264 relations: -logy, A History of Warfare, Adolf Hitler, Aggression, Albert Einstein, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Alsace-Lorraine, American Civil War, An Lushan Rebellion, Anglo-Dutch Wars, Ant, Archetype, Arms industry, Ashley Montagu, Asymmetric warfare, Authoritarianism, Balance of power (international relations), Berlin Institute for Population and Development, Biological agent, Biological warfare, Black Death, Bounded rationality, Brigadier general (United States), Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Cambridge University Press, Capitalism, Carl von Clausewitz, Casualty (person), Casus belli, Chemical warfare, Chemical weapon, Cheq Wong language, Chimpanzee, Civil war, Civilian, Civilian casualties, Clash of Civilizations, Cognitive bias, Cold War, Colonial war, Competition, Computer, Computer network, Consequentialism, Contest competition, Conventional warfare, Correlates of War, CRC Press, Customary international law, Cyberwarfare, ..., Demand, Deterrence theory, Displacement (psychology), Diversionary foreign policy, Dungan Revolt (1862–77), Eastern Front (World War II), Ecological niche, Economic development, Egalitarianism, Famine, Fault line war, First Crusade, Fiscal capacity, Forced displacement, Franco-Prussian War, Franks, Free market, French Revolution, Game theory, General officer, Genocide, Geoffrey Blainey, Great Depression, Greek language, Group cohesiveness, Groupthink, Gunpowder, Hans Morgenthau, Henrik Urdal, Henry Kissinger, Hermann Göring, Hew Strachan, Hierarchy, Holy Roman Empire, Honour, Human nature, Human Security Report 2005, Iain King, Ideology, Imperialism, Information asymmetry, Information warfare, Inheritance, Insurgency, International law, International relations theory, Iraq War, Irregular military, James Fearon, Jebel Sahaba, John Bowlby, John Keegan, John Mearsheimer, Joost Meerloo, Jus ad bellum, Just and Unjust Wars, Just war theory, Kenneth Waltz, Keynesian economics, Law of war, League of Nations, Lebensraum, Legitimate military target, Lewis Fry Richardson, Liberalism (international relations), List of battles and other violent events by death toll, List of battles by casualties, List of conflicts by duration, List of invasions, List of Mongol and Tatar attacks in Europe, List of ongoing armed conflicts, List of orders of battle, List of Presidents of the United States, List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, List of wars by death toll, Lists of active separatist movements, Lists of battles, Malthusian catastrophe, Man, the State, and War, Mao Zedong, Market (economics), Marxism, Marxists Internet Archive, Means of production, Melanie Klein, Mexican Drug War, Military, Military history, Military logistics, Military operations other than war, Military personnel, Military policy, Military science, Military strategy, Military tactics, Military technology, Militia, Ming dynasty, Modern history, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasions and conquests, Morality, Mutual assured destruction, Napoleon, Natural resource, Nazism, Nelson Thornes, Neman, Neorealism (international relations), Non-combatant, Nuclear warfare, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear winter, Old English, Old French, Old High German, Old Saxon, Operational level of war, Opposition to the war in Afghanistan (2001–2014), Outline of war, Oxford University Press, Paraguayan War, Paraguayan War casualties, Peace, Philosophy of war, Polarity (international relations), Pope Urban II, Population, Population Action International, Population pyramid, Portuguese language, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Power transition theory, Pragmatism, Prisoner of war, Propaganda, Prospect theory, Proto-Germanic language, Psychological projection, Qing dynasty, Race (human categorization), Rationalism (international relations), Realism (international relations), Realistic conflict theory, Regality theory, Regular army, Religious war, Revenge, Richard Smalley, Right-wing politics, Roger Griffin, Rosa Luxemburg, Routledge, Royal Navy, Russian Civil War, Russian Revolution, Rwandan genocide, S.L.A. Marshall, Scramble competition, Second Sino-Japanese War, Second Vatican Council, Security dilemma, Semai people, Seven Years' War, Smedley Butler, Social class, Social Darwinism, Social organization, Social structure, Society, Soviet Union, State (polity), State-building, Steven Pinker, Stop the War Coalition, Strategic Studies Institute, Syrian Civil War, Taiping Rebellion, The New Press, The New York Times, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Robert Malthus, Time (magazine), Timur, Total fertility rate, Total war, Typhus, Unconventional warfare, Undeclared war, United States Army, United States Army War College, United States military casualties of war, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Vietnam War, W. W. Norton & Company, War as metaphor, War Before Civilization, War crime, War effort, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), War Is a Racket, War of aggression, War reparations, War studies, Wars of national liberation, Weapon, William Rubinstein, World revolution, World War I, World War I casualties, World War II, World War II casualties, World War II casualties of the Soviet Union. Expand index (214 more) » « Shrink index
-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).
A History of Warfare is a book by military historian John Keegan, which was published in 1993 by Random House.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.
The Anglo-Dutch wars (Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of conflicts fought, on one side, by the Dutch States (the Dutch Republic, later the Batavian Republic) and, on the other side, first by England and later by the Kingdom of Great Britain/the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu (June 28, 1905November 26, 1999), previously known as Israel Ehrenberg, was a British-American anthropologist who popularized the study of topics such as race and gender and their relation to politics and development.
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
The balance of power theory in international relations suggests that national security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others.
The Berlin Institute for Population and Development (Berlin-Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung) is an independent scientific research institute that aims to improve the way in which international demographic change is perceived and dealt with in the context of sustainable development.
A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Bounded rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision.
In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
A casualty in military usage is a person in military service, combatant or non-combatant, who becomes unavailable for duty due to several circumstances, including death, injury, illness, capture or desertion.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
Cheq Wong (Ceq Wong, Chewong) is an Austroasiatic language spoken in the Malay Peninsula.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
Civilian casualties occurs in a general sense, when civilians are killed or injured by non-civilians, mostly law enforcement officers, military personnel, or criminals such as terrorists and bank robbers.
The Clash of Civilizations is a hypothesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world.
A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colonial war (in some contexts referred to as small war) is a blanket term relating to the various conflicts that arose as the result of overseas territories being settled by foreign powers creating a colony.
Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
In ecology, contest competition refers to a situation where available resources, such as food and mates, are utilized only by one or a few individuals, thus preventing development or reproduction of other individuals.
Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.
The Correlates of War project is an academic study of the history of warfare.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.
Cyberwarfare is the use or targeting in a battlespace or warfare context of computers, online control systems and networks.
In economics, demand is the quantities of a commodity or a service that people are willing and able to buy at various prices, over a given period of time.
Deterrence theory gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War with regard to the use of nuclear weapons.
In Freudian psychology, displacement (Verschiebung, "shift, move") is an unconscious defence mechanism whereby the mind substitutes either a new aim or a new object for goals felt in their original form to be dangerous or unacceptable.
A diversionary foreign policy, or a diversionary war, is an international relations term that identifies a war instigated by a country's leader in order to distract its population from their own domestic strife.
The Dungan Revolt (1862–77) or Tongzhi Hui Revolt (Xiao'erjing: توْجِ حُوِ بِيًا/لُوًا, Тунҗы Хуэй Бян/Луан) or Hui (Muslim) Minorities War was a mainly ethnic and religious war fought in 19th-century western China, mostly during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor (r. 1861–75) of the Qing dynasty.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
A fault line war is one that takes place between two or more identity groups (usually religious or ethnic) from different civilizations.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
Fiscal capacity is the ability of the state to extract revenues to provide public goods and carry out other functions of the state, given an administrative, fiscal accounting structure.
Forced displacement or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Geoffrey Norman Blainey (born 11 March 1930) is an Australian historian, academic, philanthropist and commentator with a wide international audience.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Group cohesiveness (also called group cohesion and social cohesion) arises when bonds link members of a social group to one another and to the group as a whole.
Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Hans Joachim Morgenthau (February 17, 1904 – July 19, 1980) was one of the major twentieth-century figures in the study of international politics.
Henrik Urdal (born 19 October 1972) is a political scientist and Research Professor as well as Research Director at the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Sir Hew Francis Anthony Strachan, (born 1 September 1949) is a Scottish military historian, well known for his work on the administration of the British Army and the history of the First World War.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Honour (or honor in American English, note) is the idea of a bond between an individual and a society, as a quality of a person that is both of social teaching and of personal ethos, that manifests itself as a code of conduct, and has various elements such as valor, chivalry, honesty, and compassion.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
The Human Security Report 2005 is a report outlining declining world trends of global violence from the early 1990s to 2003.
Iain Benjamin King is a British writer.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
In contract theory and economics, information asymmetry deals with the study of decisions in transactions where one party has more or better information than the other.
Information warfare (IW) is a concept involving the battlespace use and management of information and communication technology (ICT) in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent.
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
International relations theory is the study of international relations (IR) from a theoretical perspective.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Irregular military is any non-standard military component that is distinct from a country's national armed forces.
James D. Fearon (born 1963) is the Theodore and Francis Geballe Professor of Political Science at Stanford University; he is known for his work on the theory of civil wars, international bargaining, war's inefficiency puzzle and audience costs.
Jebel Sahaba (also Site 117) is a prehistoric cemetery site in the Nile Valley (now submerged in Lake Nasser), near the northern border of Sudan, associated with the Qadan culture, dated to the Younger Dryas (some 12,000 to 14,000 years old).
Edward John Mostyn Bowlby CBE, MA (Cantab), BChir, MD, MRCP, FRCP, FRCPsych, Hon ScD (26 February 1907 – 2 September 1990) was a British psychologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst, notable for his interest in child development and for his pioneering work in attachment theory.
Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan (15 May 1934 – 2 August 2012) was an English military historian, lecturer, writer and journalist.
John Joseph Mearsheimer (born December 14, 1947) is an American political scientist.
Joost Abraham Maurits Meerloo (March 14, 1903 – November 17, 1976) was a Dutch/American Doctor of Medicine and psychoanalyst.
Jus ad bellum (Latin for "right to war") is a set of criteria that are to be consulted before engaging in war in order to determine whether entering into war is permissible, that is, whether it is a just war.
Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations is a 1977 book by Michael Walzer published by Basic Books and still in print, now as part of the Basic Books Classics Series.
Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum iustum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers.
Kenneth Neal Waltz (June 8, 1924 – May 12, 2013) was an American political scientist who was a member of the faculty at both the University of California, Berkeley and Columbia University and one of the most prominent scholars in the field of international relations.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.
Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions, Article 52, provides for the general protection of civilian objects, hindering attacks to military objectives.
Lewis Fry Richardson, FRS (11 October 1881 – 30 September 1953) was an English mathematician, physicist, meteorologist, psychologist and pacifist who pioneered modern mathematical techniques of weather forecasting, and the application of similar techniques to studying the causes of wars and how to prevent them.
Liberalism is a school of thought within international relations theory which can be thought to revolve around three interrelated principles.
This page lists mortalities from battles and individual military operations or acts of violence, sorted by death toll.
The following is a list of the casualties count in battles in world history.
The following list ranks wars and times of war by their duration, including both historical and ongoing wars.
This is a list of invasions ordered by date.
The Mongol invasion of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the Middle Ages to the early modern period.
The following is a list of ongoing armed conflicts that are taking place around the world and continue to result in violence.
This is a list of orders of battle, which list the known military units that were located within the field of operations for a battle or campaign.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll.
This list of wars by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by war.
Presented below is a list of lists of active, separatist movements.
This is an index to articles listing battles.
A Malthusian catastrophe (also known as Malthusian check or Malthusian spectre) is a prediction of a forced return to subsistence-level conditions once population growth has outpaced agricultural production - that there will be too many people and not enough food.
Man, the State, and War is a 1959 book on international relations by realist academic Kenneth Waltz.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
Melanie Reizes Klein (30 March 1882 – 22 September 1960) was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst who devised novel therapeutic techniques for children that influenced child psychology and contemporary psychoanalysis.
The Mexican Drug War (also known as the Mexican War on Drugs) is an ongoing, low-intensity asymmetric war between the Mexican Government and various drug trafficking syndicates.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing local and international relationships.
Military logistics is the discipline of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces.
Military operations other than war (MOOTW) focus on deterring war, resolving conflict, promoting peace, and supporting civil authorities in response to domestic crises.
Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces.
Military policy (also called defence policy or defense policy) is public policy dealing with international security and the military.
Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force.
Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.
Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see pre-emptive nuclear strike and second strike).
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nelson Thornes was a publishing firm located in Cheltenham, Great Britain.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations that says power is the most important factor in international relations.
Non-combatant is a term of art in the law of war and international humanitarian law, describing civilians who are not taking a direct part in hostilities; persons—such as combat medics and military chaplains—who are members of the belligerent armed forces but are protected because of their specific duties (as currently described in Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, adopted in June 1977); combatants who are placed hors de combat; and neutral nationals (including military personnel) who are not fighting for one of the belligerents involved in an armed conflict.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear winter is the severe and prolonged global climatic cooling effect hypothesized to occur after widespread firestorms following a nuclear war.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).
In the field of military theory, the operational level of war (also called the operational art, as derived from оперативное искусство, or the operational warfare) represents the level of command that connects the details of tactics with the goals of strategy.
Opposition to the Afghanistan war stems from numerous factors, including the view that the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan was illegal under international law and constituted an unjustified aggression, the view that the continued military presence constitutes a foreign military occupation, the view that the war does little to prevent terrorism but increases its likelihood, and views on the involvement of geo-political and corporate interests.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to war: War – organised and often prolonged armed conflict that is carried out by states and/or non-state actors – is characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance and the Great War in Paraguay, was a South American war fought from 1864 to 1870 between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, the Empire of Brazil, and Uruguay.
The number of people who died in the Paraguayan War (1864–1870) is unknown; widely different estimates have been made.
Peace is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility.
The philosophy of war is the area of philosophy devoted to examining issues such as the causes of war, the relationship between war and human nature, and the ethics of war.
Polarity in international relations is any of the various ways in which power is distributed within the international system.
Pope Urban II (Urbanus II; – 29 July 1099), born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Population Action International (PAI) is an international, non-governmental organization that uses research and advocacy to improve global access to family planning and reproductive health care.
A population pyramid, also called an "age-sex pyramid", is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclical nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Prospect theory is a behavioral economic theory that describes the way people choose between probabilistic alternatives that involve risk, where the probabilities of outcomes are known (.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Psychological projection is a theory in psychology in which humans defend themselves against their own unconscious impulses or qualities (both positive and negative) by denying their existence in themselves while attributing them to others.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Rationalism in politics is often seen as the midpoint in the three major political viewpoints of realism, rationalism, and internationalism.
Realism is a school of thought in international relations theory, theoretically formalising the Realpolitik statesmanship of early modern Europe.
Realistic conflict theory (initialized RCT), also known as realistic group conflict theory (initialized RGCT), is a social psychological model of intergroup conflict.
Regality theory describes how war and other collective dangers have a profound influence on the psychological disposition of people, and how this in turn influences the structure and cultural values of a society.
A regular army is the official army of a state or country (the official armed forces), contrasting with irregular forces, such as volunteer irregular militias, private armies, mercenaries, etc.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
Revenge is a form of justice enacted in the absence or defiance of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence.
Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Roger D. Griffin (born 31 January 1948) is a British professor of modern history and political theorist at Oxford Brookes University, England.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government.
Samuel Lyman Atwood Marshall (July 18, 1900 – December 17, 1977) was a chief U.S. Army combat historian during World War II and the Korean War.
In ecology, scramble competition (or complete symmetric competition) refers to a situation in which a resource is accessible to all competitors (that is, it is not monopolizable by an individual or group).
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
The security dilemma, also referred to as the spiral model, is a term used in international relations and refers to a situation in which, under anarchy, actions by a state intended to heighten its security, such as increasing its military strength, committing to use weapons or making alliances, can lead other states to respond with similar measures, producing increased tensions that create conflict, even when no side really desires it.
The Semai (also known as Mai Semai or Orang Dalam) are a semi sedentary ethnic group living in the center of the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia, known especially for their nonviolence.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Smedley Darlington Butler (July 30, 1881June 21, 1940) was a United States Marine Corps major general, the highest rank authorized at that time, and at the time of his death the most decorated Marine in U.S. history.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
The term Social Darwinism is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society.
In sociology, a social organization is a pattern of relationships between and among individuals and social groups.
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Over the past two decades, state-building has developed into becoming an integral part and even a specific approach to peacebuilding by the international community.
Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.
The Stop the War Coalition (StWC; informally Stop the War) is a British group which was established on 21 September 2001, shortly after the September 11 attacks, to campaign against what it believes are unjust wars.
The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) is the U.S. Army's institute for strategic and national security research and analysis.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
The New Press is an independent non-profit public-interest book publisher established in 1992 by André Schiffrin"", Publishers Weekly.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Unconventional warfare (abbreviated UW) is the support of a foreign insurgency or resistance movement against its government or an occupying power.
An undeclared war is a military conflict between two or more nations without either side issuing a formal declaration of war.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army War College (USAWC) is a U.S. Army educational institution in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500-acre (2 km²) campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks.
This article lists the United States's military dead, wounded, and missing person totals for wars and major deployments.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) is a data collection project on organized violence housed at Uppsala University in Sweden that has been collecting information on armed conflict since 1946 and making it publicly available through its annual report, States in Armed Conflict. Beginning in Since 2004, the constantly-updated UCDP is also publicly available.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The use of war as metaphor is a longstanding literary and rhetorical trope.
War Before Civilization: the Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford University Press, 1996) is a book by Lawrence H. Keeley, a professor of archaeology at the University of Illinois at Chicago who specializes in prehistoric Europe.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
In politics and military planning, a war effort refers to a coordinated mobilization of society's resources—both industrial and human—towards the support of a military force.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
War Is a Racket is a speech and a 1935 short book, by Smedley D. Butler, a retired United States Marine Corps Major General and two-time Medal of Honor recipient.
A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
War studies, sometimes called polemology, is the multi-disciplinary study of war.
Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
William D. Rubinstein (born August 12, 1946) is a historian and author.
World revolution is the far-left Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was more than 41 million: there were over 18 million deaths and 23 million wounded, ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history in absolute terms of total casualties.
World War II fatalities of the Soviet Union from all related causes numbered more than 20,000,000, both civilian and military, although the exact figures are disputed.
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