123 relations: Acute accent, Adjective, Advanced and retracted tongue root, Adverb, Affix, Agglutinative language, Allophone, Altaic languages, Andalusian Spanish, Aorist, Apophony, Assimilation (phonology), Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Astur-Leonese languages, Australian Aboriginal languages, Azerbaijani language, Bantu languages, Bezhta language, Buwal language, Catalan language, Central Tano languages, Chadic languages, Chilcotin language, Chukchi language, Clitic, Coeur d'Alene language, Consonant harmony, Consonant mutation, Coosan languages, Dative case, Dusun people, Elative case, Elision, Epenthesis, Erzya language, Estonian language, Finnic languages, Finnish language, Galician language, Genitive case, Germanic a-mutation, Germanic umlaut, Grammatical conjugation, Harry van der Hulst, Helsinki slang, Hiatus (linguistics), Hungarian language, I-mutation, Igbo language, Inessive case, ..., Interjection, Japanese language, Jeroen van de Weijer, Jingulu language, Kazakh language, Kgalagadi language, Khanty language, Korean language, Kyrgyz language, Lagash, Languages of Iberia, Leiden University, Lingala, Livonian language, Loanword, Maiduan languages, Malila language, Manchu language, Mari language, Metaphony, Moksha language, Mongolian language, Murcian Spanish, Nasal consonant, Nasalization, Nez Perce language, Nganasan language, Nilotic languages, Nominative case, Northern Sotho language, Old Japanese, Onomatopoeia, Palestinian Arabic, Partitive, Pharyngealization, Phonology, Phuthi language, Portuguese dialects, Proto-Samoyedic language, Proto-Slavic, Proto-Turkic language, Proto-Uralic language, Qiangic languages, R-colored vowel, Root (linguistics), Roundedness, Sargon of Akkad, Segment (linguistics), SIL International, Skolt Sami language, Slavic languages, Sotho language, South Estonian, Takelma language, Tatar language, Telugu language, Tibetic languages, Tone (linguistics), Tswana language, Tungusic languages, Turkish language, U-mutation, Utian languages, Uvular consonant, Valencian, Valley Yokuts, Võro language, Vowel, Vowel length, Warlpiri language, Word stem, Yokutsan languages, Yurok language. Expand index (73 more) » « Shrink index
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
In phonetics, advanced tongue root and retracted tongue root, abbreviated ATR or RTR, are contrasting states of the root of the tongue during the pronunciation of vowels in some languages, especially in Western and Eastern Africa but also in Kazakh and Mongolian.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Altaic is a proposed language family of central Eurasia and Siberia, now widely seen as discredited.
The Andalusian varieties of Spanish (Spanish: andaluz; Andalusian: andalú) are spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla, and Gibraltar.
Aorist (abbreviated) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.
In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.
Astur-Leonese is a group of closely related Romance languages of the West Iberian branch, including.
The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Bezhta (or Bezheta) language (Bezhta: бежкьалас миц, bežƛʼalas mic), also known as Kapucha (from the name of a large village), belongs to the Tsezic group of the North Caucasian language family.
Buwal (also known as Ma Buwal, Bual, Gadala) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Cameroon in Far North Province in and around Gadala.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
The Central Tano or Akan languages are languages of the Niger-Kongo family (or perhaps the theorised Kwa languages) spoken in Ghana and Ivory Coast by the Akan people.
The Chadic languages form a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Chilcotin (also Tsilhqot’in, Tsilhqut’in, Tzilkotin) is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken in British Columbia by the Tsilhqot’in people.
Chukchi is a Chukotko–Kamchatkan language spoken by the Chukchi people in the easternmost extremity of Siberia, mainly in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
Coeur d'Alene (Cœur d'Alène, snchitsu'umshtsn) is a Salishan language.
Consonant harmony is a type of "long-distance" phonological assimilation akin to the similar assimilatory process involving vowels, i.e. vowel harmony.
Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.
The Coosan (also Coos or Kusan) language family consists of two languages spoken along the southern Oregon coast.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
Dusun is the collective name of a tribe or ethnic and linguistic group in the Malaysian state of Sabah of North Borneo.
Elative (abbreviated; from Latin efferre "to bring or carry out") is a locative case with the basic meaning "out of".
In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.
In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).
The Erzya language (erzänj kelj) is spoken by about 37,000 people in the northern, eastern and north-western parts of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent regions of Nizhny Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
The Finnic languages (Fennic), or Baltic Finnic languages (Balto-Finnic, Balto-Fennic), are a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by Finnic peoples, mainly in Finland and Estonia, by about 7 million people.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
A-mutation is a metaphonic process supposed to have taken place in late Proto-Germanic (c. 200).
The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).
Harry van der Hulst (born 1953, The Hague) is Full Professor of linguistics and Director of Undergraduate Studies at the Department of Linguistics of the University of Connecticut.
Helsinki slang or stadin slangi ("Helsinki's slang", from Swedish stad, "city"; see etymology) is a local dialect and a sociolect of the Finnish language mainly used in the capital city of Helsinki.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
I-mutation (also known as umlaut, front mutation, i-umlaut, i/j-mutation or i/j-umlaut) is a type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted or a front vowel is raised if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/ (a voiced palatal approximant, sometimes called yod, the sound of English in yes).
Igbo (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh), is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria.
Inessive case (abbreviated; from Latin inesse "to be in or at") is a locative grammatical case.
In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jeroen van de Weijer (born August 29, 1965 in Nijmegen) is a Dutch linguist who teaches phonology, morphology, phonetics, psycholinguistics, historical linguistics and other courses at Shanghai International Studies University, where he is Full Professor of English linguistics within the "211-Project" at the Institute of Linguistics and the School of English Studies.
Jingulu (Djingili) is an Australian language spoken by the Jingili in the Northern Territory of Australia, historically around the township of Elliot.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
Kgalagadi is one of the Bantu languages spoken in Botswana, along the South African border and in Namibia.
Khanty (or Hanti), previously known as Ostyak, is the language of the Khanty people.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
Iberian languages is a generic term for the languages currently or formerly spoken in the Iberian Peninsula.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
Lingala (Ngala) is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a large part of the Republic of the Congo, as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic.
Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Maiduan (also Maidun, Pujunan) is a small endangered language family of northeastern California.
Malila is a Bantu language of Tanzania.
Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.
The Mari language (Mari: марий йылме, marii jõlme; марийский язык, marijskij jazyk), spoken by approximately 400,000 people, belongs to the Uralic language family.
In historical linguistics, metaphony is a class of sound change in which one vowel in a word is influenced by another in a process of assimilation.
The Moksha language (mokšenj kälj) is a member of the Mordvinic branch of the Uralic languages, with around 2,000 native speakers (2010 Russian census).
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Murcian (endonym: murciano) is a variant of Peninsular Spanish, spoken mainly in the autonomous community of Murcia and the adjacent comarcas of Vega Baja del Segura and Alto Vinalopó in the province of Alicante (Valencia), the corridor of Almansa in Albacete (Castile-La Mancha).
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
Nez Perce, also spelled Nez Percé or called Niimi'ipuutímt, is a Sahaptian language related to the several dialects of Sahaptin (note the spellings -ian vs. -in).
The Nganasan language (formerly called тавгийский, tavgiysky, or тавгийско-самоедский, tavgiysko-samoyedsky in Russian; from the ethnonym тавги, tavgi) is a moribund Samoyedic language spoken by the Nganasan people.
The Nilotic languages are a group of Eastern Sudanic languages spoken across a wide area between South Sudan and Tanzania by the Nilotic peoples, who traditionally practice cattle-herding.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Northern Sotho (Sesotho sa Leboa), also (incorrectly) known by the name of its standardised dialect version Sepedi (or Pedi) is a Bantu language spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages.
is the oldest attested stage of the Japanese language.
An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.
Palestinian Arabic is the subgroup of Levantine Arabic, spoken by most Palestinians in Palestine, by many Arab citizens of Israel and in the Palestinian diaspora populations.
In linguistics, the partitive is a word, phrase, or case that indicates partialness.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Phuthi (Síphùthì) is a Nguni Bantu language spoken in southern Lesotho and areas in South Africa adjacent to the same border.
Portuguese dialects are mutually intelligible variations of the Portuguese language over Portuguese-speaking countries and other areas holding some degree of cultural bound with the language.
Proto-Samoyedic, or Proto-Samoyed, is the reconstructed ancestral language of the Samoyedic languages: Nenets (Tundra and Forest), Enets, Nganasan, Selkup, as well as extinct Kamas and Mator.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
The Proto-Turkic language is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Turkic languages.
Proto-Uralic is the reconstructed language ancestral to the Uralic language family.
Qiangic (Ch'iang, Kyang, Tsiang), formerly known as Dzorgaic, is a group of related languages within the Sino-Tibetan language family.
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
In linguistics, a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech".
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Skolt Sami (sääʹmǩiõll 'the Saami language' or nuõrttsääʹmǩiõll if a distinction needs to be made between it and the other Sami languages) is a Uralic, Sami language that is spoken by the Skolts, with approximately 300 speakers in Finland, mainly in Sevettijärvi and approximately 20–30 speakers of the Njuõʹttjäuʹrr (Notozero) dialect in an area surrounding Lake Lovozero in Russia.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Sotho (Sesotho; also known as Southern Sotho, or Southern Sesotho, Historically also Suto, or Suthu, Souto, Sisutho, Sutu, or Sesutu, according to the pronunciation of the name.) is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language.
South Estonian is spoken in South-Eastern Estonia, encompassing the Tartu, Mulgi, Võro and Seto varieties.
Takelma was the language spoken by the Latgawa and Takelma people and Cow Creek band of Upper Umpqua.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
The Tibetic languages are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus, Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and northeast China by Tungusic peoples.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
U-mutation, or u-umlaut, can refer to various processes that occurred in the history of some Germanic languages.
Utian (also Miwok–Costanoan, previously Mutsun) is a family of indigenous languages spoken in Northern California, United States.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is a linguistic variety spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the traditional language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered different from Catalan by a slight majority of the people of the Valencian Community (including non-speakers), but this is at odds with the broad academic view, which considers it a dialect of Catalan. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect. Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) has been established as its regulator. The AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).
Valley Yokuts is a dialect cluster of the Yokutsan language family of California.
Võro (võro kiil|, võru keel) is a language belonging to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
The Warlpiri language is spoken by about 3,000 of the Warlpiri people in Australia's Northern Territory.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
Yokutsan (also known as Yokuts and Mariposan) is an endangered language family spoken in the interior of Northern and Central California in and around the San Joaquin Valley by the Yokut people.
The Yurok language (also Chillula, Mita, Pekwan, Rikwa, Sugon, Weitspek, Weitspekan) is an Algic language.