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Wafer (electronics)

Index Wafer (electronics)

A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells. [1]

80 relations: Acid strength, Anisotropy, Antimony, Arsenic, ASML Holding, Aspect ratio, Boron, Boule (crystal), Brute-force search, Chris Mack (scientist), Cleavage (crystal), Computational complexity theory, Crystal, Crystal structure, Crystalline silicon, Crystallography, Czochralski process, Diamond cubic, Die (integrated circuit), Doping (semiconductor), Dot-com bubble, Electronic component, Electronics, Epitaxial wafer, Epitaxy, Etching, Etching (microfabrication), Extrinsic semiconductor, Gallium arsenide, Germanium, IBM, Ingot, Integrated circuit, Integrated circuit packaging, Intel, Interstitial defect, Intrinsic semiconductor, Ion implantation, Jan Czochralski, Klaiber's law, Lights out (manufacturing), List of semiconductor materials, Microelectronics, Microfabrication, Micron Technology, Miller index, Monocrystalline silicon, Order of approximation, Phosphorus, Phosphosilicate glass, ..., Photolithography, Photovoltaics, Pigeonhole principle, Polishing, Polycrystalline silicon, Prototype, Rapid thermal processing, RCA clean, Recession, Samsung, Seed crystal, SEMI font, Semiconductor, Semiconductor device fabrication, Semiconductor fabrication plant, Silicon on insulator, Solar cell, Solar panel, Strength of materials, Substrate (electronics), SunEdison, Thin film, Transition metal, TSMC, Very-large-scale integration, Wafer bonding, Wafer dicing, Wafer fabrication, Wire saw, Zone melting. Expand index (30 more) »

Acid strength

The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).

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Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.

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Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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ASML Holding

ASML is a Dutch company and currently the largest supplier in the world of photolithography systems for the semiconductor industry.

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Aspect ratio

The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions.

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Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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Boule (crystal)

A boule is a single crystal ingot produced by synthetic means.

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Brute-force search

In computer science, brute-force search or exhaustive search, also known as generate and test, is a very general problem-solving technique that consists of systematically enumerating all possible candidates for the solution and checking whether each candidate satisfies the problem's statement.

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Chris Mack (scientist)

Chris Mack (born c. 1960) is an expert in photolithography.

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Cleavage (crystal)

Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes.

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Computational complexity theory

Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Crystalline silicon

Crystalline silicon (c-Si) is the crystalline forms of silicon, either multicrystalline silicon (multi-Si) consisting of small crystals, or monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si), a continuous crystal.

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Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).

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Czochralski process

The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e.g. silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide), metals (e.g. palladium, platinum, silver, gold), salts and synthetic gemstones.

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Diamond cubic

The diamond cubic crystal structure is a repeating pattern of 8 atoms that certain materials may adopt as they solidify.

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Die (integrated circuit)

A die (pronunciation: /daɪ/) in the context of integrated circuits is a small block of semiconducting material, on which a given functional circuit is fabricated.

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Doping (semiconductor)

In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.

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Dot-com bubble

The dot-com bubble (also known as the dot-com boom, the dot-com crash, the Y2K crash, the Y2K bubble, the tech bubble, the Internet bubble, the dot-com collapse, and the information technology bubble) was a historic economic bubble and period of excessive speculation that occurred roughly from 1997 to 2001, a period of extreme growth in the usage and adaptation of the Internet.

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Electronic component

An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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Epitaxial wafer

An epitaxial wafer (also called epi wafer, epi-wafer, or epiwafer) is a wafer of semiconducting material made by epitaxial growth (epitaxy) for use in photonics, microelectronics, spintronics, or photovoltaics.

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Epitaxy refers to the deposition of a crystalline overlayer on a crystalline substrate.

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Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.

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Etching (microfabrication)

Etching is used in microfabrication to chemically remove layers from the surface of a wafer during manufacturing.

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Extrinsic semiconductor

An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.

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Gallium arsenide

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.

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Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Integrated circuit packaging

In electronics manufacturing, integrated circuit packaging is the final stage of semiconductor device fabrication, in which the tiny block of semiconducting material is encapsulated in a supporting case that prevents physical damage and corrosion.

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Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

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Interstitial defect

Interstitials defects are a variety of crystallographic defects where atoms assume a normally unoccupied site in the crystal structure.

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Intrinsic semiconductor

An intrinsic(pure) semiconductor, also called an undoped semiconductor or i-type semiconductor, is a pure semiconductor without any significant dopant species present.

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Ion implantation

Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.

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Jan Czochralski

Jan Czochralski (23 October 1885 – 22 April 1953) was a Polish chemist who invented the Czochralski process and pioneer in semi conductor industry, which is used for growing single crystals and in the production of semiconductor wafers.

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Klaiber's law

Simply stated, Klaiber's law proposes that "the silicon wafer size will dictate the largest diameter of ultrapure water supply piping needed within a semiconductor wafer factory." Ultrapure water (UPW) is used extensively in the fabrication steps of making computer microchips.

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Lights out (manufacturing)

Lights out or lights-out manufacturing is a manufacturing methodology (or philosophy), rather than a specific process.

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List of semiconductor materials

Semiconductor materials are nominally small band gap insulators.

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Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics.

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Microfabrication is the process of fabricating miniature structures of micrometre scales and smaller.

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Micron Technology

Micron Technology, Inc. is an American global corporation based in Boise, Idaho.

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Miller index

Miller indices form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices.

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Monocrystalline silicon

Monocrystalline silicon (also called "single-crystal silicon", "single-crystal Si", "mono c-Si", or mono-Si) is the base material for silicon chips used in virtually all electronic equipment today.

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Order of approximation

In science, engineering, and other quantitative disciplines, orders of approximation refer to formal or informal terms for how precise an approximation is, and to indicate progressively more refined approximations: in increasing order of precision, a zeroth-order approximation, a first-order approximation, a second-order approximation, and so forth.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Phosphosilicate glass

Phosphosilicate glass, commonly referred to by the acronym PSG, is a silicate glass commonly used in semiconductor device fabrication for intermetal layers, i.e., insulating layers deposited between succeedingly higher metal or conducting layers, due to its effect in gettering alkali ions.

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Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.

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Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.

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Pigeonhole principle

In mathematics, the pigeonhole principle states that if items are put into containers, with, then at least one container must contain more than one item.

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Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection (still limited by the index of refraction of the material according to the Fresnel equations.) In some materials (such as metals, glasses, black or transparent stones), polishing is also able to reduce diffuse reflection to minimal values.

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Polycrystalline silicon

Polycrystalline silicon, also called polysilicon or poly-Si, is a high purity, polycrystalline form of silicon, used as a raw material by the solar photovoltaic and electronics industry.

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A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.

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Rapid thermal processing

Rapid thermal processing (RTP) refers to a semiconductor manufacturing process which heats silicon wafers to high temperatures (over 1,000 °C) on a timescale of several seconds or less.

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RCA clean

The RCA clean is a standard set of wafer cleaning steps which need to be performed before high-temperature processing steps (oxidation, diffusion, CVD) of silicon wafers in semiconductor manufacturing.

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In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

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Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.

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Seed crystal

A seed crystal is a small piece of single crystal or polycrystal material from which a large crystal of typically the same material is to be grown in a laboratory.

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SEMI font

SEMI Font, also known as SEMI OCR font, is used for marking silicon wafers in the semi-conductor industry.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Semiconductor device fabrication

Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.

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Semiconductor fabrication plant

In the microelectronics industry a semiconductor fabrication plant (commonly called a fab; sometimes foundry) is a factory where devices such as integrated circuits are manufactured.

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Silicon on insulator

Silicon on insulator (SOI) technology refers to the use of a layered silicon–insulator–silicon substrate in place of conventional silicon substrates in semiconductor manufacturing, especially microelectronics, to reduce parasitic device capacitance, thereby improving performance.

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Solar cell

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

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Solar panel

Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.

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Strength of materials

Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.

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Substrate (electronics)

A substrate (also called a wafer) is a solid (usually planar) substance onto which a layer of another substance is applied, and to which that second substance adheres.

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SunEdison, Inc. (formerly MEMC Electronic Materials) is a renewable energy company headquartered in the U.S. In addition to developing, building, owning, and operating solar power plants and wind energy plants, it also manufactures high purity polysilicon, monocrystalline silicon ingots, silicon wafers, solar modules, solar energy systems, and solar module racking systems.

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Thin film

A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited (TSMC), also known as Taiwan Semiconductor, is the world's largest dedicated independent (pure-play) semiconductor foundry, with its headquarters and main operations located in the Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park in Hsinchu, Taiwan.

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Very-large-scale integration

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.

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Wafer bonding

Wafer bonding is a packaging technology on wafer-level for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), microelectronics and optoelectronics, ensuring a mechanically stable and hermetically sealed encapsulation.

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Wafer dicing

In the context of manufacturing integrated circuits, wafer dicing is the process by which die are separated from a wafer of semiconductor following the processing of the wafer.

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Wafer fabrication

Wafer fabrication is a procedure composed of many repeated sequential processes to produce complete electrical or photonic circuits.

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Wire saw

A wire saw is a saw that uses a metal wire or cable for cutting.

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Zone melting

Zone melting (or zone refining or floating zone process or travelling melting zone) is a group of similar methods of purifying crystals, in which a narrow region of a crystal is melted, and this molten zone is moved along the crystal.

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Mono-crystalline silicon wafer, Monocrystalline silicon wafer, Semiconductor wafer, Semiconductor wafers, Silicon Wafer, Silicon wafer, Silicon-wafer, Slice (electronics), Solar wafer, Thick film, Wafer (semiconductor), Wafer silicon.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wafer_(electronics)

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