII of Sweden

Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.

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Charlottenburg Palace

Charlottenburg Palace (German: Schloss Charlottenburg) is the largest palace in Berlin, Germany.

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A château (plural châteaux; in both cases) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions.

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Chinese philosophy

Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christopher Hitchens

Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.

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Cirey-sur-Blaise is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Claude Adrien Helvétius

Claude Adrien Helvétius (26 January 1715 – 26 December 1771) was a French philosopher, freemason and littérateur.

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Claude-Adrien Nonnotte

Claude-Adrien Nonnotte (born in Besançon, 29 July 1711; died there, 3 September 1793) was a French Jesuit controversialist, best known for his writings against Voltaire.

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Colmar (Alsatian: Colmer; German during 1871–1918 and 1940–1945: Kolmar) is the third-largest commune of the Alsace region in north-eastern France.

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The Comédie-Française or Théâtre-Français is one of the few state theatres in France and is considered the oldest still-active theatre in the world.

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Commentaires sur Corneille

The Commentaires sur Corneille is a work of literary criticism by the French Enlightenment writer and philosopher Voltaire, collecting and analysing the dramatic works of Pierre Corneille (1608–1684).

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Complete Works of Voltaire

The Complete Works of Voltaire (Œuvres complètes de Voltaire) is the first critical edition of the totality of Voltaire’s writings (in the original French) arranged chronologically.

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Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Cornu (horn)

A cornu or cornum (cornū, cornūs or cornum, "horn", plural cornua, sometimes translated misleadingly as "cornet") was an ancient Roman brass instrument about long in the shape of a letter 'G'.

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Court of Auditors (France)

Under the French monarchy, the Courts of Accounts (in French Chambres des comptes) were sovereign courts specialising in financial affairs.

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Covent Garden

Covent Garden is a district in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane.

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Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916); New York Dada began circa 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris.

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David Strauss

David Friedrich Strauss (Strauß; January 27, 1808 in Ludwigsburg – February 8, 1874 in Ludwigsburg) was a German liberal Protestant theologian and writer, who influenced Christian Europe with his portrayal of the "historical Jesus", whose divine nature he denied.

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Deimos (moon)

Deimos (systematic designation: Mars II) is the smaller and outer of the two natural satellites of the planet Mars, the other being Phobos.

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Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.

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Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.

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Dennis Prager

Dennis Mark Prager (born 1948) is an American nationally syndicated conservative radio talk show host and writer.

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Des singularités de la nature

Des singularités de la nature is an essay on natural history by the French philosopher and author Voltaire, first published in 1768.

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Dictionary of National Biography

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.

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Dictionnaire philosophique

The Dictionnaire philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary) is an encyclopedic dictionary published by Voltaire in 1764.

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Dieppe is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.

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Discourse on Inequality

Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes), also commonly known as the "Second Discourse", is a work by philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

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Doctor Akakia

Doctor Akakia (French: Histoire du Docteur Akakia et du Natif de St Malo) is a satirical essay of a very biting nature by Voltaire, directed against pretentious pedants of science in the person of Maupertuis, the President of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin.

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Edict of Nantes

The Edict of Nantes (French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.

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Edward Gibbon

Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.

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Electorate of Saxony

The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.

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Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton (Éléments de la philosophie de Newton) is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton.

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Emile, or On Education

Emile, or On Education or Émile, or Treatise on Education (Émile, ou De l’éducation) is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who considered it to be the "best and most important" of all his writings.

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Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.

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Equestrian vaulting

Equestrian vaulting, or simply vaulting, is most often described as gymnastics and dance on horseback, which can be practiced both competitively or non-competitively.

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Ernest Renan

Joseph Ernest Renan (28 February 1823 – 2 October 1892) was a French expert of Semitic languages and civilizations (philology), philosopher, historian, and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany.

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Essai sur les mœurs et l'esprit des nations

Essai sur les mœurs et l'esprit des nations ("Essay on the Manners and Spirit of Nations") is a work by the French writer, historian, and philosopher Voltaire, published for the first time in 1756.

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Estates General (France)

In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General (French: États généraux) or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.

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Evelyn Beatrice Hall

Evelyn Beatrice Hall (28 September 1868 – 13 April 1956),Sources which date Hall's death to 1919, such as, are in error.

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Everard Fawkener

Sir Everard Fawkener (1694–1758) was an English merchant and diplomat.

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Fausto Sozzini

Fausto Paolo Sozzini, also known as Faustus Socinus or Faust Socyn (Polish) (5 December 1539 – 4 March 1604), was an Italian theologian and founder of the school of Christian thought known as Socinianism and the main theologian of the Minor Reformed Church of Poland.

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Ferney-Voltaire is a commune in the Ain department in eastern France.

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François-Jean de la Barre

François-Jean Lefebvre de la Barre (12 September 17451 July 1766) was a young French nobleman.

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France–Switzerland border

The France–Switzerland border (Grenze zwischen Frankreich und der Schweiz, Frontière entre la France et la Suisse, Confine tra la Francia e la Svizzera) is 572 km long.

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Francesco Algarotti

Count Francesco Algarotti (11 December 1712 – 3 May 1764) was an Venetian polymath, philosopher, poet, essayist, anglophile, art critic and art collector.

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Frederick the Great

Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.

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Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.

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French alexandrine

The French alexandrine (alexandrin) is a syllabic poetic meter of (nominally and typically) 12 syllables with a medial caesura dividing the line into two hemistichs (half-lines) of six syllables each.

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French Guiana

French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French livre

The livre (pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794.

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French nobility

The French nobility (la noblesse) was a privileged social class in France during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period to the revolution in 1790.

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French philosophy

French philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in the French language, has been extremely diverse and has influenced Western philosophy as a whole for centuries, from the medieval scholasticism of Peter Abelard, through the founding of modern philosophy by René Descartes, to 20th century philosophy of science, existentialism, phenomenology, structuralism, and postmodernism.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm

Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm (26 December 172319 December 1807) was a German-born French-language journalist, art critic, diplomat and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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George I of Great Britain

George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.

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George Sale

George Sale (1697, Canterbury, Kent, England – 1736, London, England) was an Orientalist and practising solicitor, best known for his 1734 translation of the Qur'an into English.

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German Academy of Sciences at Berlin

The German Academy of Sciences at Berlin (Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin) or AdW, later renamed the Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR), was the most important research institution of East Germany.

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Giacomo Casanova

Giacomo Girolamo Casanova (or; 2 April 1725 – 4 June 1798) was an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice.

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Gotha is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia, Germany, located west of Erfurt and east of Eisenach with a population of 44,000.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Guy Auguste de Rohan-Chabot

Guy Auguste de Rohan-Chabot known as the comte de Chabot (18 August 1683 – 13 September 1760), often referred to as Chevalier de Rohan, was a French nobleman most notable for an altercation with Voltaire.

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Hérode et Mariamne

Hérode et Mariamne or Mariamne is a 1724 tragedy by Voltaire.

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Henri de Boulainvilliers

Henri de Boulainvilliers (21 October 1658, Saint-Saire, Normandy – 23 January 1722, Paris) was a French nobleman, writer and historian.

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La Henriade is an epic poem of 1723 written by the French Enlightenment writer and philosopher Voltaire.

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Henry IV of France

Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.

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Herman Boerhaave

Herman Boerhaave (31 December 1668 – 23 September 1738)Underwood, E. Ashworth.

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Hermitage Museum

The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.

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History of Charles XII

History of Charles XII ("Histoire de Charles XII") is a historical work by the French historian, philosopher, and writer Voltaire about Charles XII, king of Sweden.

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Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.

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Idées républicaines

Idées républicaines (Republican ideas) is a political pamphlet by the French philosopher and author Voltaire.

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Industrial music

Industrial music is a fusion genre of electronic and experimental music which draws on harsh, transgressive or provocative sounds and themes.

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Institut et Musée Voltaire

The Institut et Musée Voltaire is a museum in Geneva dedicated to the life and works of Voltaire.

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Isaac de Pinto

Isaac de Pinto (Amsterdam, 10 April 1717 – 13 August 1787 in the Hague) was a Dutch Jew of Portuguese origin, a merchant/banker, one of the main investors in the Dutch East India Company, a scholar, philosophe and a pre-Keynesian, who concentrated on Jewish emancipation and National Debt.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet

Jacques-Bénigne Lignel Bossuet (27 September 1627 – 12 April 1704) was a French bishop and theologian, renowned for his sermons and other addresses.

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James Boswell

James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (29 October 1740 – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish biographer and diarist, born in Edinburgh.

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Jean Calas

Jean Calas (1698 – March 10, 1762) was a merchant living in Toulouse, France, who was tried, tortured and executed for the murder of his son, despite his protestations of innocence.

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Jean François de Saint-Lambert

Jean François de Saint-Lambert (26 December 1716 – 9 February 1803) was a French poet, philosopher and military officer.

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Jean-Baptiste Rousseau

Jean-Baptiste Rousseau (6 April 1671 – 17 March 1741) was a French playwright and poet, particularly noted for his cynical epigrams.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.

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Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.

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Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.

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Johann Samuel König

Johann Samuel König (July 31, 1712 in Büdingen – August 21, 1757 in Zuilenstein near Amerongen) was a mathematician.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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John Gay

John Gay (30 June 1685 – 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist and member of the Scriblerus Club.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John Lockman

John Lockman (1698–1771) was an English author.

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John Milton

John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.

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Jonathan Swift

Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.

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Joseph Telushkin

Joseph Telushkin (born 1948) is an American rabbi, lecturer, and bestselling author of more than 15 books, including volumes about Jewish ethics, Jewish literacy, and "Rebbe", a New York Times bestseller released in June 2014.

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Journal des sçavans

The Journal des sçavans (later renamed Journal des savants), established by Denis de Sallo, was the earliest academic journal published in Europe.

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Joxe Azurmendi

Joxe Azurmendi Otaegi (born 19 March 1941) is a Basque writer, philosopher, essayist and poet.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Julie, or the New Heloise

Julie, or the New Heloise (Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse) is an epistolary novel by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, published in 1761 by Marc-Michel Rey in Amsterdam.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.

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Kingdom of France

The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.

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Cleves (Kleve; Kleef; Clèves; Clivia) is a town in the Lower Rhine region of northwestern Germany near the Dutch border and the river Rhine.

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Kuusankoski is a neighborhood of city of Kouvola, former industrial town and municipality of Finland, located in the region of Kymenlaakso in the province of Southern Finland.

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L'Ingénu is a satirical novella by the French writer Voltaire, published in 1767.

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L'Orphelin de la Chine

L'Orphelin de la Chine (The Orphan of China) is a 1753 French play by Voltaire based on The Orphan of Zhao, a thirteenth-century Chinese play attributed to Ji Junxiang.

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La princesse de Navarre

La princesse de Navarre (The Princess of Navarre) is a comédie-ballet with music by Jean-Philippe Rameau and words by Voltaire, first performed on 23 February 1745 at La Grande Ecurie, Versailles.

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Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (baptised 26 May 1689 – 21 August 1762) (née Pierrepont) was an English aristocrat, letter writer and poet.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Léon Poliakov

Léon Poliakov (Лев Поляков; 25 November 1910, Saint Petersburg – 8 December 1997, Orsay) writer of "The Aryan Myth" was a French historian who wrote extensively on the Holocaust and antisemitism.

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Le Mondain

Le Mondain (The Worldling or The Man of the World) is a philosophical poem written by French enlightenment writer and philosopher Voltaire in 1736.

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Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.

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Les Délices

Les Délices, or "The Delights", was from 1755-1760 the home of the French philosopher Voltaire (1694-1778) in Geneva, Switzerland.

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Les Neuf Sœurs

La Loge des Neuf Sœurs (The Nine Sisters), established in Paris in 1776, was a prominent French Masonic Lodge of the Grand Orient de France that was influential in organising French support for the American Revolution.

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Letters on the English

Letters on the English (or Letters Concerning the English Nation; French: Lettres philosophiques) is a series of essays written by Voltaire based on his experiences living in England between 1726 and 1729 (though from 1707 the country was part of the Kingdom of Great Britain).

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Limburg (Belgium)

Limburg (Dutch and Limburgish: Limburg; Limbourg) is a province in Belgium.

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List of Cambridge Companions to Music

The Cambridge Companions to Music form a book series published by Cambridge University Press.

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List of liberal theorists

Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment.

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List of minor planets: 5001–6000

#fefefe | 5390 Huichiming || || December 19, 1981 || Nanking || Purple Mountain Obs.

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List of monarchs of Prussia

The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the hereditary rulers of the former German state of Prussia from its founding in 1525 as the Duchy of Prussia.

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Lord Byron

George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.

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Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.

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Louis Sala-Molins

Louis Sala-Molins (born 1935) is an essayist and political philosophy professor at Paris-I and Toulouse-II universities.

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Louis XV of France

Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.

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Louis XVI of France

Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.

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The Lumières (literally in English: Enlighteners) was a cultural, philosophical, literary and intellectual movement of the second half of the 18th century, originating in France and spreading throughout Europe.

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Lycée Louis-le-Grand

The Lycée Louis-le-Grand is a prestigious secondary school located in Paris.

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Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.

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Mahomet (play)

Mahomet (Le fanatisme, ou Mahomet le Prophète, literally Fanaticism, or Mahomet the Prophet) is a five-act tragedy written in 1736 by French playwright and philosopher Voltaire.

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Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.

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Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.

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Marie Leszczyńska

Maria Karolina Zofia Felicja Leszczyńska (23 June 1703 – 24 June 1768) also known as Marie Leczinska, was a Polish noblewoman and French Queen consort.

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Marie Louise Mignot

Marie Louise Mignot (1712–1790) was a French literary figure.

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Martin Seymour-Smith

Martin Roger Seymour-Smith (24 April 1928 – 1 July 1998) was a British poet, literary critic, biographer and astrologer.

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Mary Wollstonecraft

Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.

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Max Müller

Friedrich Max Müller (6 December 1823 – 28 October 1900), generally known as Max Müller, was a German-born philologist and Orientalist, who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Micromégas is a 1752 novella by the French philosopher and satirist Voltaire.

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Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.

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Moyland Castle

Moyland Castle (Schloss Moyland) is a moated castle in Bedburg-Hau in the district of Kleve, one of the most important neo-Gothic buildings in North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Nanine is a 1749 play by the French writer Voltaire.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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National Assembly (France)

The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).

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National Library of Russia

The National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg (known as the Imperial Public Library from 1795 to 1917; Russian Public Library from 1917 to 1925; State Public Library from 1925 to 1992 (since 1932 named after M.Saltykov-Shchedrin); NLR), is not only the oldest public library in the nation, but also the first national library in the country.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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New France

New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.

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Nicolas de Largillière

Nicolas de Largillière (10 October 1656 – 20 March 1746) was a painter born in Paris, France.

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Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.

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Oedipus (Voltaire play)

Oedipus (Œdipe) is a tragedy by the French dramatist and philosopher Voltaire that was first performed in 1718.

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Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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Optimism is a mental attitude reflecting a belief or hope that the outcome of some specific endeavor, or outcomes in general, will be positive, favorable, and desirable.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment

Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment is a monographic series which has been published since 1955.

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The Panthéon (pantheon, from Greek πάνθειον (ἱερόν) '(temple) to all the gods') is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Pen name

A pen name (nom de plume, or literary double) is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed on the title page or by-line of their works in place of their "real" name.

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Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.

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Peter Gay

Peter Gay (born Peter Joachim Fröhlich; June 20, 1923 – May 12, 2015) was a German-American historian, educator and author.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

Philippe II, Duke of Orléans (Philippe Charles; 2 August 1674 – 2 December 1723), was a member of the royal family of France and served as Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723.

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The philosophes (French for "philosophers") were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy of history

Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.

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Pierre Bayle

Pierre Bayle (18 November 1647 – 28 December 1706) was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1697.

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Pierre Louis Maupertuis

Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698 – 27 July 1759) was a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters.

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Pierre Teilhard de Chardin

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1 May 1881 – 10 April 1955) was a French idealist philosopher and Jesuit priest who trained as a paleontologist and geologist and took part in the discovery of Peking Man.

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Pierre-Paul Sirven

Pierre-Paul Sirven (1709–1777) is one of Voltaire's causes célèbres in his campaign to écraser l'infame (crush infamy).

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Plato's Dream

"Plato's Dream" (1756) is a short story written in the 18th century by the French philosopher and satirist Voltaire.

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Poitou, in Poitevin: Poetou, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.

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A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.

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Political philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

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Polygenism is a theory of human origins which posits the view that the human races are of different origins (polygenesis).

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Pope Benedict XIV

Pope Benedict XIV (Benedictus XIV; 31 March 1675 – 3 May 1758), born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, served as the Pope of the Catholic Church from 17 August 1740 to his death in 1758.

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Pour le Mérite

The Pour le Mérite (French, literally "For Merit") is an order of merit (Verdienstorden) established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia.

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Précis du siècle de Louis XV

Précis du siècle de Louis XV (Short history of the Age of Louis XV) is a historical work by the French philosopher and author Voltaire, first published in its own right 1768.

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Profile Books

Profile Books is a British independent book publishing firm founded in 1996.

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Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Psychological manipulation

Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through abusive, deceptive, or underhanded tactics.

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Questions sur les Miracles

Questions sur les Miracles, also known as Lettres sur les Miracles (Questions/Letters on miracles) is a publication by the French philosopher and author Voltaire, written in 1765 and first published as a series of imagined letters by various people.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Religious fanaticism

Religious fanaticism is uncritical zeal or with an obsessive enthusiasm related to one's own, or one's group's, devotion to a religion – a form of human fanaticism which could otherwise be expressed in one's other involvements and participation, including employment, role, and partisan affinities.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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René Pomeau

René Pomeau (20 February 1917 in Beautiran – 26 February 2000 in Clamart) was an eminent French scholar of eighteenth-century French literature generally recognised as one of the most expert authority on Voltaire by the time of his death in 2000.

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Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Richard Holmes (biographer)

Richard Gordon Heath Holmes, OBE, FRSL, FBA (born 5 November 1945) is a British author and academic best known for his biographical studies of major figures of British and French Romanticism.

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Right to a fair trial

A trial which is observed by trial judge or by jury without being partial is a fair trial.

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Roger Pearson (literary scholar)

Roger Pearson is a professor of French at the University of Oxford and a fellow of The Queen's College, Oxford.

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Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Sanssouci is the summer palace of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, in Potsdam, near Berlin.

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Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough

Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough (née Jenyns, spelt Jennings in most modern references; 5 June 1660 (Old Style) – 18 October 1744) rose to be one of the most influential women of her time through her close friendship with Queen Anne of Great Britain.

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Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.

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Separation of church and state

The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.

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Seven Years' War

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Fausto Sozzini (Latin: Faustus Socinus), which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 16th and 17th centuries and embraced by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period.

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Socrates (Voltaire)

Socrates is a 1759 French play in three acts written by Voltaire.

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Spring and Autumn period

The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.

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Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.

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Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.

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Tartuffe, or The Impostor, or The Hypocrite (Tartuffe, ou l'Imposteur), first performed in 1664, is one of the most famous theatrical comedies by Molière.

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Temple (Paris)

The Square du Temple is a garden in Paris, France in the 3rd arrondissement, established in 1857.

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The 100 Most Influential Books Ever Written

The 100 Most Influential Books Ever Written: The History of Thought from Ancient Times to Today (1998) is a book of intellectual history written by Martin Seymour-Smith, a British poet, critic, and biographer.

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The Age of Louis XIV

The Age of Louis XIV ("Le Siècle de Louis XIV", also translated The Century of Louis XIV) is a historical work by the French historian, philosopher, and writer Voltaire, first published in 1751.

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The Friends of Voltaire

The Friends of Voltaire, written by Evelyn Beatrice Hall under the pseudonym S. G. Tallentyre, was published in 1906.

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The Hague

The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.

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The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon.

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The Maid of Orleans (poem)

The Maid of Orleans (La Pucelle d'Orléans) is a satirical poem by François-Marie Arouet, better known by his pen name, Voltaire.

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The Orphan of Zhao

The Orphan of Zhao is a Chinese play from the Yuan era, attributed to the 13th-century dramatist Ji Junxiang (紀君祥).

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Theodore Besterman

Theodore Deodatus Nathaniel Besterman (22 November 1904 – 10 November 1976) was a psychical researcher, bibliographer, biographer, and translator.

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Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally

Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally, baron de Tollendal (13 January 1702 – 9 May 1766) was a French general of Irish Jacobite ancestry.

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Thomas Babington Macaulay

Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician.

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Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.

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Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.

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Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.

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Treatise of the Three Impostors

The Treatise of the Three Impostors (De Tribus Impostoribus) is a book denying all three Abrahamic religions: Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.

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Treatise on Tolerance

The Treatise on Tolerance on the Occasion of the Death of Jean Calas from the Judgment Rendered in Toulouse (Pieces Originales Concernant la Mort des Sieurs Calas det le Jugement rendu a Toulouse) is a work by French philosopher Voltaire, published in 1763, in which he calls for tolerance between religions, and targets religious fanaticism, especially that of the Jesuits (under whom Voltaire received his early education), indicting all superstitions surrounding religions.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Urs App

Urs App (born 1949 in Rorschach, Switzerland) is a historian of ideas, religions, and philosophies with a special interest in the history and modes of interaction between East and West.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.

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Verlan is an argot in the French language, featuring inversion of syllables in a word, and is common in slang and youth language.

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Victor Hugo

Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.

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Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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Voltaire (crater)

Voltaire is an impact crater on Mars's moon Deimos and is approximately across.

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Voltaire Foundation

The Voltaire Foundation is a research department of the University of Oxford founded by Theodore Besterman in the 1970s.

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Volte-face is a total change of position, as in policy or opinion; an about-face.

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Wandsworth Town is a district of south London within the London Borough of Wandsworth.

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War of the Austrian Succession

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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Will Durant

William James "Will" Durant (November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher.

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Willem 's Gravesande

Willem Jacob 's Gravesande (26 September 1688 – 28 February 1742) was a Dutch mathematician and natural philosopher, chiefly remembered for developing experimental demonstrations of the laws of classical mechanics.

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William Godwin

William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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Zaïre (play)

Zaïre (The Tragedy of Zara) is a five-act tragedy in verse by Voltaire.

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Zadig ou la Destinée (Zadig, or The Book of Fate; 1747) is a novella and work of philosophical fiction by the Enlightenment writer Voltaire.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltaire

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