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Washington, Brownsville affair, C-SPAN, Calendar of saints (Episcopal Church), Calvin Coolidge, Capitalism, ..., Carnegie Corporation of New York, Celebrate the Century, Charles Edward Russell, Charles Young (United States Army), Civil and political rights, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil Rights Congress, Clark Atlanta University, Cold War, Collier's, Color line (racism), Columbia College (New York), Columbia University, Communist Party USA, Communist Party v. Subversive Activities Control Board, Congregationalism in the United States, Continental Army, Countee Cullen, Creed, Dandy, Dark Princess, Darkwater: Voices from Within the Veil, David Levering Lewis, Democratic Party (United States), Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctorate, Double consciousness, Due process, Dunning School, Dusk of Dawn, Dutch Americans, E. Franklin Frazier, East St. Louis riots, Elaine race riot, Elaine, Arkansas, Elizabeth Freeman, Emancipation Proclamation, Emeritus, Emma Gelders Sterne, Empire of Japan, Encounter Books, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopedia Africana, English Americans, Episcopal Church (United States), Ethiopia, Ethnic conflict, Eugene Victor Wolfenstein, Eugenics in the United States, European Americans, Exposition Universelle (1900), Federal Bureau of Investigation, Fifth Avenue, First Pan-African Conference, First Universal Races Congress, Fisk University, Fisk University protest, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fox News, Francis Parkman Prize, Franklin D. Roosevelt, FRASER, Frederick Douglass, Fredrick McGhee, Free Negro, Freedmen's Bureau, Freeman H. M. 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Ransom, Rex Collings, Routledge, Roy Wilkins, Rufus Early Clement, Russian Empire, Russian Revolution, Russo-Japanese War, Scottsboro Boys, Scramble for Africa, Searles High School (Great Barrington, Massachusetts), Seat of government, Self-governance, Senegal, Separate but equal, Sharecropping, Shirley Graham Du Bois, Sierra Leone, Silent Parade, Slater Fund, Slavery in the colonial United States, Social science, Socialism, Socialist Party of America, Society of the Congregational Church of Great Barrington, Sociology, Soviet Peace Committee, Soviet Union, Spingarn Medal, State funeral, Stevedore, Stockholm Appeal, Stroke, Suffrage, The American Historical Review, The Atlantic, The Bahamas, The Birth of a Nation, The Brownies' Book, The Crisis, The Extra Mile, The Horizon: A Journal of the Color Line, The Nation, The Negro, The New York Times, The Philadelphia Negro, The Souls of Black Folk, The Star of Ethiopia, The Study of the Negro Problems, The Talented Tenth, Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Sowell, Ticket (election), Trade union, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuskegee Airmen, Tuskegee University, Uncle Tom's Cabin, United Nations, United Nations Conference on International Organization, United States Postal Service, United States presidential election, 1932, United States presidential election, 1940, Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League, University of Massachusetts Amherst, University of Pennsylvania, Up from Slavery, Vito Marcantonio, Vladimir Lenin, Vocational education, W. E. B. Du Bois Library, W. E. B. Du Bois Memorial Centre for Pan African Culture, W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868–1919, W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919–1963, W.E.B. Du Bois Boyhood Homesite, W.E.B. Du Bois Career of Distinguished Scholarship Award, Waco, Texas, Walter Francis White, We Charge Genocide, Weimar Republic, West Africa, White supremacy, Wilberforce University, William English Walling, William Howard Taft, William James, William Monroe Trotter, Women's suffrage in the United States, Woodrow Wilson, Working class, World Peace Council, World War I, World War II, Yale University Press, Year of Africa, Yolande Du Bois, YouTube, Zora Neale Hurston, 100 Greatest African Americans, 1911 in literature, 1920 in literature, 1928 in literature, 1940 in literature, 1957 in literature, 1959 in literature, 1961 in literature, 1968 in literature, 92nd Infantry Division (United States). Expand index (308 more) » « Shrink index
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Accra is the capital and largest city of Ghana, covering an area of with an estimated urban population of 2.27 million.
Adolph Wagner (25 March 1835 – 8 November 1917) was a German economist and politician, a leading Kathedersozialist (academic socialist) and public finance scholar and advocate of agrarianism.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The African diaspora consists of the worldwide collection of communities descended from Africa's peoples, predominantly in the Americas.
African-American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Albert Bushnell Hart (July 1, 1854July 16, 1943), was an American historian, writer, and editor based at Harvard University.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alexander Crummell (March 3, 1819 - September 10, 1898) was a pioneering African-American minister, academic and African nationalist.
Bishop Alexander Walters (August 1, 1858 – February 2, 1917) was an American clergyman and noted civil rights leader.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Historical Association (AHA) is the oldest and largest society of historians and professors of history in the United States.
The American Labor Party (ALP) was a political party in the United States established in 1936 which was active almost exclusively in the state of New York.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The American Sociological Association (ASA), founded in 1905 as the American Sociological Society, is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the discipline and profession of sociology.
American Writers: A Journey Through History is a series produced and broadcast by C-SPAN in 2001 and 2002 that profiled selected American writers and their times.
An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy is a 1944 study of race relations authored by Swedish Nobel-laureate economist Gunnar Myrdal and funded by Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Joseph Auguste Anténor Firmin (18 October 1850 – 19 September 1911), better known as simply Anténor Firmin, was a Haitian anthropologist, journalist, and politician.
In the United States, anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were state laws passed by individual states to prohibit miscegenation, nowadays more commonly referred to as interracial marriage and interracial sex.
An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.
Archibald Henry Grimké (August 17, 1849 – February 25, 1930) was an American lawyer, intellectual, journalist, diplomat and community leader in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Arnold Rampersad (born 13 November 1941) is a biographer and literary critic, who was born in Trinidad and Tobago and moved to the US in 1965.
Arthur Barnette Spingarn (1878–1971) was a European-American leader in the fight for civil rights for African Americans.
Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual.
The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS) is a politically conservative non-profit association founded in 1943 to "fight socialized medicine and to fight the government takeover of medicine." The group was reported to have approximately 4,000 members in 2005, and 5,000 in 2014.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
The Atlanta compromise was an agreement struck in 1895 between Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute, other African-American leaders, and Southern white leaders.
The Atlanta Conference of Negro Problems was an annual conference held at Atlanta University, organized by W. E. B. Du Bois, and held every year from 1896 to 1914.
The Cotton States and International Exposition Speech was an address on the topic of race relations given by Booker T. Washington on September 18, 1895.
The Atlanta race riot of 1906 was an attack of armed white mobs against blacks in Atlanta, Georgia (United States), which began the evening of September 22 and lasted through September 24, 1906.
Augustus Granville Dill was born on November 30, 1882, in Portsmouth, Ohio.
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
The Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization movement or After slave act, originated in the United States in the 19th century.
The Bancroft Prize is awarded each year by the trustees of Columbia University for books about diplomacy or the history of the Americas.
The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference (Konferensi Asia-Afrika)—was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on April 18–24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Black Reconstruction in America: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860–1880 is a history of the Reconstruction era by W. E. B. Du Bois, first published in 1935.
Black Rednecks and White Liberals is a collection of six essays by Thomas Sowell.
The Black Star Line (1919−1922) was a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey, the organizer of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), and other members of the UNIA.
Booker Taliaferro Washington (– November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States.
The Brownsville affair, or the Brownsville raid, was an incident of racial injustice that occurred in 1906 in the southwestern United States due to resentment by white residents of Brownsville, Texas, of the Buffalo Soldiers, black soldiers in a segregated unit stationed at nearby Fort Brown.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
The veneration of saints in the Episcopal Church is a continuation of an ancient tradition from the early Church which honors important and influential people of the Christian faith.
John Calvin Coolidge Jr. (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) was an American politician and the 30th President of the United States (1923–1929).
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carnegie Corporation of New York was established by Andrew Carnegie during 1911 "to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding".
Celebrate the Century is the name of a series of postage stamps made by the United States Postal Service featuring images recalling various important events in the 20th century in the United States.
Charles Edward Russell (September 25, 1860 in Davenport, Iowa – April 23, 1941 in Washington, DC) was an American journalist, opinion columnist, newspaper editor, and political activist.
Charles Young (March 12, 1864 – January 8, 1922) was an American soldier.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
The Civil Rights Congress (CRC) was a United States civil rights organization, formed in 1946 at a national conference for radicals and disbanded in 1956.
Clark Atlanta University is a private, historically black university in Atlanta, in the U.S. state of Georgia.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collier's was an American magazine, founded in 1888 by Peter Fenelon Collier.
The term color line was originally used as a reference to the racial segregation that existed in the United States after the abolition of slavery.
Columbia College is the oldest undergraduate college at Columbia University, situated on the university's main campus in Morningside Heights in the borough of Manhattan in New York City.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a communist political party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America.
Communist Party of the United States v. Subversive Activities Control Board, 351 U.S. 115 (1956).
Congregationalism in the United States consists of Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition that have a congregational form of church government and trace their origins mainly to Puritan settlers of colonial New England.
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.
Countee Cullen (May 30, 1903 – January 9, 1946), born Countee LeRoy Porter, was a prominent African-American poet, novelist, children's writer, and playwright during the Harlem Renaissance.
A creed (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets.
A dandy, historically, is a man who places particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, and leisurely hobbies, pursued with the appearance of nonchalance in a cult of self.
Dark Princess, written by sociologist W. E. B. Du Bois in 1928, is one of his five historical novels.
Darkwater: Voices from Within the Veil is a literary work by W.E.B. Du Bois.
David Levering Lewis (born May 25, 1936) is an American Historian; he is the Julius Silver University Professor, and the Professor of History at New York University.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
Double consciousness is a term describing the internal conflict experienced by subordinated groups in an oppressive society.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
The Dunning School refers to a group of historians who shared a historiographical school of thought regarding the Reconstruction period of American history (1865–1877).
Dusk of Dawn: An Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept, a 1940 autobiographical text by W. E. B. Du Bois, examines Du Bois's life and family history in the context of contemporaneous developments in race relations.
Dutch Americans are Americans of Dutch descent whose ancestors came from the Netherlands in the recent or distant past.
Edward Franklin Frazier (September 24, 1894 – May 17, 1962), was an American sociologist and author, publishing as E. Franklin Frazier.
The East St.
The Elaine race riot, also called the Elaine massacre, began on September 30–October 1, 1919 at Hoop Spur in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas.
Elaine (pronounced locally with the accent on the first syllable) is a very small city in Phillips County, Arkansas, United States, in the delta of the Mississippi River.
Elizabeth Freeman (1744December 28, 1829), also known as Bet or MumBet, was the first enslaved African American to file and win a freedom suit in Massachusetts.
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
Emeritus, in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, or other person.
Emma Gelders Sterne (1894–1971) was an American author of children's books, with a historical and literary focus.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Encounter Books is an American conservative book publisher.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African-American Experience edited by Henry Louis Gates and Anthony Appiah (Basic Civitas Books 1999, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2005) is a compendium of Africana studies including African studies and the "Pan-African diaspora" inspired by W. E. B. Du Bois' project of an Encyclopedia Africana.
English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a country that is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.
Eugene Victor Wolfenstein (July 9, 1940 – December 15, 2010) was an American social theorist, practicing psychoanalyst, and a professor of political science at University of California, Los Angeles.
Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.
European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.
The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, United States.
The First Pan-African Conference was held in London from 23 to 25 July 1900 (just prior to the Paris Exhibition of 1900 "in order to allow tourists of African descent to attend both events").
The First Universal Races Congress met in 1911 for four days at the University of London as an early effort at anti-racism.
Fisk University is a private historically black university in Nashville, Tennessee.
The Fisk University student protest was from 1924–1925.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
The Francis Parkman Prize, named after Francis Parkman, is awarded by the Society of American Historians for the best book in American history each year.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Federal Reserve Archival System for Economic Research (FRASER) is a digital archive begun in 2004 by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis to safeguard, preserve and provide easy access to the United States’ economic history, particularly the history of the Federal Reserve System, through digitization of documents related to the U.S. financial system.
Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey; – February 20, 1895) was an African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman.
Fredrick L. McGhee (October 28, 1861 – September 9, 1912), a black civil rights activist and one of America’s first African American lawyers.
In United States history, a free Negro or free black was the legal status, in the geographic area of the United States, of blacks who were not slaves.
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, usually referred to as simply the Freedmen's Bureau, was an agency of the United States Department of War to "direct such issues of provisions, clothing, and fuel, as he may deem needful for the immediate and temporary shelter and supply of destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children." The Freedmen's Bureau Bill, which established the Freedmen's Bureau on March 3, 1865, was initiated by President Abraham Lincoln and was intended to last for one year after the end of the Civil War.
Freeman H. M. Murray (September 22, 1859 - February 20, 1950) was an intellectual, civil rights activist, and journalist in Washington D.C. and Alexandria, Virginia.
Freethought (or "free thought") is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma.
French Americans (French: Franco-Américains) are citizens or nationals of the United States who identify themselves with having full or partial French or French Canadian heritage, ethnicity, and/or ancestral ties.
The General Education Board was a philanthropy which was used primarily to support higher education and medical schools in the United States, and to help rural white and black schools in the South, as well as modernize farming practices in the South.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Gerald Horne is an African-American historian who currently holds the John J. and Rebecca Moores Chair of History and African American Studies at the University of Houston.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
The Grand Prix of Literary Associations (GPLA) were launched in 2013 in Cameroon, in partnership with Brasseries du Cameroun and sponsorship by Castel Beer.
Great Barrington is a town in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, United States.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.
Karl Gunnar Myrdal (6 December 1898 – 17 May 1987) was a Swedish economist and sociologist.
Gustav von Schmoller (24 June 1838 – 27 June 1917) was the leader of the "younger" German historical school of economics.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Hampton University (HU) is a private historically black university in Hampton, Virginia.
The Harlem Renaissance was an intellectual, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem, New York, spanning the 1920s.
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke (15 September 1834 – 28 April 1896) was a German historian, political writer and National Liberal member of the Reichstag during the time of the German Empire.
Henry Louis "Skip" Gates Jr. (born September 16, 1950) is an American literary critic, teacher, historian, filmmaker and public intellectual who currently serves as the Alphonse Fletcher University Professor and Director of the Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University.
Henry Sylvester Williams (15 February 186926 March 1911) was a Trinidadian lawyer, councillor and writer, most noted for his involvement in the Pan-African Movement.
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African-American community.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
Housatonic is a village and census-designated place (CDP) in the town of Great Barrington in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, United States.
The Houston riot of 1917, or Camp Logan riot, was a riot by 156 African American soldiers of the Third Battalion of the all-black Twenty-fourth United States Infantry Regiment after disagreements with the Houston Police Department.
Howard Melvin Fast (November 11, 1914 – March 12, 2003) was an American novelist and television writer.
Howard University (HU or simply Howard) is a federally chartered, private, coeducational, nonsectarian, historically black university (HBCU) in Washington, D.C. It is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with higher research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.
Interracial marriage is a form of marriage outside a specific social group (exogamy) involving spouses who belong to different socially-defined races or racialized ethnicities.
John Franklin Jameson (September 19, 1859 – September 28, 1937) was an American historian, author, and journal editor who played a major role in the professional activities of American historians in the early 20th century.
James Arthur "Jimmy" Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an American novelist and social critic.
James W. “Jim” Ford (December 22, 18931957) was an activist and politician, the Vice-Presidential candidate for the Communist Party USA in 1932, 1936, and 1940.
James Weldon Johnson (June 17, 1871June 26, 1938) was an American author, educator, lawyer, diplomat, songwriter, and civil rights activist.
Jesse Max Barber (July 5, 1878 – September 20, 1949) was an African-American journalist, teacher and dentist.
Jessie Redmon Fauset (April 27, 1882 – April 30, 1961) was an African-American editor, poet, essayist, novelist, and educator.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
James John Walker (June 19, 1881November 18, 1946), often known as Jimmy Walker and colloquially as Beau James, was mayor of New York City from 1926 to 1932.
Joel Chandler Harris (December 9, 1848 – July 3, 1908) was an American journalist, fiction writer, and folklorist best known for his collection of Uncle Remus stories.
Joel Elias Spingarn (May 17, 1875 – July 26, 1939) was an American educator, literary critic, and civil rights activist.
John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist who believed in and advocated armed insurrection as the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States.
John Brown is a biography written by W. E. B. Du Bois about the abolitionist John Brown.
John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry (also known as John Brown's raid or The raid on Harper's Ferry) was an effort by armed abolitionist John Brown to initiate an armed slave revolt in 1859 by taking over a United States arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
John Hope (June 2, 1868 – February 22, 1936), born in Augusta, Georgia, was an African American educator and political activist, the first African-descended president of both Morehouse College in 1906 and of Atlanta University in 1929, where he worked to develop graduate programs.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kelly Miller (July 18, 1863 – December 29, 1939) was an African-American mathematician, sociologist, essayist, newspaper columnist, author, and an important figure in the intellectual life of black America for close to half a century.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Kwame Akroma-Ampim Kusi Anthony Appiah (born May 8, 1954) is a British-born Ghanaian-American philosopher, cultural theorist, and novelist whose interests include political and moral theory, the philosophy of language and mind, and African intellectual history.
Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary.
Lafayette M. Hershaw (May 10, 1863 - September 2, 1945) was a journalist, lawyer, and a clerk and law examiner for the General Land Office of the United States Department of the Interior.
James Mercer Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist from Joplin, Missouri.
Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Lee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia.
The International Lenin Peace Prize (международная Ленинская премия мира, mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya mira) was a Soviet Union award named in honor of Vladimir Lenin.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
Civil rights leaders are influential figures in the promotion and implementation of political freedom and the expansion of personal civil liberties and rights.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Long Cay (formerly known as Fortune Island; Caio Longo; Cayo Largo; Île de la Fortune) is an island in the Bahamas in an atoll that includes Acklins Island and Crooked Island.
Louis J. Massiah is an American documentary filmmaker.
Lynching is the practice of murder by a group by extrajudicial action.
Jesse Washington was a black teenage farmhand who was lynched in the county seat of Waco, Texas, on May 15, 1916, in what became a well-known example of racially motivated lynching.
Sam Hose, a.k.a. Sam Holt, a.k.a. Samuel "Thomas" Wilkes, né Tom Wilkes (c. 1875 – April 23, 1899) was an African American who was tortured and executed by a white lynch mob in Coweta County, Georgia.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
William Manning Marable (May 13, 1950 – April 1, 2011) was an American professor of public affairs, history and African-American Studies at Columbia University.
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the March on Washington, or The Great March on Washington, was held in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. ONH (17 August 188710 June 1940) was a proponent of Black nationalism in the United States and most importantly Jamaica.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The 19th century German thinker Karl Marx, the founder and primary theorist of Marxism, had an antithetical and complex attitude to religion, viewing it primarily as "the soul of soulless conditions", the "opium of the people" that had been useful to the ruling classes since it gave the working classes false hope for millennia.
Mary White Ovington (April 11, 1865 – July 15, 1951) was an American suffragist, journalist, and co-founder of the NAACP.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Internal Security Act of 1950, (Public Law 81-831), also known as the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 or the McCarran Act, after its principal sponsor Sen.
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Molefi Kete Asante (born Arthur Lee Smith Jr.; August 14, 1942) is an African-American professor.
Moore et al.
Moorfield Storey (March 19, 1845 – October 24, 1929) was an American lawyer, anti-imperial activist, and civil rights leader based in Boston, Massachusetts.
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by a group, including, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey.
The NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc. (NAACP LDF, the Inc. Fund, or LDF) is a leading United States civil rights organization and law firm based in New York City.
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the seat of Davidson County.
The National Council of Arts, Sciences and Professions (NCASP or ASP) was a United States-based socialist organization of the 1950s.
The National Guardian, later known as The Guardian, was a radical leftist independent weekly newspaper established in 1948 in New York City.
A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance.
The National Negro Committee (formed: New York City, May 31 and June 1, 1909 - ceased: New York City, May 12, 1910) was created in response to the Springfield race riot of 1908 against the black community in Springfield, Illinois.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The American Negro Academy (ANA) was the first organization in the United States to support African-American academic scholarship.
"New Negro" is a term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The 1950 New York state election was held on November 7, 1950, to elect the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor, the State Comptroller, the Attorney General and a U.S. Senator, as well as all members of the New York State Assembly and the New York State Senate.
The New York World was a newspaper published in New York City from 1860 until 1931.
Niagara Falls is the collective name for three waterfalls that straddle the international border between the Canadian province of Ontario and the American state of New York.
The Niagara Movement was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Chief Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe, PC, PhD (16 November 1904 – 11 May 1996), usually referred to as Nnamdi Azikiwe or Zik, was a Nigerian statesman who served as the first President of Nigeria from 1963 to 1966, holding the presidency throughout the Nigerian First Republic.
Norman Mattoon Thomas (November 20, 1884 – December 19, 1968) was an American Presbyterian minister who achieved fame as a socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America.
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States from January–February 1930.
Osu Castle, also known as Fort Christiansborg or simply the Castle, is a castle located in Osu, Accra, Ghana on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean's Gulf of Guinea.
Oswald Garrison Villard (March 13, 1872 – October 1, 1949) was an American journalist and editor of the New York Evening Post. He was a civil rights activist, a founding member of the NAACP.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pan-African Congress — following on from the first Pan-African Conference of 1900 in London — was a series of seven meetings, held in 1919 in Paris (1st Pan-African Congress), 1921 in London (2nd Pan-African Congress), 1923 in London (3rd Pan-African Congress), 1927 New York City (4th Pan-African Congress), 1945 Manchester (5th Pan-African Congress), 1974 Dar es Salaam (6th Pan-African Congress), 1994 Kampala (7th Pan-African Congress), and 2014 Accra that were intended to address the issues facing Africa as a result of European colonization of most of the continent.
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent.
Paul Laurence Dunbar (June 27, 1872 – February 9, 1906) was an American poet, novelist, and playwright of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Paul Leroy Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was an American bass baritone concert artist and stage and film actor who became famous both for his cultural accomplishments and for his political activism.
The Peace Information Center (PIC) was an anti-war organization based in the United States which provided information on peace initiatives in other countries, and promoted the Stockholm appeal.
The Phelps Stokes Fund (PS) is a nonprofit fund established in 1911 by the will of New York philanthropist Caroline Phelps Stokes, a member of the Phelps Stokes family.
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage.
Poughkeepsie, officially the City of Poughkeepsie, is a city in the state of New York, United States, which is the county seat of Dutchess County.
The Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America was a union of African-American tenant farmers and sharecroppers, organized by Robert L. Hill.
Prose poetry is poetry written in prose instead of using verse but preserving poetic qualities such as heightened imagery, parataxis and emotional effects.
The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States.
Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation).
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Racism in the United States against non-whites is widespread and has been so the colonial era.
Ralph Waldo Ellison (March 1, 1913 – April 16, 1994) was an American novelist, literary critic, and scholar.
Ralph Emerson McGill (February 5, 1898 – February 3, 1969) was an American journalist, best known as an anti-segregationist editor and publisher of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
The Red Summer refers to the summer and early autumn of 1919, which was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the United States, as a result of racial riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities and one rural county.
Religious naturalism (RN) combines a naturalist worldview with perceptions and values commonly associated with religions.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Reverdy Cassius Ransom (January 4, 1861 – April 22, 1959) was a United States African American Christian socialist, civil rights activist, and he was ordained and served in the African Methodist Episcopal Church as the 48th A.M.E. Bishop.
Rex Collings (1925-1996) was an English publisher who specialized in books relating to Africa and children's books.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Roy Ottoway Wilkins (August 30, 1901 – September 8, 1981) was a prominent activist in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the 1930s to the 1970s.
Rufus Early Clement (1900–1967) was the sixth and longest-serving president of historically black Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
The Scottsboro Boys were nine African American teenagers, ages 13 to 20, accused in Alabama of raping two White American women on a train in 1931.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
Searles High School was a public high school located in Great Barrington in the Berkshire Hills of western Massachusetts.
The seat of government is (as defined by Brewer's Politics) "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government exercises its authority".
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Separate but equal was a legal doctrine in United States constitutional law according to which racial segregation did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, adopted during the Reconstruction Era, which guaranteed "equal protection" under the law to all citizens.
Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
Shirley Graham Du Bois (November 11, 1896 – March 27, 1977) was an American author, playwright, composer, and activist for African-American and other causes.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
The Negro Silent Protest Parade was a silent march of about 10,000 African Americans along Fifth Avenue starting at 57th Street in New York City on July 28, 1917.
The John F. Slater Fund for the Education of Freedmen was a financial endowment established in 1882 by John Fox Slater for education of African Americans in the Southern United States.
Slavery in the colonial area which later became the '''United States''' (1600–1776) developed from complex factors, and researchers have proposed several theories to explain the development of the institution of slavery and of the slave trade.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic socialist and social democratic political party in the United States formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.
The Society of the Congregational Church of Great Barrington (also known as First Congregational Church of Great Barrington) is an historic church building and parish house located at 241 and 251 Main Street in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
The Soviet Peace Committee (SPC, also known as Soviet Committee for the Defense of Peace, SCDP, Советский Комитет Защиты Мира) was a state-sponsored organization responsible for coordinating peace movements active in the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by an African American.
A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance.
A stevedore, longshoreman, or dockworker is a waterfront manual laborer who is involved in loading and unloading ships, trucks, trains or airplanes.
On March 15, 1950, the World Peace Council approved the Stockholm Appeal, calling for an absolute ban on nuclear weapons.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The American Historical Review is the official publication of the American Historical Association.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Birth of a Nation (originally called The Clansman) is a 1915 American silent epic drama film directed and co-produced by D. W. Griffith and starring Lillian Gish.
The Brownies' Book was the first magazine published for African-American children and youth.
The Crisis is the official magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
The Extra Mile – Points of Light Volunteer Pathway is a national monument in Washington D.C. Located adjacent to the White House, the monument is composed of 34 bronze medallions honoring people who "through their caring and personal sacrifice, reached out to others, building their dreams into movements that helped people across America and throughout the world".
The Horizon: A Journal of the Color Line was a monthly periodical in publication during the years 1907 to 1910.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The Negro is a book by W. E. B. Du Bois published in 1915 and released in electronic form by Project Gutenberg in 2011.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Philadelphia Negro is a sociological study of African Americans in Philadelphia written by W. E. B. Du Bois.
The Souls of Black Folk is a classic work of American literature by W. E. B. Du Bois.
The Star of Ethiopia is an American historical pageant written by leading New Negro intellectual, W. E. B. Du Bois in 1911.
The Study of the Negro Problems, from The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (January 1898), is an essay written by professor, sociologist, historian and activist W. E. B. Du Bois.
The Talented Tenth is a term that designated a leadership class of African Americans in the early 20th century.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930) is an American economist and social theorist who is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
A ticket refers to a single election choice which fills more than one political office or seat.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
The Tuskegee Airmen is the popular name of a group of African-American military pilots (fighter and bomber) who fought in World War II.
Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university (HBCU) located in Tuskegee, Alabama, United States.
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly, is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), commonly known as the San Francisco Conference, was a convention of delegates from 50 Allied nations that took place from 25 April 1945 to 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, California.
The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.
The United States presidential election of 1932 was the thirty-seventh quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1932.
The United States presidential election of 1940 was the 39th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1940.
The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) is a black nationalist fraternal organization founded in 1914 by Marcus Mosiah Garvey.
The University of Massachusetts Amherst (abbreviated UMass Amherst and colloquially referred to as UMass or Massachusetts) is a public research and land-grant university in Amherst, Massachusetts, United States, and the flagship campus of the University of Massachusetts system.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
Up from Slavery is the 1901 autobiography of American educator Booker T. Washington (1856-1915).
Vito Anthony Marcantonio (December 10, 1902 – August 9, 1954) was an Italian-American lawyer and socialist politician.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.
The W. E. B. Du Bois Library is one of the two libraries of the University of Massachusetts Amherst in Amherst, Massachusetts, the other being the Science and Engineering Library.
W.E.B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868–1919 was written by historian David Levering Lewis and published in 1994 by Henry Holt and Company.
The W.E.B. Du Bois Boyhood Homesite (or W.E.B. Du Bois Homesite) is a National Historic Landmark in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, commemorating an important location in the life of African American intellectual and civil rights activist W.E.B. Du Bois (1868–1963).
The W.E.B. Du Bois Career of Distinguished Scholarship Award is given annually by the American Sociological Association to a scholar among its members whose cumulative body of work constitutes a significant contribution to the advancement of sociology.
Waco is a city in central Texas and is the county seat of McLennan County, Texas, United States.
Walter Francis White (July 1, 1893 – March 21, 1955) was an African-American civil rights activist who led the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for almost a quarter of a century, 1931–1955, after starting with the organization as an investigator in 1918.
We Charge Genocide: The Crime of Government Against the Negro People is a paper accusing the United States government of genocide based on the UN Genocide Convention.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.
Wilberforce University is a private, coed, liberal arts historically black university (HBCU) located in Wilberforce, Ohio.
William English Walling (1877–1936) (known as "English" to friends and family) was an American labor reformer and Socialist Republican born into a wealthy family in Louisville, Kentucky.
William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
William Monroe Trotter (sometimes just Monroe Trotter, April 7, 1872 – April 7, 1934) was a newspaper editor and real estate businessman based in Boston, Massachusetts, and an activist for African-American civil rights.
Women's suffrage in the United States of America, the legal right of women to vote, was established over the course of several decades, first in various states and localities, sometimes on a limited basis, and then nationally in 1920.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
The World Peace Council (WPC) is an international organization that advocates universal disarmament, sovereignty and independence and peaceful co-existence, and campaigns against imperialism, weapons of mass destruction and all forms of discrimination.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
is referred to as the Year of Africa because of a series of events that took place during the year—mainly the independence of seventeen African nations—that highlighted the growing Pan-African sentiments in the continent.
Yolande Du Bois (October 21, 1900- 1961) was an American teacher, author, and activist known for her involvement in the Harlem Renaissance.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an influential author of African-American literature and anthropologist, who portrayed racial struggles in the early 20th century American South, and published research on Haitian voodoo.
100 Greatest African Americans is a biographical dictionary of one hundred historically great Black Americans (in alphabetical order; that is, they are not ranked), as assessed by Temple University professor Molefi Kete Asante in 2002.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1911.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1920.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1928.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1940.
This article presents lists of literary events and publications in 1957.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1959.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1961.
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1968.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 92nd Infantry Division (92nd Division, WWI) was a segregated infantry division of the United States Army that served in both World War I and World War II.
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