212 relations: Ad hoc, Adolf Eichmann, Aerial bombardment and international law, Albert Speer, Ali Hassan al-Majid, Allied war crimes during World War II, Allies of World War II, American Civil War, American Service-Members' Protection Act, Andersonville National Historic Site, Assassination, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Attacks on parachutists, AuthorHouse, Axis powers, Bangladesh Liberation War, Belligerent, Berghahn Books, Biological agent, Biological Weapons Convention, Bombing of Dresden in World War II, Bombing of Tokyo (10 March 1945), Bombing of Warsaw in World War II, Bosnian War, British war crimes, Charles Taylor (Liberian politician), Chemical weapon, Children in the military, Chronicles of Terror, Citizenship, Citizenship of the United States, Civilian, Civilian internee, Combat, Combat medic, Command responsibility, Commando Order, Commissar Order, Confederate States Army, Consequences of Nazism, Crime against peace, Crime of aggression, Crimes against humanity, Customary international law, Declaration of war, Demographics of Libya, Deportation, Disarmed Enemy Forces, Distinction (law), ..., Doctors' trial, Empire of Japan, Erich Raeder, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Espionage, Federal Bureau of Investigation, First Geneva Convention, Forensic anthropology, Fourth Geneva Convention, Generalfeldmarschall, Geneva Convention (1929), Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field (1929), Geneva Conventions, Genocide, German bombing of Rotterdam, German war crimes, Grand admiral, Gulf War, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hanging, Harvard University Asia Center, Head of government, Head of state, Henry Wirz, Hermann Göring, Hideki Tojo, Holy Roman Empire, Hostage, Human shield, Imperial Japanese Army, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Criminal Court, International Criminal Court and the 2003 invasion of Iraq, International Criminal Court investigations, International criminal law, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International humanitarian law, International law, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Italian war crimes, Japanese war crimes, Jean-Pierre Bemba, Joseph Kony, Karl Dönitz, Katyn massacre, Kriegsmarine, Kuniaki Koiso, Kurds, Kuwait, Land mine, Law of war, Library of Congress, Libyan Civil War (2011), Lieber Code, List of chemical arms control agreements, List of denaturalized former citizens of the United States, List of war crimes, Looting, Lord's Resistance Army, Luftwaffe, Mass Atrocity crimes, Mass murder, Military justice, Military necessity, Ministry of the Army, Muammar Gaddafi, Nazi Germany, Nazi human experimentation, Neutral country, NKVD prisoner massacres, No quarter, Non-combatant, Nuremberg, Nuremberg Charter, Nuremberg principles, Nuremberg trials, Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Omar al-Bashir, Oriana Fallaci, Paratrooper, Peacekeeping, Perfidy, Peter von Hagenbach, Politics of Republika Srpska, Population transfer, President of Germany (1919–1945), President of Liberia, President of Yugoslavia, Prime Minister of Japan, Prisoner of war, Property, Proportionality (law), Protocol I, Protocol II, Protocol III, Radovan Karadžić, Rape, Ratko Mladić, Razakar (Pakistan), Right to a fair trial, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Routledge, Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project, Ruse de guerre, Russell Tribunal, Sabotage, Satellite Sentinel Project, Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, Schutzstaffel, Second Geneva Convention, Seishirō Itagaki, Serbia, Sexual slavery, Slobodan Milošević, Sovereign state, Soviet war crimes, Special Court for Sierra Leone, Srebrenica, Srebrenica massacre, State terrorism, Strategic bombing, Strategic bombing during World War II, Sudan, The Blitz, The Hague, The Holocaust, The New York Times, Third Geneva Convention, Tokyo, Torture, Transitional justice, Trial, Unfree labour, Union (American Civil War), United Nations Charter, United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1820, United States Senate Committee on the Philippines, United States war crimes, Universal jurisdiction, University of Turin, Unlawful combatant, V-1 flying bomb, V-2 rocket, Victor's justice, War crime, War Crimes Act of 1996, War Crimes Law (Belgium), War crimes of the Wehrmacht, War in Darfur, War of aggression, Wartime sexual violence, White flag, Wilhelm Keitel, William Calley, Winter Soldier Investigation, World War I, World War II, Yoshijirō Umezu, 1971 Bangladesh genocide. Expand index (162 more) » « Shrink index
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
Otto Adolf Eichmann (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.
Air warfare must comply with laws and customs of war, including international humanitarian law by protecting the victims of the conflict and refraining from attacks on protected persons.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (علي حسن عبد المجيد التكريتي; 1941? – 25 January 2010) was a Ba'athist Iraqi Defense Minister, Interior Minister, military commander and chief of the Iraqi Intelligence Service.
Allied war crimes include both alleged and legally proven violations of the laws of war by the Allies of World War II against either civilians or military personnel of the Axis powers.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Service-Members' Protection Act (ASPA, Title 2 of) is a United States federal law that aims "to protect United States military personnel and other elected and appointed officials of the United States government against criminal prosecution by an international criminal court to which the United States is not party." Introduced by U.S. Senator Jesse Helms (R-NC) and U.S. Representative Tom DeLay (R-TX) it was an amendment to the 2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery From and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States (H.R. 4775).
The Andersonville National Historic Site, located near Andersonville, Georgia, preserves the former Camp Sumter (also known as Andersonville Prison), a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp during the final twelve months of the American Civil War.
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Attacks on parachutists, as defined by the law of war, is when pilots, aircrews, and passengers are attacked while descending by parachute from disabled aircraft during wartime.
AuthorHouse, formerly known as 1stBooks, is a self-publishing company based in the United States.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
A belligerent (lat. bellum gerere, "to wage war") is an individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat.
Berghahn Books is a publisher of scholarly books and academic journals in the humanities and social sciences, with a special focus on social & cultural anthropology, European history, politics, and film & media studies.
A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).
The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as the Biological Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BWC, or Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BTWC) was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.
The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European Theatre.
On the night of 9/10 March 1945 the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) conducted a devastating firebombing raid on Tokyo, the Japanese capital city.
The Bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers to the bombing campaign of Warsaw by the German Luftwaffe during the siege of Warsaw in the invasion of Poland in 1939.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
British war crimes are acts by the armed forces of the United Kingdom which have allegedly violated the laws and customs of war since the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907.
Charles McArthur Ghankay Taylor (born 28 January 1948) is a former Liberian politician who served as the 22nd President of Liberia from 2 August 1997 until his resignation on 11 August 2003.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
Children in the military are children (defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as persons under the age of 18) who are associated with military organisations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups.
Chronicles of Terror – a digital internet archive established by the in August 2016.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
A civilian internee is a civilian detained by a party to a war for security reasons.
Combat (French for fight) is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed.
Combat medics or field medics (or medics) are military personnel who have been trained to at least an EMT-B level (16-week course in the U.S. Army), and are responsible for providing first aid and frontline trauma care on the battlefield.
Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard or the Medina standard, and also known as superior responsibility, is the legal doctrine of hierarchical accountability for war crimes.
The Commando Order was issued by the OKW, the High Command of the German armed forces, on 18 October 1942 stating that all Allied commandos encountered in Europe and Africa should be killed immediately without trial, even if in proper uniforms or if they attempted to surrender.
The Commissar Order (Kommissarbefehl) was an order issued by the German High Command (OKW) on 6 June 1941 before Operation Barbarossa.
The Confederate States Army (C.S.A.) was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities, and people before, during and after World War II.
A crime against peace, in international law, is "planning, preparation, initiation, or waging of wars of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or assurances, or participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of any of the foregoing".
A Crime of Aggression is a specific type of crime where a person plans, initiates, or executes an act of aggression using state military force that violates the Charter of the United Nations.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
Demographics of Libya include population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libyan population.
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country.
Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEF), less commonly, Surrendered Enemy Forces, was a US designation for soldiers who surrendered to an adversary after hostilities ended and for those who had already surrendered POWs and held in camps in occupied German territory at that time.
Distinction is a principle under international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict, whereby belligerents must distinguish between combatants and civilians.
The Doctors' trial (officially United States of America v. Karl Brandt, et al.) was the second of 12 trials for war crimes of German doctors that the United States authorities held in their occupation zone in Nuremberg, Germany, after the end of World War II.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Erich Johann Albert Raeder (24 April 1876 – 6 November 1960) was a German grand admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 190316 October 1946) was an Austrian-born senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The First Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, held on 22 August 1864, is the first of four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting.
The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, commonly referred to as the Fourth Geneva Convention and abbreviated as GCIV, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929.
Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field (1929)
The Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field, consisting of 39 articles in French, was adopted on 27 July 1929, at the end of the Diplomatic Conference of Geneva of 1929, which met from the 27 July until the 1 August of that year.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The German bombing of Rotterdam, also known as the Rotterdam Blitz, was the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II.
The governments of the German Empire and Nazi Germany ordered, organized and condoned a substantial number of war crimes in World War I and World War II respectively.
Grand admiral is a historic naval rank, the highest rank in the several European navies that used it.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck.
The Harvard University Asia Center is an interdisciplinary research and education unit of Harvard University, established on July 1, 1997, with the goal of "driving varied programs focusing on international relations in Asia and comparative studies of Asian countries and regions (...) and supplementing other Asia-related programs and institutes and the University and providing a focal point for interaction and exchange on topics of common interest for the Harvard community and Asian intellectual, political, and business circles.", according to its charter.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Heinrich Hartmann Wirz, better known as Henry Wirz (November 25, 1823 – November 10, 1865), was a Swiss-born American officer of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Hideki Tojo (Kyūjitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;; December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
A hostage is a person or entity which is held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against war.
Human shield is a military and political term describing the deliberate placement of non-combatants in or around combat targets to deter the enemy from attacking these combat targets.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) reported in February 2006 that he had received 240 communications in connection with the invasion of Iraq in March 2003 which alleged that various war crimes had been committed.
So far, the International Criminal Court The Court's Pre-Trial Chambers As of September 2010, the Office of the Prosecutor had received 8,874 communications about alleged crimes.
International criminal law is a body of public international law designed to prohibit certain categories of conduct commonly viewed as serious atrocities and to make perpetrators of such conduct criminally accountable for their perpetration.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda; Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda) was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war (categorized as "Class A" crimes), conventional war crimes ("Class B") and crimes against humanity ("Class C").
Italian war crimes have mainly been associated with Fascist Italy in the Pacification of Libya, the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, and World War II.
War crimes of the Empire of Japan occurred in many Asia-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.
Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo (born 4 November 1962) is a politician in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Joseph Rao Kony (born July 24, 1961) is the leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), a guerrilla group that formerly operated in Uganda.
Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Governor-General of Korea and 28th Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944, to April 7, 1945.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
The Lieber Code of April 24, 1863, also known as Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, General Order № 100, or Lieber Instructions, was an instruction signed by US President Abraham Lincoln to the Union Forces of the United States during the American Civil War that dictated how soldiers should conduct themselves in wartime.
Chemical arms control is the attempt to limit the use or possession of chemical weapons through arms control agreements.
This is a list of denaturalized former citizens of the United States, that is, those who became citizens through naturalization and were subsequently stripped of citizenship.
This article lists and summarises the war crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 and the crimes against humanity and crimes against peace that have been committed since these crimes were first defined in the Rome Statute.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), also known as the Lord's Resistance Movement, is a rebel group and heterodox Christian group which operates in northern Uganda, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Atrocity crimes refer to the three legally defined international crimes of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.
Mass murder is the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity.
Military justice (or military law) is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces.
Military necessity, along with distinction, and proportionality, are three important principles of international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict.
The, also known as the Ministry of War, was the cabinet-level ministry in the Empire of Japan charged with the administrative affairs of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps in the early to mid 1940s, during World War II and the Holocaust.
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
The NKVD prisoner massacres were a series of mass executions carried out by the Soviet NKVD secret police during World War II against political prisoners across Eastern Europe, primarily Poland, Ukraine, the Baltic states, Bessarabia and other parts of the Soviet Union from which the Red Army was retreating following the Nazi German attack on the Soviet positions in occupied Poland, known as Operation Barbarossa.
In war, a victor gives no quarter (or takes no prisoners) when the victor shows no clemency or mercy and refuses to spare the life of a vanquished opponent in return for their surrender at discretion (unconditional surrender).
Non-combatant is a term of art in the law of war and international humanitarian law, describing civilians who are not taking a direct part in hostilities; persons—such as combat medics and military chaplains—who are members of the belligerent armed forces but are protected because of their specific duties (as currently described in Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, adopted in June 1977); combatants who are placed hors de combat; and neutral nationals (including military personnel) who are not fighting for one of the belligerents involved in an armed conflict.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
The Charter of the International Military Tribunal – Annex to the Agreement for the prosecution and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis (usually referred to as the Nuremberg Charter or London Charter) was the decree issued by the European Advisory Commission on 8 August 1945 that set down the rules and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted.
The Nuremberg principles were a set of guidelines for determining what constitutes a war crime.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (عمر حسن أحمد البشير; pronunciation:; born 1944) is a Sudanese politician who is currently the seventh president of Sudan and head of the National Congress Party.
Oriana Fallaci (29 June 1929 - 15 September 2006) was an Italian journalist, author, and political interviewer.
Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
In the context of war, perfidy is a form of deception in which one side promises to act in good faith (such as by raising a flag of truce) with the intention of breaking that promise once the unsuspecting enemy is exposed (such as by coming out of cover to attack the enemy coming to take the "surrendering" prisoners into custody).
Peter von Hagenbach (or Pierre de Hagenbach or Pietro di Hagenbach or Pierre d’Archambaud or Pierre d'Aquenbacq, circa 1420 – May 9, 1474) was a Bourguignon knight from Alsace and Germanic military and civil commander.
This article is about the politics of the Republika Srpska, one of the two entities that together comprise the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development.
The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, which was officially in force from 1919 to 1945.
The President of the Republic of Liberia is the head of state and government of Liberia.
The President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, or the President of the Republic for short, was the head of state of that country from 14 January 1953 to 4 May 1980.
The is the head of government of Japan.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Proportionality is a general principle in law which covers several special (although related) concepts.
Protocol I is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of international conflicts, where "armed conflicts in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination, alien occupation or racist regimes" are to be considered international conflicts.
Protocol II is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts.
Protocol III is a 2005 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem.
Radovan Karadžić (Радован Караџић,; born 19 June 1945) is a Bosnian Serb former politician and convicted war criminal who served as the President of Republika Srpska during the Bosnian War and sought the direct unification of that entity with Serbia.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Ratko Mladić (Ратко Младић,; born 12 March 1943) is a Bosnian Serb former general found guilty of committing war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).
Razakar (رضاکار, literally "volunteer"; রাজাকার) was an anti-Bangladesh paramilitary force organised by the Pakistan Army in Bangladesh during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.
A trial which is observed by trial judge or by jury without being partial is a fair trial.
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project (RULAC Project) is an initiative of the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights to support the application and implementation of the international law of armed conflict.
The French ruse de guerre, sometimes literally translated as ruse of war, is a non-uniform term; generally what is understood by "ruse of war" can be separated into two groups: the first classifies the phrase purely as an act of military deception against one's opponent; the second emphasizes acts against one's opponent by creative, clever, unorthodox means, sometimes involving force multipliers or superior knowledge.
The Russell Tribunal, also known as the International War Crimes Tribunal, Russell-Sartre Tribunal, or Stockholm Tribunal, was a private body organised by British philosopher and Nobel Prize winner Bertrand Russell and hosted by French philosopher and writer Jean-Paul Sartre.
Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.
The Satellite Sentinel Project (SSP) was conceived by George Clooney and Enough Project co-founder John Prendergast during their October 2010 visit to South Sudan.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II and a War Minister.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
War crimes perpetrated by the Soviet Union and its armed forces from 1919 to 1991 include acts committed by the Red Army (later called the Soviet Army) as well as the NKVD, including the NKVD's Internal Troops.
The Special Court for Sierra Leone, or the "Special Court" (SCSL), also called the Sierra Leone Tribunal, was a judicial body set up by the government of Sierra Leone and the United Nations to "prosecute persons who bear the greatest responsibility for serious violations of international humanitarian law and Sierra Leonean law" committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 and during the Sierra Leone Civil War.
Srebrenica is a town and municipality located in the easternmost part of Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Srebrenica massacre, also known as the Srebrenica genocide (Masakr u Srebrenici; Genocid u Srebrenici), was the July 1995 genocide of more than 8,000Potocari Memorial Center Preliminary List of Missing Persons from Srebrenica '95 Muslim Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War.
State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against foreign targets or against its own people.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Third Geneva Convention, relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Transitional justice consists of judicial and non-judicial measures implemented in order to redress legacies of human rights abuses.
In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
Established on 13 February 1946, the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs provides a unified central legal service for the Secretariat and the principal and other organs of the United Nations and contributes to the progressive development and codification of international public and trade law.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1820 was unanimously adopted on 19 June 2008.
The Committee on the Philippines was a standing committee of the United States Senate from 1899 to 1921.
United States war crimes are the violations of the laws and customs of war of which the United States Armed Forces are accused of committing since the signing of the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907.
Universal jurisdiction allows states or international organizations to claim criminal jurisdiction over an accused person regardless of where the alleged crime was committed, and regardless of the accused's nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting entity.
The University of Turin (Italian: Università degli Studi di Torino, or often abbreviated to UNITO) is a university in the city of Turin in the Piedmont region of north-western Italy.
An unlawful combatant, illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent is a person who directly engages in armed conflict in violation of the laws of war.
The V-1 flying bomb (Vergeltungswaffe 1 "Vengeance Weapon 1")—also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, and in Germany as Kirschkern (cherrystone) or Maikäfer (maybug)—was an early cruise missile and the only production aircraft to use a pulsejet for power.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
The label "victor's justice" is a situation in which an entity participates in carrying out "justice" on its own basis of applying different rules to judge what is right or wrong for their own forces and for those of the (former) enemy.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The War Crimes Act of 1996 is a law that defines a war crime to include a "grave breach of the Geneva Conventions", specifically noting that "grave breach" should have the meaning defined in any convention (related to the laws of war) to which the United States is a party.
Belgium's War Crimes Law invokes the concept of universal jurisdiction to allow anyone to bring war crime charges in Belgian courts, regardless of where the alleged crimes have taken place.
War crimes of the Wehrmacht were those carried out by the German combined armed forces (''Wehrmacht Heer'', Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe) during World War II.
The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population.
A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation.
Wartime sexual violence is rape or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict or war or military occupation often as spoils of war; but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociological motives.
White flags have had different meanings throughout history and depending on the locale.
Wilhelm Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) in Nazi Germany during World War II.
William Laws Calley Jr. (born June 8, 1943) is a former United States Army officer convicted by court-martial of murdering 22 unarmed South Vietnamese civilians in the My Lai Massacre on March 16, 1968, during the Vietnam War.
The "Winter Soldier Investigation" was a media event sponsored by the Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) from January 31, 1971, to February 2, 1971.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
(January 4, 1882 – January 8, 1949) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II.
The genocide in Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight, as West Pakistan began a military crackdown on the Eastern wing of the nation to suppress Bengali calls for self-determination rights.
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