292 relations: 'Uyayna, Abaya, Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Latif Al ash-Sheikh, Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad, Abdullah al-Ghumari, Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, Abraj Al Bait, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, Abu Mansur al-Maturidi, Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, Adl, Ahl al-Bayt, Ahl al-Hadith, Ahl-i Hadith, Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ahmed el-Tayeb, Ajyad Fortress, Al ash-Sheikh, Al Jazeera, Al-Ahbash, Al-Ash`ari, Al-Azhar University, Al-Baqi', Al-Hasa, Al-Qaeda, Al-Shabaab (militant group), Ali, Aminah, Ansar Dine, Anti-imperialism, Apocrypha, Apostasy in Islam, Arab nationalism, Arab Revolt, Ashʿari, Asia Times, Assalam Mosque, Association football, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Bandar bin Sultan Al Saud, Barelvi, Basra, Battle of Mecca (1813), Battle of Medina (1812), Bay'ah, BBC News, Bedouin, ..., Bernard Haykel, Bid‘ah, Boko Haram, C. Hurst & Co., Cairo, Carnegie Mellon University, Charles Saint-Prot, Charlie Hebdo, Chechnya, Cold War, Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (Saudi Arabia), Cork Islamic Cultural Centre, Council of Senior Scholars (Saudi Arabia), Culver City, California, David Holden, Dawah, Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire, Democracy, Demographics of Bahrain, Deobandi, Diriyah, Dua, Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina, Education City, Egypt, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Emir, Emirate of Diriyah, Emirate of Nejd, Emirate of Transjordan, Emiratis, Encyclopædia Britannica, Fard, Fasting in Islam, Fatimah, FIFA World Cup, Fiqh, Freedom House, Freya Stark, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Georgetown University, Ghaliyya al-Wahhabiyya, Gilles Kepel, God in Islam, Great Mosque of Mecca, Gulf War, Hadith, Hajj, Hamid Algar, Hamoud al Aqla al Shuebi, Hanafi, Hanbali, Haram, Hejaz, Heresy, Hisham Kabbani, House of Saud, Husayn ibn Ali, Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, Ibn Abidin, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Ibn Saud, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, Ijma, Ijtihad, Ikhwan, Ikhwan revolt, Imam, Imran N. Hosein, Ingrid Mattson, International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Islam, Islam in Saudi Arabia, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic schools and branches, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamic Supreme Council of America, Islamic terrorism, Islamism, Ismah, Izala Society, Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, Jeddah, Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, Jon Kyl, Juhayman al-Otaybi, Junayd of Baghdad, Kalam, Karbala, Karen Armstrong, Khaled Abou El Fadl, Khawarij, King Abdulaziz University, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, King of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Land grabbing, Lee Kuan Yew, Leiden University, Library of Congress, Londonistan: How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within, Los Angeles Times, Madawi al-Rasheed, Madhhab, Madrasa, Mahdi, Maliki, Maslaha, Maturidi, Mausoleum, Mawlid, Mazar (mausoleum), Mecca, Medina, Mehrdad Izady, Memoirs of Mr. Hempher, The British Spy to the Middle East, Michael Sells, Military of the Ottoman Empire, Mohammad bin Salman, Monotheism, Morocco, Mosque, Mother's Day, Mufti, Muhammad, Muhammad Abu Zahra, Muhammad Ali dynasty, Muhammad Asad, Muhammad bin Saud, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen, Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al ash-Sheikh, Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani, Munich, Muslim, Muslim Brotherhood, Muslim Brotherhood of Syria, Muslim world, Muslim World League, Nahdlatul Ulama, Najaf, Najd, Naqshbandi, Natana J. DeLong-Bas, Nationalism, Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud, Noah Feldman, Non-governmental organization, Northwestern University, Oil reserves in Saudi Arabia, Osama bin Laden, Ottoman Caliphate, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turks, Oxford University Press, Paganism, Persian Gulf, Petro-Islam, Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Qadi, Qadiriyya, Qatar, Qatar Charity, Qatar Foundation, Qiyas, Quakers, Quran, Qutbism, Rafida, Ramadan, Rashid Rida, Relics of Muhammad, Research assistant, Riyadh, Robert Lacey, Ruhollah Khomeini, Saddam Hussein, Sahabah, Salaf, Salafi jihadism, Salafi movement, Salah, Salman of Saudi Arabia, Saud bin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco, Sayyid Qutb, School of Foreign Service, Secularity, September 11 attacks, Shafi‘i, Sharia, Sharifian Caliphate, Shia Islam, Shirk (Islam), Social justice, Somalia, Soviet–Afghan War, Srđa Trifković, Sufi–Salafi relations, Sufism, Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Sunnah, Sunni Islam, Syria (region), Ta'if, Takfir, Takfiri, Talal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Taliban, Taqlid, Tawassul, Tawhid, Texas A&M University, Thawb, The Economist, The Guardian, The Independent, The New York Sun, The New Yorker, The People of Monotheism, TheGuardian.com, Traditionalist theology (Islam), Turki bin Faisal Al Saud, Ulama, Understanding Islam through Hadis, United Arab Emirates, United States Department of State, University of Chicago, Valentine's Day, Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad, Wahhabi War, Wahhabism, Zahir (Islam), Zayd ibn al-Khattab, Ziyarat, 1973 oil crisis, 2016 international conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny. 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Al-'Uyayna or Al-'Uyaynah (العيينة) is a village in central Saudi Arabia, located some 30 km northwest of the Saudi capital Riyadh.
The abaya "cloak" (colloquially and more commonly, عباية, especially in Literary Arabic: عباءة; plural عبايات, عباءات), sometimes also called an aba, is a simple, loose over-garment, essentially a robe-like dress, worn by some women in parts of the Muslim world including in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz (عبد العزيز بن عبد الله بن باز) (November 21, 1910 – May 13, 1999), was a Saudi Arabian Islamic scholar and a leading proponent of the Wahhabi form of Islam.
Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Latif Al ash-Sheikh (1848–1921) was a Wahhabi scholar from Saudi Arabia who was the grandfather of King Faisal of Saudi Arabia and a descendant of the founder of the Wahhabi sect, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Najdi.
Imam Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud (عبد العزيز بن محمد بن سعود) (d. 1803) was the second ruler of the First Saudi State and son of Muhammad bin Saud.
Abu al-Fadl Abdullah bin Muhammad bin al-Siddiq al-Ghumari (1910–1993) was a Moroccan preacher, jurist and theologian.
Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود,, Najdi Arabic pronunciation:; 1 August 1924 – 23 January 2015) was King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2005 to his death in 2015.
Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (عبد الله يوسف عزام, ‘Abdu’llāh Yūsuf ‘Azzām; 194124 November 1989) also known as Father of Global Jihad was a Palestinian Sunni Islamic scholar and theologian and founding member of Al-Qaeda.
The Abraj Al-Bait (Translated as "The Towers of the House") is a government-owned megatall complex of seven skyscraper hotels in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Abū Bakr al-Baghdadi (أبو بكر البغدادي; born Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي in 1971) is the leader of the Salafi jihadist militant terrorist organisation known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL),Rewards for Justice – Retrieved 25 January 2017 which controls territory in several countries.
Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Maḥmūd al-Samarḳandī (853-944 CE; محمد بن محمد بن محمود أبو منصور ماتریدی سمرقندی حنفی), often referred to as Abū Manṣūr al-Māturīdī for short, or reverently as Imam Māturīdī by Sunni Muslims, was a Sunni Hanafi jurist, theologian, and scriptural exegete from ninth-century Samarkand who became the eponymous codifier of one of the principal orthodox schools of Sunni theology, the Maturidi school, which became the dominant theological school for Sunni Muslims in Central Asia and later enjoyed a preeminent status as the school of choice for both the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire.
Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi (أبو محمد المقدسي), or more fully Abu Muhammad Essam al-Maqdisi (أبو محمد عصام المقدسي), is the assumed name of Essam Muhammad Tahir al-Barqawi (عصام محمد طاهر البرقاوي), an Islamist Jordanian-Palestinian writer.
Adl (عدل) is an Arabic word meaning 'justice', and is also one of the names of God in Islam.
Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت, اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House".
Ahl al-Hadith (أهل الحديث, "The people of hadith"; also Așḥāb al-ḥadīṯ; أصحاب الحديث, "The adherents of hadith") first emerged in the 2nd/3rd Islamic centuries as a movement of hadith scholars who considered the Quran and authentic hadith to be the only authority in matters of law and creed.
Ahl-i Hadith or Ahl-e-Hadith (اهل حدیث, اہل حدیث, people of hadith) is a religious movement that emerged in Northern India in the mid-nineteenth century from the teachings of Syed Nazeer Husain and Siddiq Hasan Khan.
Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a (ASWJ) (Ahlu Suna Waljamaaca) is a Somalia-based paramilitary group consisting of moderate Sufis opposed to radical Islamist groups such as Al-Shabaab.
Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shaybānī (احمد بن محمد بن حنبل ابو عبد الله الشيباني; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal for short, or reverentially as Imam Aḥmad by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, and hadith traditionist.
Ahmed Muhammad Ahmed el-Tayeb (أحمد محمد أحمد الطيب) (born January 6, 1946) is the current Grand Imam of al-Azhar and former president of al-Azhar University.
The Ajyad Fortress (Ecyad Kalesi; قلعة أجياد) was an Ottoman citadel which stood on a hill overlooking the Grand Mosque of Mecca, in what is now Saudi Arabia.
The Al ash-Sheikh (آل الشيخ),Using the term the Al ash-Sheikh family is a pleonasm as the word Al already means family.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al-Ahbash (الأحباش / / "The Ethiopians"), also known as the Association of Islamic Charitable Projects (AICP) (جمعية المشاريع الخيرية الإسلامية /) is a Sufi religious movement which was founded in the mid-1980s.
Al-Ashʿarī (الأشعري.; full name: Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Ismāʿīl ibn Isḥāq al-Ashʿarī; c. 874–936 (AH 260–324), reverentially Imām al-Ashʿarī) was an Arab Sunni Muslim scholastic theologian and eponymous founder of Ashʿarism or Asharite theology, which would go on to become "the most important theological school in Sunni Islam".
Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
Jannaṫ al-Baqī‘ (lit) is a cemetery in Medina, the Hijazi region of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Al-Ahsa, Al-Hasa, or Hadjar (الأحساء al-Aḥsāʾ, locally al-Ahasā) is a traditional oasis historical region in eastern Saudi Arabia whose name is used by the Al-Ahsa Governorate, which makes up much of that country's Eastern Province.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (HSM; حركة الشباب المجاهدين,; Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab, lit. "Mujahideen Youth Movement" or "Movement of Striving Youth"), more commonly known as al-Shabaab (lit), is a jihadist fundamentalist group based in East Africa.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Aminah bint Wahb (آمنة بنت وهب; died 577 AD) was the mother of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ansar Dine (أنصار الدين ʾAnṣār ad-Dīn, also transliterated Ançar Deen; meaning "helpers of the (Islamic) religion" or "defenders of the faith") also known as Ansar al-Din (abbreviated as AAD) is a militant Islamist group led by Iyad Ag Ghaly, one of the most prominent leaders of the Tuareg Rebellion (1990–1995) who is suspected of having ties to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, which is led by his cousin Hamada Ag Hama.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.
Apostasy in Islam (ردة or ارتداد) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya; Arap İsyanı) or Great Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية الكبرى, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya al-Kubrā) was officially initiated by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, at Mecca on June 10, 1916 (9 Sha'ban of the Islamic calendar for that year) although his sons ‘Ali and Faisal had already initiated operations at Medina starting on 5 June with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.
Ashʿarism or Ashʿari theology (الأشعرية al-ʾAšʿarīyya or الأشاعرة al-ʾAšāʿira) is the foremost theological school of Sunni Islam which established an orthodox dogmatic guideline based on clerical authority, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ashʿari (d. AD 936 / AH 324).
Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".
The Assalam Mosque is located in Nantes, France.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri (أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري, born June 19, 1951) is the current leader of Al-Qaeda and a current or former member and senior official of Islamist organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
Bandar bin Sultan (born 2 March 1949) is a member of the House of Saud and was Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the United States from 1983 to 2005.
Barelvi (بَریلوِی) is a movement following the Sunni Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with over 200 million followers in South Asia.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
Ottoman return of Mecca 1813 (Mekke'nin Osmanlıya Dönüşü) also known as the Battle of Mecca happened several days after the recapture of Jeddah during the Ottoman–Saudi War.
The Battle of Medina took place in 1812.
Bayʿah (بَيْعَة, Pledge of allegiance"), in Islamic terminology, is an oath of allegiance to a leader.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Bernard Haykel (born 1968) is professor of Near Eastern Studies and the director of the Institute for Transregional Study of the Contemporary Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia at Princeton University.
In Islam, bid‘ah (بدعة; innovation) refers to innovation in religious matters.
The Islamic State in West Africa (abbreviated as ISWA or ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.
Hurst Publishers (C. Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd) is an independent non-fiction publisher based in the Bloomsbury area of London.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Charles Saint-Prot (26 January 1951) is a French geopolitician and writer.
Charlie Hebdo (French for Charlie Weekly) is a French satirical weekly magazine, featuring cartoons, reports, polemics, and jokes.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (abbreviated CPVPV; هيئة الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر), also informally referred to as Hai’a, is the Saudi Arabian government agency employing “religious police” or Mutaween (مطوعين), to enforce Sharia Law within that Islamic nation.
The Cork Islamic Cultural Centre (CICC) is an Irish-registered non-profit organisation established to "invite Muslims back to the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah and to educate Non-Muslims about Islam." It opened in October 2013 in an effort to serve the second largest Muslim community in Ireland.
The Council of Senior Scholars (Majlis Hay'at Kibar al-‘Ulama - مجلس هيئة كبار العلماء, also known as the Senior Council of Ulema) is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's highest religious body, and advises the king on religious matters.
Culver City is a city in Los Angeles County, California.
David Holden (1924–1977) was a writer, journalist, and broadcaster, best known as the Chief Foreign Correspondent for The Sunday Times, specialising in Middle-Eastern affairs, where he had been since 1965.
(also daawa or daawah; دعوة "invitation") is the proselytizing or preaching of Islam.
Beginning from the late eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire faced challenges defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bahrain, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Deobandi (Pashto and دیو بندی, دیو بندی, দেওবন্দী, देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam.
Diriyah (الدرعية), formerly romanized as Dereyeh and Dariyya, is a town in Saudi Arabia located on the north-western outskirts of the Saudi capital, Riyadh.
In the terminology of Islam, (دُعَاء, plural: أدْعِيَة; archaically transliterated Doowa), literally meaning "invocation", is an act of supplication.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
Durham is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
Education City is an initiative of Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (الجهاد الإسلامي المصري) (EIJ), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad (الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites"), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jihad Group, or the Jihad Organization, is an Egyptian Islamist terrorist group active since the late 1970s.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The Emirate of Diriyah was the first Saudi state.
The Emirate of Nejd was the second Saudi state, existing between 1824 and 1891 in Nejd, the regions of Riyadh and Ha'il of what is now Saudi Arabia.
The Emirate of Transjordan (إمارة شرق الأردن lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921.
The Emirati people (إماراتي) are the citizens of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
(فرض) or (فريضة) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty commanded by Allah (God).
Fasting in Islam, known as Sawm (صَوْم) or Siyām (صِيَام), the Arabic words for fasting, also commonly known as Rūzeh or Rōzah (روزه) in some Muslim countries, is the practice of abstaining, usually from food and drink.
Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Dame Freya Madeline Stark DBE (31 January 18939 May 1993), was a Anglo-Italian explorer and travel writer.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
Ghaliya or Ghaliyya al-Wahhabiyya (غالية الوهابية died 1818) was a Wahhabi woman who led military resistance to prevent the Ottoman recapture of Mecca during the Ottoman–Wahhabi War.
Gilles Kepel, (born June 30, 1955) is a French political scientist and Arabist, specialized in the contemporary Middle East and Muslims in the West.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
The Great Mosque of Mecca, also called Al-Haram Mosque (al-Masjid al-Ḥarām, "the Forbidden Mosque" or "the Sacred Mosque") or Grand Mosque of Makkah, is the largest mosque in the world, and surrounds the Islamic Qiblah (قِـبْـلَـة, Direction of Prayer), that is the Kaaba in the Hejazi city of Mecca (مَـكَّـة, Makkah), Saudi Arabia.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Hamid Algar (born 1940) is a British-American Professor Emeritus of Persian studies at the Faculty of Near Eastern Studies, University of California, Berkeley.
Hamoud al-Aqla al-Shuebi (حمود العقلاء الشعيبي see below for different transliterations) (died late 2001) was a Saudi-born Islamic cleric.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Haram (حَرَام) is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden".
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Muhammad Hisham Kabbani (28 January 1945) is a Lebanese-American Sufi Muslim.
The House of Saud (Āl Suʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi (الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 1853/18544 June 1931) was a Hashemite Arab leader who was the Sharif and Emir of Mecca from 1908 and, after proclaiming the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire, King of the Hejaz from 1916 to 1924.
Muhammad Amin Ibn Abidin (1198–1252 AH / 1783–1836 AD) also known as Imam Ibn Abidin ash-shami was a prominent Islamic scholar and Jurist who lived in the city of Damascus in Syria during the Ottoman era.
Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr ibn Ayyūb al-Zurʿī l-Dimashqī l-Ḥanbalī (1292–1350 CE / 691 AH–751 AH), commonly known as Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya ("The son of the principal of Jawziyyah") or Ibn al-Qayyim ("Son of the principal"; ابن قيم الجوزية) for short, or reverentially as Imam Ibn al-Qayyim in Sunni tradition, was an important medieval Islamic jurisconsult, theologian, and spiritual writer.
Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud (عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود,; 15 January 1875 – 9 November 1953), usually known within the Arab world as Abdulaziz and in the West as Ibn Saud, was the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state".
Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية, January 22, 1263 - September 26, 1328), known as Ibn Taymiyyah for short, was a controversial medieval Sunni Muslim theologian, jurisconsult, logician, and reformer.
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
The Ikhwan (الإخوان, (The) Brethren), also Akhwan, was the first Saudi army made up of traditionally nomadic tribesmen which formed a significant military force of the ruler Ibn Saud and played an important role in establishing him as ruler of most of the Arabian Peninsula in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Ikhwan Revolt began in 1927, when the tribesmen of the Otaibah and Mutayr and Ajman rebelled against the authority of Ibn Saud and engaged in cross-border raids into parts of Trans-Jordan, Mandatory Iraq and the Emirate of Kuwait.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
Imran Nazar Hosein (born 1942) is an Islamic scholar, author and philosopher specializing in Islamic eschatology, world politics, economics, and modern socio-economic/political issues.
Ingrid Mattson (born August 24, 1963) is a Muslim religious leader, a professor of Islamic Studies and an interfaith activist.
Starting in the mid-1970s and 1980s, conservative/strict/puritanical interpretations of Sunni Islam favored by the conservative oil-exporting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, (and to a lesser extent by other Gulf monarchies) have achieved what political scientist Gilles Kepel calls a "preeminent position of strength in the global expression of Islam." The interpretations included not only "Wahhabi" Islam of Saudi Arabia, but Islamist/revivalist Islam, and a "hybrid" of the two interpretations.
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the state religion of Saudi Arabia.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
The Islamic Supreme Council of America (ISCA) is a Muslim religious organization in the United States, founded in 1998 by Shaykh Hisham Kabbani, who is also its current chairman.
Islamic terrorism, Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism is defined as any terrorist act, set of acts or campaign committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
‘Iṣmah or ‘Isma (عِصْمَة; literally, "protection") is the concept of incorruptible innocence, immunity from sin, or moral infallibility in Islamic theology, and which is especially prominent in Shia Islam.
Izala Society, formally Jama’at Izalat al Bid’a Wa Iqamat as Sunna (Society of Removal of Innovation and Re-establishment of the Sunna), also called JIBWIS, is an Islamic movement originally established in Northern Nigeria to fight what it sees as the bid’a (innovation) practiced by the Sufi brotherhoods.
Jamaat-e-Islami, (Urdu:; meaning "Islamic Congress") abbreviated JI, is a socially conservative and Islamist political party based in Pakistan.
Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.
Johann Ludwig (also known as John Lewis, Jean Louis) Burckhardt (24 November 1784 – 15 October 1817) was a Swiss traveller, geographer and orientalist.
Jon Llewellyn Kyl (born April 25, 1942) is an American attorney and politician.
Juhayman ibn Muhammad ibn Sayf al-Otaybi (جهيمان بن محمد بن سيف العتيبي 16 September 1936 – 9 January 1980) was a Saudi religious extremist and former Saudi Arabian army man who in 1979 led the Grand Mosque seizure of the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, Islam's holiest site, to protest against the Saudi monarchy and the House of Saud.
Junayd of Baghdad (835-910) was a Persian mystic and one of the most famous of the early Saints of Islam.
ʿIlm al-Kalām (عِلْم الكَلام, literally "science of discourse"),Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction.
Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.
Karen Armstrong, (born 14 November 1944) is a British author and commentator of Irish Catholic descent known for her books on comparative religion.
Khaled Abou el Fadl (خالد أبو الفضل) (born 1963 in Kuwait) is the Omar and Azmeralda Alfi Distinguished Professor of Law at the UCLA School of Law where he has taught courses on International Human Rights, Islamic jurisprudence, National Security Law, Law and Terrorism, Islam and Human Rights, Political Asylum, and Political Crimes and Legal Systems.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
King Abdulaziz University (KAU) (جامعة الملك عبد العزيز) is a public university in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) (جامعة الملك عبد الله للعلوم و التقنية.) is a private research university located in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia's absolute monarch who serves as head of state and head of government.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
Land grabbing is the contentious issue of large-scale land acquisitions: the buying or leasing of large pieces of land by domestic and transnational companies, governments, and individuals.
Lee Kuan Yew GCMG CH SPMJ (16 September 1923 – 23 March 2015), commonly referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Londonistan: How Britain is Creating a Terror State Within is a 2006 best-selling book by the British journalist Melanie Phillips about the spread of Islamism in the United Kingdom over the previous twenty years.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Madawi al-Rasheed (مضاوي الرشيد; born) is a Saudi Arabian professor of social anthropology.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
Maslaha or maslahah (lit) is a concept in shari'ah (Islamic divine law) regarded as a basis of law.
In Islam, a Maturidi (ماتريدي) is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi's systematic theology (kalam), which is a school of theology within Sunni Islam.
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (مَولِد النَّبِي mawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.
A mazār (مزار) is a mausoleum or shrine in some places of the world, typically that of a saint or notable religious leader.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
Michael Mehrdad R.S.C. Izady or Michael Izady (born 1963), is a contemporary writer on ethnic and cultural topics, particularly the Greater Middle East, and Kurds.
Memoirs of Mr.
Michael Anthony Sells (Born in Butte MT, on May 8, 1949) is the John Henry Barrows Professor of Islamic History and Literature at the Divinity School of the University of Chicago.
The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.
Mohammad bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (محمد بن سلمان بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود; born 31 August 1985), known colloquially as MbS, is the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, also serving as First Deputy Prime Minister, President of the Council for Economic and Development Affairs and Minister of Defense—the world's youngest office holder at the time.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mother's Day is a celebration honoring the mother of the family, as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society.
A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Abu Zahra (1898–1974) was an Egyptian public intellectual, scholar of Islamic law, and author.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century.
Muhammad Asad (محمد أسد /muħammad ʔasad/, محمد أسد, born Leopold Weiss; 12 July 1900 – 20 February 1992) was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian Muslim journalist, traveler, writer, linguist, thinker, political theorist, diplomat and Islamic scholar.
Muhammad ibn Saud (died 1765), also known as Ibn Saud, was the emir of Ad-Diriyyah and is considered the founder of the First Saudi State and the Saud dynasty, which are technically named for his father – Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin (died 1725).
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (محمد بن عبد الوهاب; 1703 – 22 June 1792) was a religious leader, theologian and reformer from Najd in central Arabia who founded the movement now called Wahhabism.
Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Saalih ibn Muhammad ibn Sulayman ibn Abd Al Rahman Al Uthaymeen Al Tamimi (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن صالح بن محمد بن سليمان بن عبد الرحمن العثيمين التميمي) (March 9, 1925 – January 10, 2001) was a Salafi scholar of Saudi Arabia who was considered "a giant within conservative Salafi Islam".
Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al ash-Sheikh (1893–1969) was the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, or highest religious authority in the country, from 1953 to his death in 1969.
Muhammad Nasir-ud-Dīn al-Albani (1914 – October 2, 1999) was an Albanian Islamic scholar who specialised in the fields of hadith and fiqh.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
The Muslim Brotherhood of Syria (الإخوان المسلمون في سوريا Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimun fi Suriya), formerly the Islamic Socialist Front, has been described as "a branch" of the Sunni Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, and as "very loosely affiliated" to the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
The Muslim World League (Rabitat al-Alam al-Islami, رابطة العالم الاسلامي) is Pan-Islamic NGO based in Makkah, Saudi Arabia that propagates Islamic teachings.
Nahdlatul Ulama (also Nahdatul Ulama or NU) is a traditionalist Sunni Islam movement in Indonesia following the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence.
Najaf (اَلـنَّـجَـف; BGN: An-Najaf) or An Najaf Al Ashraf (النّجف الأشرف) is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km (100 mi) south of Baghdad.
Najd or Nejd (نجد, Najd) is a geographical central region of Saudi Arabia, alone accounting for almost a third of the population of the country.
The Naqshbandi (نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.
Natana J. DeLong-Bas is an American scholar and the author of a number of books on Islam, as well as "numerous book chapters and encyclopedia articles" on the subject of "Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism, Islamic thought and history, Islam and politics, and contemporary jihadism".
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (نايف بن عبد العزيز آل سعود), also spelled Naif or Naeif (1934 – 16 June 2012), was the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia as well as first deputy prime minister from 2011 to 2012.
Noah R. Feldman (born May 22, 1970) is an American author and Felix Frankfurter Professor of Law at Harvard Law School.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.
The proven oil reserves in Saudi Arabia are the 2nd largest in the world, estimated to be (Gbbl hereafter), including 2.5 Gbbl in the Saudi–Kuwaiti neutral zone.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
The Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924), under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last Sunni Islamic caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Petro-Islam usually refers to the extremist and fundamentalist interpretation of Sunni Islam—sometimes called "Wahhabism"—favored by the conservative oil-exporting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding (ACMCU) is an interfaith institution based at the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Washington, D.C..
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
The Qadiriyya (القادريه, قادریه, also transliterated Qadri, Qadriya, Kadri, Elkadri, Elkadry, Aladray, Alkadrie, Adray, Kadray, Qadiri,"Quadri" or Qadri) are members of the Qadiri tariqa (Sufi order).
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Qatar Charity (QC) is an NGO founded in 1992 for the development of the Qatari community and those communities in need.
Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development (مؤسسة قطر) is a semi-private chartered, non-profit organization in Qatar, founded in 1995 by then-emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani and his second wife Moza bint Nasser.
In Islamic jurisprudence, qiyās (قياس) is the process of deductive analogy in which the teachings of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Qur'an, in order to apply a known injunction (nass) to a new circumstance and create a new injunction.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Qutbism (also called Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is an Islamist ideology developed by Sayyid Qutb, the figurehead of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Rafida, also transliterated as Rafidah, is an Arabic word (collective plural ar-Rāfiḍa; multiple plural Raāfiḍa; singular Rāfiḍī) meaning "rejectors", "rejectionists", "those who reject" or "those who refuse".
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Muhammad Rashid Rida (محمد رشيد رضا; transliteration, Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā; Ottoman Syria, 23 September 1865 or 18 October 1865 –Egypt, 22 August 1935) was an early Islamic reformer, whose ideas would later influence 20th-century Islamist thinkers in developing a political philosophy of an "Islamic state".
Traditionally, Islam has had a rich history of the veneration of relics, especially of those attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
A research assistant is a researcher employed, often on a temporary contract, by a university or a research institute, for the purpose of assisting in academic research.
Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; الرياض ar-Riyāḍ Najdi pronunciation) is the capital and most populous city of Saudi Arabia.
Robert Lacey (born 3 January 1944) is a British historian and biographer.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Salaf (سلف, "ancestors" or "predecessors"), also often referred to with the honorific expression of "al-salaf al-ṣāliḥ" (السلف الصالح, "the pious predecessors") are often taken to be the first three generations of Muslims, that is the generations of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his companions (the Sahabah), their successors (the Tabi‘un), and the successors of the successors (the Taba Tabi‘in).
Salafi jihadism or jihadist-Salafism is a transnational religious-political ideology based on a belief in "physical" jihadism and the Salafi movement of returning to what adherents believe to be true Sunni Islam.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (سلمان بن عبد العزیز آل سعود; born 31 December 1935) is the King of Saudi Arabia, Prime Minister, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques and head of the House of Saud.
Imam Saud al Kabeer bin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud (d. 1814) ruled the First Saudi State from 1803 to 1814.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Saudi Aramco (أرامكو السعودية), officially the Saudi Arabian Oil Company, most popularly known just as Aramco (formerly Arabian-American Oil Company), is a Saudi Arabian national petroleum and natural gas company based in Dhahran.
Sayyid Qutb (or;,; سيد قطب Sayyid Quṭb; also spelled Said, Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, Sayed; Koteb, Qutub, Kotb, Kutb; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966) was an Egyptian author, educator, Islamic theorist, poet, and the leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s.
The Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service (commonly abbreviated as SFS) at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. is one of the world's leading international relations schools.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
The Sharifian Caliphate (خلافة شريفية) was an Arab caliphate proclaimed by the Sharifian rulers of Hejaz in 1924, in lieu of the Ottoman Caliphate.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
Srđa Trifković (also Srdja Trifković; Срђа Трифковић,, and as author Serge Trifkovic; born 19 July 1954) is a Serbian-American writer on international affairs and foreign affairs editor for the paleoconservative magazine Chronicles. He was director of the Center for International Affairs at the Rockford Institute until his resignation on 31 December 2008.
The relationship between Salafism and Sufis – two movements of Sunni Islam with different interpretations of Islam – is historically diverse and reflects some of the changes and conflicts in the Muslim world today.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (5 January 1924 – 22 October 2011) (سلطان بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود), called Sultan al-Khair (سلطان الخير, Sultan of goodness) in Saudi Arabia, was the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2011.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
Ta'if (الطائف) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains).
Takfir or takfeer (تكفير) is a controversial concept in Islamist discourse, denoting excommunication, as one Muslim declaring another Muslim as a non-believer (kafir).
A takfiri (تكفيري) is a Muslim who accuses another Muslim (or an adherent of another Abrahamic faith) of apostasy.
Talal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (طلال بن عبد العزيز آل سعود, born 15 August 1931), formerly also called The Red Prince, is a senior member of the Saudi royal family.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Taqlid or taqleed (Arabic تَقْليد taqlīd) is an Islamic terminology denoting the conformity of one person to the teaching of another.
Tawassul is an Arabic word originated from wa-sa-la- wasilat (وسيلة-وسل).
Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.
Texas A&M University (Texas A&M or A&M) is a coeducational public research university in College Station, Texas, United States.
A thawb or thobe (ثَوْب / ALA-LC: thawb) is an ankle-length Arab garment, usually with long sleeves, similar to a robe, kaftan or tunic.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Sun was an American daily newspaper published in Manhattan from 2002 to 2008.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The People of Monotheism may translate several Arabic terms.
TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.
Traditionalist theology is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology (kalam) in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran and hadith.
Turki bin Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (تركي بن فيصل بن عبد الـعزيز آل سعود) (born 15 February 1945), known also as Turki al-Faisal, is a Saudi politician and diplomat.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
Understanding Islam through Hadis is a book by Ram Swarup, first published in the United States in 1982.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Valentine's Day, also called Saint Valentine's Day or the Feast of Saint Valentine, is celebrated annually on February 14.
Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad is 2004 a book by academic Natana J. DeLong-Bas, published by Oxford University Press.
The Wahhabi War was fought from early 1811 to 1818, between Egypt Eyalet under the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha (nominally under Ottoman rule) and the army of the Emirate of Diriyah, the First Saudi State, resulting in the destruction of the latter.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Ẓāhir (ظاهر) is an Arabic term in some tafsir (interpretations of the Quran) for what is external and manifest.
Zayd ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (died 632) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muḥammad and a brother of Umar the second Caliph.
In Islam, ziyara(h) (زيارة ziyārah, "visit") or ziyarat (زیارت, ziyārat, "pilgrimage") is a form of pilgrimage to sites associated with Muhammad, his family members and descendants (including the Shī‘ī Imāms), his companions and other venerated figures in Islam such as the prophets, Sufi Saints and Islamic scholars.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 2016 conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny was convened to define the term “Ahl al-Sunna wa’l-Jama‘ah”, i.e. who are "the people of Sunnism and the Sunni community" in Islam, and oppose Takfiri groups.
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