36 relations: Albrecht Kossel, Arnold Sommerfeld, Atomic number, Atomic theory, Berlin, Bohr model, Chemical bond, Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gerhard Herzberg, Germans, Gilbert N. Lewis, Habilitation, Harvey Elliott White, Heidelberg University, Humboldt University of Berlin, Ionic bonding, Ivan Stranski, Jagdish Mehra, Linus Pauling, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Max Planck Medal, Niels Bohr, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Octet rule, Philipp Lenard, Photoelectric effect, Physicist, Sommerfeld–Kossel displacement law, Spectroscopy, Tübingen, Terrace ledge kink model, University of Kiel, University of Tübingen, X-ray absorption fine structure, X-ray spectroscopy.
Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel (16 September 1853 – 5 July 1927) was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics.
Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, (5 December 1868 – 26 April 1951) was a German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics, and also educated and mentored a large number of students for the new era of theoretical physics.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
The Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG, "German Physical Society") is the world's largest organization of physicists.
The Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT; Politechnika Gdańska) is a technical university in Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz, and one of the oldest universities in Poland.
Gerhard Heinrich Friedrich Otto Julius Herzberg, (December 25, 1904 – March 3, 1999) was a German-Canadian pioneering physicist and physical chemist, who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1971, "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals".
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries.
Harvey Elliott White (January 28, 1902 – October 3, 1988) was an American physicist and professor at the University of California, Berkeley.
Heidelberg University (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; Universitas Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis) is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Ivan Nikolov Stranski (Иван Николов Странски; Iwan Nicolá Stranski; 2 January 1897 – 19 June 1979) was a Bulgarian physical chemist.
Jagdish Mehra (April 8, 1931 – September 14, 2008) was an Indian-American historian of science.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.
The Max Planck medal is the highest award of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, the world's largest organization of physicists, for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electron configuration as a noble gas.
Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (7 June 1862 – 20 May 1947) was a German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of many of their properties.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
The Sommerfeld–Kossel displacement law states that the first spark (singly ionized) spectrum of an element is similar in all details to the arc (neutral) spectrum of the element preceding it in the periodic table.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
In chemistry, the Terrace Ledge Kink model (TLK), which is also referred to as the Terrace Step Kink model (TSK), describes the thermodynamics of crystal surface formation and transformation, as well as the energetics of surface defect formation.
Kiel University (German: Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, CAU) is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany.
The University of Tübingen, officially the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen; Universitas Eberhardina Carolina), is a German public research university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg.
X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) is a specific structure observed in X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS).
X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.