161 relations: Ablative case, Accusative case, Adjective, Adverb, Allophone, Analytic language, Ancient Greek, Anglo-Saxons, Appendix Probi, Article (grammar), Assimilation (phonology), Auxiliary verb, Balkan sprachbund, Betacism, Byzantine Empire, Calabria, Cambridge University Press, Captivi, Catalan language, Catalan phonology, Celtic languages, Charlemagne, Charles the Bald, Cicero, Classical antiquity, Classical Latin, Clitic, Colloquialism, Commodian, Comparative method, Conditional mood, Consonant cluster, Copula (linguistics), Corsican language, Council of Tours, Daco-Roman, Dalmatian language, Dante Alighieri, Dative case, De vulgari eloquentia, Demonstrative, Deus, Dialect, Diminutive, Diphthong, Egeria (pilgrim), Epitaph, François Just Marie Raynouard, Freedman, French language, ..., Friedrich Christian Diez, Future tense, Galician language, Genitive case, Germanic languages, Giovanni Boccaccio, Goths, Graffiti, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical gender, Grammaticalization, History of French, History of Portuguese, History of Romanian, History of the Spanish language, Hypercorrection, Imperative mood, Interjection, Italian language, Italian phonology, Italic languages, Italo-Celtic, Jacob Grimm, Jerome, Koine Greek, La Spezia–Rimini Line, Late Latin, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin profanity, Latino-Faliscan languages, Lenition, Leonese dialect, Lexical verb, Liaison (French), Linguistic prescription, Louis the German, Lucania, Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, Marius Plotius Sacerdos, Markedness, Merovingian dynasty, Monophthong, North Germanic languages, Oaths of Strasbourg, Old French, Old Latin, Old Occitan, Old Spanish language, Orthography, Palatal approximant, Palatalization (sound change), Passive voice, Pear, Penn State University Press, Perfect (grammar), Periphrasis, Petronius, Philology, Phoneme, Plautus, Pompeii, Pope Gregory II, Portuguese language, Preposition and postposition, Priest, Pronoun, Proto-Indo-European nominals, Proto-language, Proto-Romanian language, Provence, Reflexive verb, Register (sociolinguistics), Regularization (linguistics), Religious text, Renaissance Latin, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Romance copula, Romance languages, Romanian language, Saint Boniface, Sardinia, Sardinian language, Satyricon, Sicilian language, Sociolect, Solecism, Spanish language, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Subjunctive mood, Syllable, Syncope (phonology), Syntax, Synthetic language, Terence, Thraco-Roman, Transcription (linguistics), Troubadour, Umbrella term, Veronese Riddle, Vetus Latina, Voiced bilabial fricative, Vowel, Vowel breaking, Vowel length, Vulgate, West Germanic languages, Western Roman Empire, Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke. Expand index (111 more) » « Shrink index
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The Appendix Probi ("Probus' Appendix") is a palimpsest appended to the Instituta Artium, a work written in the third or fourth century AD.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans.
In historical linguistics, betacism is a sound change in which (the voiced bilabial plosive, as in bane) and (the voiced labiodental fricative, as in vane) are confused.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Captivi is a Latin play by the early Roman playwright Titus Maccius Plautus.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–877), King of Italy (875–877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–877, as Charles II).
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
Commodianus was a Christian Latin poet, who flourished about AD 250.
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.
In the medieval Roman Catholic church there were several Councils of Tours, that city being an old seat of Christianity, and considered fairly centrally located in France.
The term Daco-Roman describes the Romanized culture of Dacia under the rule of the Roman Empire.
Dalmatian or Dalmatic was a Romance language spoken in the Dalmatia region of present-day Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the vernacular) is the title of a Latin essay by Dante Alighieri.
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
Deus is Latin for "god" or "deity".
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Egeria, Etheria or Aetheria was a woman, widely regarded to be the author of a detailed account of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
An epitaph (from Greek ἐπιτάφιος epitaphios "a funeral oration" from ἐπί epi "at, over" and τάφος taphos "tomb") is a short text honoring a deceased person.
François Just Marie Raynouard (18 September 1761 – 27 October 1836) was a French dramatist and linguist.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Friedrich Christian Diez (15 March 179429 May 1876) was a German philologist.
In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted, typically illicitly, on a wall or other surface, often within public view.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.). Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing bound, inflectional constructions, instead deriving them from content words.
French is a Romance language (meaning that it is descended primarily from Vulgar Latin) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance spoken in northern France.
The Portuguese language developed in the Western Iberian Peninsula from Latin spoken by Roman soldiers and colonists starting in the 3rd century BC.
The history of the Romanian language began in the Roman provinces of Southeast Europe north of the so-called "Jireček Line", but the exact place where its formation started is still debated.
The language known today as Spanish is derived from a dialect of spoken Latin that evolved in the north-central part of the Iberian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century.
In linguistics or usage, hypercorrection is a non-standard usage that results from the over-application of a perceived rule of grammar or a usage prescription.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
The La Spezia–Rimini Line (also known as the Massa–Senigallia Line), in the linguistics of the Romance languages, is a line that demarcates a number of important isoglosses that distinguish Romance languages south and east of the line from Romance languages north and west of it.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin profanity is the profane, indecent, or impolite vocabulary of Latin, and its uses.
The Latino-Faliscan or Latino-Venetic languages are a group of languages originating from Italy belonging to the Italic languages, a group of the Indo-European languages.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
In linguistics a lexical verb or full verb is a member of an open class of verbs that includes all verbs except auxiliary verbs.
Liaison is the pronunciation of a latent word-final consonant immediately before a following vowel sound.
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) "the German" (c. 805-876), also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia.
Lucania (Leukanía) was an ancient area of Southern Italy.
Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus (died c. 280 BC) was one of the two elected Roman consuls in 298 BC.
Marius Plotius Sacerdos was a late Roman grammarian who flourished towards the end of the third century CE.
In linguistics and social sciences, markedness is the state of standing out as unusual or divergent in comparison to a more common or regular form.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
The Oaths of Strasbourg (Sacramenta Argentariae; Les Serments de Strasbourg; Die Straßburger Eide) were mutual pledges of allegiance between Louis the German (†876), ruler of East Francia, and his half-brother Charles the Bald (†877), ruler of West Francia made on 12 February 842.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.
Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo; romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), originally a colloquial Latin spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire that provided the root for the early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
Penn State University Press, also called The Pennsylvania State University Press, was established in 1956 and is a non-profit publisher of scholarly books and journals.
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.
Gaius Petronius Arbiter (c. 27 – 66 AD) was a Roman courtier during the reign of Nero.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Pope Gregory II (Gregorius II; 669 – 11 February 731) was Pope from 19 May 715 to his death in 731.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
Proto-Indo-European nominals include nouns, adjectives and pronouns.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
Proto-Romanian (also known as "Common Romanian", româna comună or "Ancient Romanian", străromâna, Balkan Latin) is a hypothetical and unattested Romance language evolved from Vulgar Latin and considered to have been spoken by the ancestors of today's Romanians and related Balkan Latin peoples (Vlachs) before 900 (7th–11th century AD).
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
In grammar, a reflexive verb is, loosely, a verb whose direct object is the same as its subject, for example, "I wash myself".
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Regularization is a linguistic phenomenon observed in language acquisition, language development, and language change typified by the replacement of irregular forms in morphology or syntax by regular ones.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries, particularly by the Renaissance humanism movement.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
A copula is a word that links the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement).
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Saint Boniface (Bonifatius; 675 – 5 June 754 AD), born Winfrid (also spelled Winifred, Wynfrith, Winfrith or Wynfryth) in the kingdom of Wessex in Anglo-Saxon England, was a leading figure in the Anglo-Saxon mission to the Germanic parts of the Frankish Empire during the 8th century.
Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).
The Satyricon, or Satyricon liber (The Book of Satyrlike Adventures), is a Latin work of fiction believed to have been written by Gaius Petronius, though the manuscript tradition identifies the author as Titus Petronius.
Sicilian (sicilianu; in Italian: Siciliano; also known as Siculo (siculu) or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands.
In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.
A solecism is a phrase that transgresses the rules of grammar.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In phonology, syncope (from συγκοπή||cutting up) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.
Publius Terentius Afer (c. 195/185 – c. 159? BC), better known in English as Terence, was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic, of Berber descent.
The term Thraco-Roman describes the Romanized culture of Thracians under the rule of the Roman Empire.
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.
A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).
An umbrella term is a word or phrase that covers a wide range of concepts belonging to a common category.
The Veronese Riddle (Indovinello veronese) is a riddle written in late Vulgar Latin on the margin of a parchment, on the Verona Orational, probably in the 8th or early 9th century, by a Christian monk from Verona, in northern Italy.
Vetus Latina ("Old Latin" in Latin), also known as Vetus Itala ("Old Italian"), Itala ("Italian") See, for example, Quedlinburg ''Itala'' fragment.
The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (30 January 1861 – 4 October 1936) was a Swiss philologist of the Neogrammarian school of linguistics.