179 relations: Abdomen, Acetylcholine receptor, Achaemenid Empire, Acid, Acid erosion, Acute abdomen, Adrenal insufficiency, Adverse effect, Alcohol, Alcohol intoxication, Alcoholic drink, Alkaline tide, Amazon basin, Ancient Greece, Anesthesia, Angular incisure, Anorexia nervosa, Antiemetic, Anxiety, Appendicitis, Area postrema, Asphyxia, Aspiration pneumonia, Asthma, Ayahuasca, Bile, Binge drinking, Blood, Blood–brain barrier, Bowel obstruction, Brain tumor, Bulimia nervosa, Cachexia, Calcium in biology, Cancer and nausea, Central nervous system, Ceremony, Chemoreceptor trigger zone, Chemotherapy, Chloride, Cholecystitis, Circumventricular organs, Coeliac disease, Coffee ground vomiting, Concussion, Copper(II) sulfate, Cough, Cyclic vomiting syndrome, Dehydration, Depression (mood), ..., Differential diagnosis, Digestive enzyme, Disgust, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor, Duodenum, Eating disorder, Emetophilia, Emetophobia, Enteric nervous system, Entheogen, Esophagus, Ethanol, Evolution, Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Fistula, Foodborne illness, Fourth ventricle, Gastric acid, Gastritis, Gastroenteritis, Gastroenterology, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gastrointestinal tract, Glottis, Gums, Hangover, Headache, Hematemesis, Hepatitis, Herodotus, Hiccup, Histamine, Histamine receptor, Human nose, Hydrocephalus, Hydrogen peroxide, Hypercalcaemia, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Hyperglycemia, Hypochloremia, Hypoglycemia, Hypokalemia, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Ileus, Indigenous peoples, Inhalation, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Intracranial pressure, Intravenous therapy, Ionizing radiation, Iron, Kidney, Kidney failure, Lactose intolerance, Mallory–Weiss syndrome, Mass hysteria, Ménière's disease, Medication, Merck & Co., Metabolic acidosis, Metabolic alkalosis, Migraine, Morning sickness, Motion sickness, Mouth, Mr Creosote, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Mustard seed, Myocardial infarction, Nausea, Neurotransmitter, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Norovirus, Odor, Opioid, Opioid receptor, Overeating, Pancreatitis, Parasitism, Parasympathetic nervous system, Peritonitis, Peyote, PH, Pharyngeal reflex, Pharynx, Poison, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Potassium, Primate, Pulmonary aspiration, Purging disorder, Pyloric stenosis, Pylorus, Quadroni of St. Charles, Redox, Regurgitation (digestion), Respiratory tract, Retching, Retroperistalsis, Rumination syndrome, Saliva, Salt, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Sensory nervous system, Sequela, Serotonin, Sickness bag, Small intestine, Somatic (biology), Stand by Me (film), Stomach, Substance P, Surgery, Swine influenza, Sympathetic nervous system, Syrup of ipecac, Tachykinin peptides, The Scotsman, Tooth enamel, University of Salford, Urea, Uremia, Vagus nerve, Vasopressin, Vestibular system, Vestibulocochlear nerve, Vomiting, 5-HT receptor. Expand index (129 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid erosion, also known as dental erosion, is a type of tooth wear.
An acute abdomen refers to a sudden, severe abdominal pain.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Alkaline tide refers to a condition, normally encountered after eating a meal, where during the production of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells in the stomach, the parietal cells secrete bicarbonate ions across their basolateral membranes and into the blood, causing a temporary increase in pH.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
The angular incisure (or angular notch) is a small anatomical notch on the stomach.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth entering the lungs.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Ayahuasca, iowaska, or yagé, is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bowel obstruction, also known as intestinal obstruction, is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, is loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and significant loss of appetite in someone who is not actively trying to lose weight.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
Cancer and nausea are associated in about fifty percent of people affected by cancer.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A ceremony is an event of ritual significance, performed on a special occasion.
The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder.
Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are structures in the brain characterized by their extensive vasculature and highly permeable capillaries unlike those in the rest of the brain where there exists a blood brain barrier (BBB).
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Coffee ground vomitus refers to a particular appearance of vomit.
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.
Copper(II) sulfate, also known as cupric sulfate, or copper sulphate, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (US English) or cyclical vomiting syndrome (UK English) (CVS) is a chronic functional condition of unknown cause characterised by recurring attacks of intense nausea, vomiting, and sometimes abdominal pain, headaches, or migraines.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
Disgust is an emotional response of revulsion to something considered offensive, distasteful, or unpleasant.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
Emetophilia is the sexual arousal from vomiting, or watching others vomit.
Emetophobia is a phobia that causes overwhelming, intense anxiety pertaining to vomiting.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of gastroenterology and hepatology.
A fistula is an abnormal connection between two hollow spaces (technically, two epithelialized surfaces), such as blood vessels, intestines, or other hollow organs.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds (the rima glottidis).
The gums or gingiva (plural: gingivae), consist of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth.
A hangover is the experience of various unpleasant physiological and psychological effects following the consumption of alcohol, such as wine, beer and distilled spirits.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of blood.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
A hiccup (also spelled hiccough) is an involuntary contraction (myoclonic jerk) of the diaphragm that may repeat several times per minute.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
The histamine receptors are a class of G protein–coupled receptors which bind histamine as their primary endogenous ligand.
The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly dehydration.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hypochloremia (or Hypochloraemia) is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally low level of the chloride ion in the blood.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.
Mallory–Weiss syndrome or gastro-esophageal laceration syndrome refers to bleeding from a laceration in the mucosa at the junction of the stomach and esophagus.
In sociology and psychology, mass hysteria (also known as collective hysteria, group hysteria, or collective obsessional behavior) is a phenomenon that transmits collective illusions of threats, whether real or imaginary, through a population in society as a result of rumors and fear (memory acknowledgement).
Ménière's disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear that is characterized by episodes of feeling like the world is spinning (vertigo), ringing in the ears (tinnitus), hearing loss, and a fullness in the ear.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Merck & Company, Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.
Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.
Metabolic alkalosis is a metabolic condition in which the pH of tissue is elevated beyond the normal range (7.35–7.45).
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Morning sickness, also called nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), is a symptom of pregnancy that involves nausea or vomiting.
Motion sickness is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis.
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.
Overeating is the excess food in relation to the energy that an organism expends (or expels via excretion), leading to weight gaining and often obesity.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum, the lining of the inner wall of the abdomen and cover of the abdominal organs.
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
The pharyngeal reflex or gag reflex (also known as a laryngeal spasm) is a reflex contraction of the back of the throat, evoked by touching the roof of the mouth, the back of the tongue, the area around the tonsils, the uvula, and the back of the throat.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is an unpleasant complication affecting about a third of the 10% of the population undergoing general anaesthesia each year.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Pulmonary aspiration is the entry of material (such as pharyngeal secretions, food or drink, or stomach contents) from the oropharynx or gastrointestinal tract into the larynx (voice box) and lower respiratory tract (the portions of the respiratory system from the trachea—i.e., windpipe—to the lungs).
Purging disorder is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent purging (self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas) to control weight or shape in the absence of binge eating episodes.
Pyloric stenosis is a narrowing of the opening from the stomach to the first part of the small intestine (the pylorus).
The pylorus, or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum.
The Quadroni of St.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Regurgitation is the expulsion of material from the pharynx, or esophagus, usually characterized by the presence of undigested food or blood.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Retching (also known as dry heaving) is the reverse movement (retroperistalsis) of the stomach and esophagus without vomiting.
Retroperistalsis is the reverse of the involuntary smooth muscle contractions of peristalsis.
Rumination syndrome, or Merycism, is an under-diagnosed chronic motility disorder characterized by effortless regurgitation of most meals following consumption, due to the involuntary contraction of the muscles around the abdomen.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A sickness bag (also known as a sick sack, airsick bag, airsickness bag, emesis bag, sick bag, barf bag, vomit bag, disposal bag, waste bag or motion sickness bag) is a small bag commonly provided to passengers on board airplanes and boats to collect and contain vomit in the event of motion sickness.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
The term somatic is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells which usually give rise to the gametes (ovum or sperm).
Stand by Me is a 1986 American coming-of-age comedy-drama film directed by Rob Reiner and starring Wil Wheaton, River Phoenix, Corey Feldman, and Jerry O'Connell.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Substance P and its closely related neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Swine influenza is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Syrup of ipecac, commonly referred to as ipecac, is a drug that was once widely used as an expectorant (in low doses) and a rapid-acting emetic (in higher doses).
Tachykinin peptides are one of the largest families of neuropeptides, found from amphibians to mammals.
The Scotsman is a Scottish compact newspaper and daily news website headquartered in Edinburgh.
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
The University of Salford, Manchester is a public research university in Salford, Greater Manchester, England, west of Manchester city centre.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Uremia is the condition of having "urea in the blood".
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution to the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals.
The vestibulocochlear nerve (auditory vestibular nerve), known as the eighth cranial nerve, transmits sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
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