137 relations: A Devil's Chaplain, A. M. Hamilton, A. W. F. Edwards, Agnosticism, Alan Grafen, Altruism (biology), American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Ant, Artery, Arthur Burks, Autumn leaf color, BBC, Bee, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Butterfly, Cairo, Cedric Smith (statistician), Coefficient of relationship, Coprophanaeus, Coroner, Crafoord Prize, Darwin Medal, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Diverticulum, Duodenum, E. B. Ford, Edinburgh, Egypt, Elytron, English people, Eugenics, Eusociality, Evolution, Evolution of sexual reproduction, Evolutionarily stable strategy, Evolutionary biology, Explosive material, Fecundity, Fellow of the Royal Society, Fitzrovia, France, Frink Medal, Fyssen Foundation, Game theory, Gene-centered view of evolution, Genetics, George R. Price, Grenade, Hamiltonian spite, ..., Haplodiploidy, Harvard University, Hilary Koprowski, HIV, Home Guard (United Kingdom), Hymenoptera, Imperial College London, Inamori Foundation, Italy, John Hajnal, John Henry Holland, John Maynard Smith, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Journalist, Kent, Kin selection, King's College Hospital, Kingdom of Egypt, Kyoto Prize, Laurence Hurst, Leigh Van Valen, Lewis Carroll, Linnean Medal, Linnean Society of London, London, London School of Economics, Malaria, Master of Science, Mathematical and theoretical biology, Michael D. Cohen, Middlesex Hospital, National service, Natural history, Natural selection, Nature (journal), New College, Oxford, New Naturalist, New Zealand, Newcomb Cleveland Prize, Olivia Judson, OPV AIDS hypothesis, Parasitism, Peptic ulcer disease, Physician, Polio vaccine, Political science, Population genetics, Price equation, Prisoner's dilemma, Red Queen hypothesis, Richard Dawkins, Richard Southwood, Robert Axelrod, Robin Dunbar, Ronald Fisher, Royal Geographical Society, Royal Society, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Science (journal), Sewall Wright, Sewall Wright Award, Sex ratio, Signalling theory, Simian immunodeficiency virus, Sit-in, Social evolution, Sociobiology, St John's College, Cambridge, Statistician, The Genetical Evolution of Social Behaviour, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, The Selfish Gene, Thoracotomy, Through the Looking-Glass, Tonbridge School, Undergraduate education, United Kingdom, University College Hospital, University College London, University of Bern, University of Cambridge, University of Michigan, University of Oxford, University of São Paulo, Wasp, World War II, Wytham. Expand index (87 more) » « Shrink index
A Devil's Chaplain: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love is a 2003 book of selected essays and other writings by Richard Dawkins.
Archibald Milne Hamilton (1898–1972) was a New Zealand-born civil engineer, notable for building the Hamilton Road through Kurdistan and designing the Callender-Hamilton bridge system.
Anthony William Fairbank Edwards, FRS (born 1935) is a British statistician, geneticist, and evolutionary biologist.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Alan Grafen is a Scottish ethologist and evolutionary biologist.
In biology, altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Arthur Walter Burks (October 13, 1915 – May 14, 2008) was an American mathematician who worked in the 1940s as a senior engineer on the project that contributed to the design of the ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer.
Autumn leaf color is a phenomenon that affects the normally green leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs by which they take on, during a few weeks in the autumn season, various shades of red, yellow, purple, black, orange, pink, magenta, blue and brown.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Cedric Austen Bardell Smith (5 February 1917 – 10 January 2002) was a British statistician and geneticist.
The coefficient of relationship is a measure of the degree of consanguinity (or biological relationship) between two individuals.
Coprophanaeus is a genus of Scarabaeidae or scarab beetles.
A coroner is a person whose standard role is to confirm and certify the death of an individual within a jurisdiction.
The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord.
The Darwin Medal is awarded by the Royal Society every alternate year for "work of acknowledged distinction in the broad area of biology in which Charles Darwin worked, notably in evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity".
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is the medical or biological term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Edmund Brisco "Henry" Ford (23 April 1901 – 2 January 1988) was a British ecological geneticist.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
An elytron (from Greek ἔλυτρον "sheath, cover"; plural: elytra) is a modified, hardened forewing of certain insect orders, notably beetles (Coleoptera) and a few of the true bugs (Hemiptera); in most true bugs, the forewings are instead called hemelytra (sometimes misspelled as "hemielytra"), as only the basal half is thickened while the apex is membranous.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
Eusociality (from Greek εὖ eu "good" and social), the highest level of organization of animal sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolution of sexual reproduction describes how sexually reproducing animals, plants, fungi and protists evolved from a common ancestor that was a single celled eukaryotic species.
An evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a strategy which, if adopted by a population in a given environment, cannot be invaded by any alternative strategy that is initially rare.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
In human demography and population biology, fecundity is the potential for reproduction of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.
Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".
Fitzrovia is a district in central London, near London's West End lying partly in the City of Westminster (in the west), and partly in the London Borough of Camden (in the east); north of Oxford Street and Soho between Bloomsbury and Marylebone.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Frink Medal for British Zoologists is awarded by the Zoological Society of London "For significant and original contributions by a professional zoologist to the development of zoology." It consists of a bronze plaque (76 by 83 millimetres), depicting a bison and carved by British sculptor Elisabeth Frink.
The Fyssen Foundation (French: Fondation Fyssen) is a French charitable organization that was established and endowed in 1979 by H. Fyssen.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
The gene-centered view of evolution, gene's eye view, gene selection theory, or selfish gene theory holds that adaptive evolution occurs through the differential survival of competing genes, increasing the allele frequency of those alleles whose phenotypic trait effects successfully promote their own propagation, with gene defined as "not just one single physical bit of DNA all replicas of a particular bit of DNA distributed throughout the world".
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
George Robert Price (October 6, 1922 – January 6, 1975) was an American population geneticist.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
Within the field of social evolution, Hamiltonian spite is a term for behaviours occurring among conspecifics that have a cost for the actor and a negative impact upon the recipient.
Haplodiploidy is a sex-determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hilary Koprowski (5 December 191611 April 2013) was a Polish virologist and immunologist active in the United States; inventor of the world's first effective live polio vaccine.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The Home Guard (initially Local Defence Volunteers or LDV) was a defence organisation of the British Army during the Second World War.
Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants.
Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.
The Inamori Foundation is a private foundation known for its annual announcement of the Kyoto Prize, founded by Kazuo Inamori in 1984.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
John Hajnal FBA (born Hajnal-Kónyi; 26 November 1924 – 30 November 2008), was a Hungarian-British academic in the fields of mathematics and economics (statistics).
John Henry Holland (February 2, 1929 – August 9, 2015) was an American scientist and Professor of psychology and Professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
John Maynard Smith (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British theoretical and mathematical evolutionary biologist and geneticist.
The Journal of Theoretical Biology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical biology, as well as mathematical and computational aspects of biology.
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives, even at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction.
King's College Hospital is an acute care facility in Denmark Hill, Camberwell in the London Borough of Lambeth, referred to locally and by staff simply as "King's" or abbreviated internally to "KCH".
The Kingdom of Egypt (المملكة المصرية; المملكه المصريه, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.
The is Japan's highest private award for global achievement.
Laurence Daniel Hurst (born 1965) FMedSci FRS is a Professor of Evolutionary Genetics in the Department of Biology and Biochemistry at the University of Bath and the director of the Milner Centre for Evolution.
Leigh Van Valen (August 12, 1935 – October 16, 2010) was a U.S. evolutionary biologist.
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.
The Linnean Medal of the Linnean Society of London was established in 1888, and is awarded annually to alternately a botanist or a zoologist or (as has been common since 1958) to one of each in the same year.
The Linnean Society of London is a society dedicated to the study of, and the dissemination of information concerning, natural history, evolution and taxonomy.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
A Master of Science (Magister Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM, or Sc.M.) is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries, or a person holding such a degree.
Mathematical and theoretical biology is a branch of biology which employs theoretical analysis, mathematical models and abstractions of the living organisms to investigate the principles that govern the structure, development and behavior of the systems, as opposed to experimental biology which deals with the conduction of experiments to prove and validate the scientific theories.
Michael D. Cohen (22 March 1945 - 2 February 2013) was the William D. Hamilton Collegiate Professor of Complex Systems, Information and Public Policy at the University of Michigan.
Middlesex Hospital was a teaching hospital located in the Fitzrovia area of London, England.
National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
New College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom.
The New Naturalist Library (also known as The New Naturalists) is a series of books published by Collins in the United Kingdom, on a variety of natural history topics relevant to the British Isles.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Newcomb Cleveland Prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is annually awarded to author(s) of outstanding scientific paper published in the Research Articles or Reports sections of Science.
Olivia P. Judson (born 1970) is an evolutionary biologist and science writer.
The oral polio vaccine (OPV) AIDS hypothesis posits that the AIDS pandemic originated from live polio vaccines prepared in chimpanzee tissue cultures and then administered to up to one million Africans between 1957 and 1960 in experimental mass vaccination campaigns.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
In the theory of evolution and natural selection, the Price equation (also known as Price's equation or Price's theorem) describes how a trait or gene changes in frequency over time.
The prisoner's dilemma is a standard example of a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two completely rational individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so.
The Red Queen hypothesis, also referred to as Red Queen's, Red Queen's race or the Red Queen effect, is an evolutionary hypothesis which proposes that organisms must constantly adapt, evolve, and proliferate not merely to gain reproductive advantage, but also simply to survive while pitted against ever-evolving opposing organisms in an ever-changing environment.
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
Sir Thomas Richard Edmund Southwood GOM DL FRS (20 June 1931 – 26 October 2005) was a British biologist, Professor of Zoology and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford.
Robert Marshall Axelrod (born May 27, 1943) is an American political scientist.
Robin Ian MacDonald Dunbar (born 28 June 1947) is a British anthropologist and evolutionary psychologist and a specialist in primate behaviour.
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.
The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis.
The Sewall Wright Award is given annually by the American Society of Naturalists to a "senior-level" and active investigator making fundamental contributions the conceptual unification of the biological sciences.
The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory is a body of theoretical work examining communication between individuals, both within species and across species.
Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are retroviruses that cause persistent infections in at least 45 species of African non-human primates.
A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.
Social evolution is a subdiscipline of evolutionary biology that is concerned with social behaviors that have fitness consequences for individuals other than the actor.
Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge (the full, formal name of the college is The Master, Fellows and Scholars of the College of St John the Evangelist in the University of Cambridge).
A statistician is a person who works with theoretical or applied statistics.
"The Genetic Evolution of Social Behaviour" is a 1964 scientific paper by the British evolutionary biologist W.D. Hamilton in which he mathematically lays out the basis for inclusive fitness.
The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection is a book by Ronald Fisher which combines Mendelian genetics with Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, with Fisher being the first to argue that "Mendelism therefore validates Darwinism" and stating with regard to mutations that "The vast majority of large mutations are deleterious; small mutations are both far more frequent and more likely to be useful", thus refuting orthogenesis.
The Selfish Gene is a 1976 book on evolution by Richard Dawkins, in which the author builds upon the principal theory of George C. Williams's Adaptation and Natural Selection (1966).
A thoracotomy is an incision into the pleural space of the chest.
Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a novel by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865).
Tonbridge School is an independent boarding and day school for boys in Tonbridge, Kent, England, founded in 1553 by Sir Andrew Judde (sometimes spelled Judd).
Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
University College Hospital (UCH) is a teaching hospital located in London, England.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The University of Bern (Universität Bern, Université de Berne, Universitas Bernensis) is a university in the Swiss capital of Bern and was founded in 1834.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wytham is a village and civil parish on the Seacourt Stream, a branch of the River Thames, about northwest of the centre of Oxford.