499 relations: Abbottabad, Abdul Haq (Afghan leader), Abdul Malik Pahlawan, Abdul Qadir (Afghan leader), Abdul Rashid Dostum, Abdul Salam (Taliban governor), Abdullah Abdullah, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, Achin District, Afghan Arabs, Afghan Armed Forces, Afghan Civil War (1996–2001), Afghan Interim Administration, Afghan Massacre: The Convoy of Death, Afghan National Army, Afghan National Police, Afghan Peace Jirga 2010, Afghan presidential election, 2004, Afghan training camp, Afghanistan, Afghanistan–United States relations, Afghans in Iran, AGM-114 Hellfire, Ahmad Shah Massoud, Ahmad Zia Massoud, Ahmed Rashid, Airlift, AK-47, Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera English, Al-Qaeda, Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent, Alfred A. 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Abbottabad (Urdu, ایبٹ آباد) is the capital city of Abbottabad District in the Hazara region of eastern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Abdul Haq (born Humayoun Arsala; April 23, 1958 – October 26, 2001) was an Afghan mujahideen commander who fought against the Soviet-backed People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, the de facto Afghan government in the 1980s.
Abdul Malik Pahlawan is an Uzbek politician based in Faryab Province in northern Afghanistan.
Abdul Qadeer (عبدالقدیر, born c. 1951 in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, assassinated July 6, 2002 in Kabul, Afghanistan) was a Pashtun leader in Afghanistan.
Abdul Rashid Dostum (عبدالرشید دوستم, Uzbek Latin: Abdul Rashid Do‘stum, Uzbek Cyrillic: Абдул Рашид Дўстум; born 1954) is an Afghan politician and general who has served as Vice President of Afghanistan since 2014.
Mullah Abdul Salam Akhund (1968 – February 26, 2017) was a senior Taliban member.
Abdullah Abdullah (Dari/Pashto: عبدالله عبدالله, born September 5, 1960) is an Afghan politician, serving as Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since September 2014.
Abū Bakr al-Baghdadi (أبو بكر البغدادي; born Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي in 1971) is the leader of the Salafi jihadist militant terrorist organisation known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL),Rewards for Justice – Retrieved 25 January 2017 which controls territory in several countries.
Achin (اچين ولسوالۍ) is a district in southern Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan, on the border with Pakistan.
The term Afghan Arabs (also known as Arab-Afghans) refers mostly to Arab and other Muslim Islamist mujahideen who came to Afghanistan during and following the Soviet-Afghan War to help fellow Muslims fight Soviets and pro-Soviet Afghans.
The Afghan Armed Forces are the military forces of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
This article covers the Afghan history between the Taliban's conquest of Kabul and their establishing of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan on 27 September 1996, and the U.S. and U.K. invasion of Afghanistan on 7 October 2001: a period that was part of the Afghan civil war that had started in 1989, and also part of the war (in wider sense) in Afghanistan that had started in 1978.
The Afghan Interim Administration (AIA), also known as the Afghan Interim Authority, was the first administration of Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban regime and was the highest authority of the country from 22 December 2001 until 13 July 2002.
Afghan Massacre: The Convoy of Death (earlier title: Massacre at Mazar) is a 2002 documentary by Irish filmmaker Jamie Doran and Afghan journalist Najibullah Quraishi about alleged war crimes committed by the Junbish-i Milli faction of the Afghan Northern Alliance under General Abdul Rashid Dostum against Taliban fighters.
The Afghan National Army (ANA) is the land warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces.
The Afghan National Police (ANP; د افغانستان ملي پولیس; پلیس ملی افغانستان) is the national police force of Afghanistan, serving as a single law enforcement agency all across the country.
The Afghan President Hamid Karzai announced the holding of a consultative grand council called the Afghanistan's National Consultative Peace Jirga (NCPJ) or shortly Peace Jirga in his inauguration speech on 19 November 2009, after winning elections for a second term, to end the ongoing Taliban insurgency.
An election to the office of President of Afghanistan was held on October 9, 2004.
An Afghan training camp is a camp or facility used for militant training located in pre-2002 Afghanistan.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Afghanistan–United States relations can be traced to 1921 but the first contact between the two occurred further back in the 1830s when the first recorded person from the United States was visiting Afghanistan.
Afghans in Iran are mostly refugees who have fled wars in Afghanistan since the April 1978 Saur Revolution in Kabul.
The AGM-114 Hellfire is an air-to-surface missile (ASM) first developed for anti-armor use, but later models were developed for precision strikes against other target types, and have been used in a number of targeted killings of high-profile individuals.
Ahmad Shah Massoud (Dari Persian: احمد شاه مسعود; September 2, 1953September 9, 2001) was an Afghan political and military leader.
Ahmad Zia Massoud (احمد ضیاء مسعود, born May 1, 1956) was the Vice President of Afghanistan in the first elected administration of President Hamid Karzai, from December 2004 to November 2009.
Ahmed Rashid (Urdu:; born 1948 in Pakistan) is a journalist and best-selling foreign policy author of several books about Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Central Asia.
An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies or personnel primarily via military transport aircraft.
The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al Jazeera English (AJE) is an international state-funded 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel owned and operated by Al Jazeera Media Network, headquartered in Doha, Qatar.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (lit) usually abbreviated as AQIS, is an Islamist militant organization which aims to fight the governments of Pakistan, India, Myanmar and Bangladesh in order to establish an Islamic state.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
An ambush is a long-established military tactic in which combatants take advantage of concealment and the element of surprise to attack unsuspecting enemy combatants from concealed positions, such as among dense underbrush or behind hilltops.
Professor Amin Saikal (born 2 December 1950 in Kabul, Afghanistan) is the Director of the Centre for Arab and Islamic Studies (The Middle East & Central Asia) and Professor of Political Science at the Australian National University.
Amrullah Saleh (امرالله صالح; born Oct 1972) is a politician in Afghanistan who served as head of the National Directorate of Security from 2004 until his resignation in 2010.
Anders Fogh Rasmussen (born 26 January 1953) is a Danish politician who was the 24th Prime Minister of Denmark from November 2001 to April 2009 and the 12th Secretary General of NATO from August 2009 to October 2014.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arlington County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia, often referred to simply as Arlington or Arlington, Virginia.
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is a type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.
An arms embargo is an embargo that applies solely to weaponry, and may also apply to "dual-use technology".
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
Asadabad or Asad Abad (اسدآباد - Asadābād, اسدآباد) is the capital city of Kunar Province in Afghanistan.
Ashton Baldwin Carter (born September 24, 1954) is an American physicist and former Harvard University professor of Science and International Affairs who served as the 25th United States Secretary of Defense from February 2015 to January 2017.
Mohammad Ashraf Ghanī Ahmadzai (Pashto/محمد اشرف غني احمدزی, born 19 May 1949) is the current President of Afghanistan, elected on 21 September 2014.
Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
An asylum seeker (also rarely called an asylee) is a person who flees his or her home country, 'spontaneously' enters another country and applies for asylum, i.e. the right to international protection, in this other country.
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
Major General Athar Abbas is a former Director General of Inter-Services Public Relations (DG ISPR) who has been serving as Pakistan’s Ambassador to Ukraine since 2015.
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
The Azizabad airstrike was carried out by the United States Air Force on Friday 22 August 2008 in the village of Azizabad which is located in Shindand district, Herat Province, Afghanistan.
Babrak Karmal (Dari/ببرک کارمل, born Sultan Hussein; 6 January 1929 – 1 or 3 December 1996) was an Afghan politician who was installed as President of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union when they invaded in 1979.
Bādghīs (Pashto/بادغیس) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northwest of the country next to Turkmenistan.
Baghlan (Pashto/بغلان Baġlān) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
Baghrān (بغران) is the northernmost district in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Bagram (بگرام) is a town and seat in Bagram District in Parwan Province of Afghanistan, about 60 kilometers north of the capital Kabul.
In 2005, The New York Times obtained a 2,000-page United States Army investigatory report concerning the homicides of two unarmed civilian Afghan prisoners by U.S. military personnel in December 2002 at the Bagram Theater Internment Facility (also Bagram Collection Point or B.C.P.) in Bagram, Afghanistan and general treatment of prisoners.
Bala Buluk is a district in Farah Province, Afghanistan.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barbara Starr (born 1938) is an American television news journalist for CNN.
The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.
The Battle of Chora took place in and around the town of Chora (3,000 inhabitants), in Afghanistan's Orūzgān Province, during June 15–19, 2007.
The Battle of Ganjgal was a battle in the War in Afghanistan fought between American and Afghan forces and the Taliban in Kunar Province, Afghanistan on September 8, 2009.
The Battle of Musa Qala (also Qaleh or Qal'eh) was a British led military action in Helmand Province, southern Afghanistan, launched by the Afghan National Army and the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) against the Taliban on 7 December 2007.
The Battle of Panjwaii was fought in mid-2006 between primarily Canadian and Afghan soldiers, supported by small elements of Dutch, American, and British forces, and the Taliban.
The Battle of Takur Ghar was a short but intense military engagement between United States special operations forces and al-Qaeda insurgents fought in March 2002, atop Takur Ghar mountain in Afghanistan.
The Battle of Wanat occurred on July 13, 2008, when about 200 Taliban insurgents attacked American troops near Quam, in the Waygal district in Afghanistan's far eastern province of Nuristan.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Persian Television (تلویزیون فارسی بیبیسی) is the BBC's Persian language news channel that was launched on 14 January 2009.
The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948–12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engine, tandem-rotor, heavy-lift helicopter developed by American rotorcraft company Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol (later known as Boeing Rotorcraft Systems).
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
Burhānuddīn Rabbānī (Persian/Pashto: برهان الدین رباني; b. 20 September 1940, d. 20 September 2011) was an Afghan politician who served as President of the Islamic State of Afghanistan from 1992 to 1996 (de jure until 2001).
The Camp Chapman attack was a suicide attack by Humam Khalil Abu-Mulal al-Balawi against the Central Intelligence Agency facility inside Forward Operating Base Chapman on December 30, 2009.
Camp Leatherneck is a 1,600 acre Afghan Armed Forces base in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Camp Qargha, formerly Camp Phoenix, is a NATO military installation in Afghanistan, maintained by the United States Army and British Army.
Camp Shorabak (formerly Camp Bastion) is a former British Army airbase, located northwest of the city of Lashkar Gah in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, until 27 October 2014 when the British Army handed over control to the Afghan Ministry of Defense.
The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., in the United States.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces 10 USC 152.
Chārdara District (also known as Chahar Dara, Chahar Darreh or Char Darreh) is one of the seven districts in Kunduz Province in northern Afghanistan.
The Chicago Sun-Times is a daily newspaper published in Chicago, Illinois, United States.
China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (پاكستان-چین اقتصادی راہداری; also known by the acronym CPEC) is a collection of infrastructure projects that are currently under construction throughout Pakistan.
During the war in Afghanistan (2001–present), over 31,000 civilian deaths due to war-related violence have been documented; 29,900 civilians have been wounded.
Clear and hold is a counter-insurgency strategy in which military personnel clear an area of guerrillas or other insurgents, and then keep the area clear of insurgents while winning the support of the populace for the government and its policies.
, there have been 3,407 coalition deaths in Afghanistan as part of ongoing coalition operations (Operation Enduring Freedom and ISAF) since the invasion in 2001.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Combat Aviation Brigade, 101st Airborne Division is a combat aviation brigade of the United States Army.
Combined Joint Task Force 180 was a provisional multinational land formation, primarily made up of units from the United States Army, that fought in the Afghanistan War (2001-present), especially in the initial invasion phase of 2001-2002.
Combined Joint Task Force – 76 (CJTF-76) was a US led subordinate formation of Combined Forces Command – Afghanistan (CFC-A) headquartered in Kabul, Afghanistan.
A commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
A coroner is a person whose standard role is to confirm and certify the death of an individual within a jurisdiction.
Corruption in Afghanistan is a widespread and growing problem in Afghan society.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".
Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism.
The following addresses the events in Northern Afghanistan between April 2009 and 2014. While this part of the country had long been relatively peaceful compared to the all-out war zones of the south and east, tensions would flare up again in 2008 when the German soldiers deployed to the area came under attack more often, leading to the deaths of the several soldiers. Previously hindered by national caveats, the deteroriating security situation prompted the German-led Regional Command North to launch a series of operations to take on the rising insurgency. Concerted operations began after an insurgent attack on PRT Kunduz within minutes of German Chancellor Angela Merkel's departure from a visit. Within two years, the German presence would be doubled and additional reinforcements from the American ISAF contingent were called in, including heavy German armoured vehicles and US aviation assets, allowing for a more aggressive approach towards the insurgency.
A covert operation is a military operation that intended to conceal the identity of or allow plausible denial by the sponsor.
Criticism of the War on Terror addresses the morals, ethics, efficiency, economics, as well as other issues surrounding the War on Terror.
The Cuban Project, also known as Operation Mongoose, was a covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that was commissioned in March 1960 during the final year of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration.
The Dai Chopan (دایچوپان) are a Hazara tribe found in Afghanistan.
The Daily Times (DT) is an English-language Pakistani newspaper.
The Dasht-i-Leili massacre occurred in December 2001 during the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan when, depending on the sources, between several hundred to several thousand Taliban prisoners were shot and/or suffocated to death in metal shipping containers while being transferred by Junbish-i Milli soldiers under the supervision of forces loyal to General Rashid Dostum from Kunduz to Sheberghan prison in Afghanistan.
David D. McKiernan (born December 11, 1950) is a retired United States Army four-star general who served in Afghanistan as Commander, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF).
David Howell Petraeus (born November 7, 1952) is a retired United States Army general and public official.
Daykundi (دایکندی, دایکنډي) sometimes spelled as Daikundi, Dāykondī, Daikondi or Daykundi, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central part of the country.
Abdul Wali was an Afghan man who died in US custody on June 21, 2003 at the age of 28.
Osama bin Laden, the founder and first leader of the Islamist group Al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011 shortly after 1:00 am PKT (20:00 UTC, May 1) by United States Navy SEALs of the U.S. Naval Special Warfare Development Group (also known as DEVGRU or SEAL Team Six).
Democratic consolidation is the process by which a new democracy matures, in a way that means it is unlikely to revert to authoritarianism without an external shock.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning.
Deh Yak (also transliterated Dehyak) is a rural district in the eastern part of Ghazni Province, Afghanistan, 30 km east from the city of Ghazni.
Dilawar (born c. 1979 – December 10, 2002), also known as Dilawar of Yakubi, was an Afghan taxi driver who was tortured to death by US army soldiers at the Bagram Collection Point, a US military detention center in Afghanistan.
In English law, diminished responsibility is one of the partial defences that reduce the offence from murder to manslaughter if successful (termed "voluntary" manslaughter for these purposes).
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
Dishu is a district in the south of Helmand Province, Afghanistan, bordering Pakistan.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.
A drone strike is typically where an unmanned combat aerial vehicle fires a missile at a target.
Since 2004, the United States government has attacked thousands of targets in Northwest Pakistan using unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) operated by the United States Air Force under the operational control of the Central Intelligence Agency's Special Activities Division.
Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War is a nonfiction book written by Robert M. Gates, a former U.S. Secretary of Defense.
Emancipation is any effort to procure economic and social rights, political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, in discussion of such matters.
The Embassy of Canada in Afghanistan (Persian: سفارت کانادا در کابل) is a Canadian government diplomatic mission located in the Afghan capital city of Kabul.
An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
Extradition is the act by one jurisdiction of delivering a person who has been accused of committing a crime in another jurisdiction or has been convicted of a crime in that other jurisdiction into the custody of a law enforcement agency of that other jurisdiction.
The Fall of Kandahar took place in 2001 during the War in Afghanistan.
The United States bombardment of Fallujah began in April 2003, one month following the beginning of the invasion of Iraq.
Farah (Pashto/Persian: فراه) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the western part of the country next to Iran.
Farah (Pashto / Dari Persian: فراه) is the capital of Farah Province, located in western Afghanistan.
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA; قبایلي سیمې، منځنۍ پښتونخوا; وفاقی منتظم شدہ قبائیلی علاقہ جات) was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighboring province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in 2018.
Freedom of movement, mobility rights, or the right to travel is a human rights concept encompassing the right of individuals to travel from place to place within the territory of a country,Jérémiee Gilbert, Nomadic Peoples and Human Rights (2014), p. 73: "Freedom of movement within a country encompasses both the right to travel freely within the territory of the State and the right to relocate oneself and to choose one's place of residence".
The Frontier Corps (سرحد واہنی) (reporting name: FC), is an umbrella term for the two western provincial auxiliary forces part of the paramilitary forces of Pakistan along the western provinces of Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and are the direct counterparts to the Rangers of the eastern provinces (Sindh and Punjab).
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
Garmsir District (or Garmser) is located in the southern part of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Gary C. Schroen is a former Central Intelligence Agency field officer who was in charge of the initial CIA incursion into Afghanistan in September 2001 to topple the Taliban regime and to destroy Al Qaeda.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
The GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB, commonly known as "Mother of All Bombs") is a large-yield bomb, developed for the United States military by Albert L. Weimorts, Jr.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghazni (Pashto/Persian) or Ghaznai, also historically known as Ghaznin or Ghazna, is a city in Afghanistan with a population of nearly 150,000 people.
Ghazni (غزنی; غزني) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southeastern part of the country.
James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (ګلبدين حکمتيار; گلبدین حکمتیار; born 1 August, 1949) is an Afghan politician and former warlord.
Mullah Habibullah was an Afghan who died while in US custody on December 4, 2002.
Hafizullah Amin (Pashto/حفيظ الله امين; born 1 August 1929 – 27 December 1979) was an Afghan communist politician during the Cold War.
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
The Hamburg cell (Hamburger Zelle) or Hamburg terror cell (Hamburger Terrorzelle) was, according to U.S. and German intelligence agencies, a group of radical Islamists based in Hamburg, Germany that included students who eventually came to be key operatives in the 9/11 attacks.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
The Haqqani network is an Afghan guerrilla insurgent group using asymmetric warfare to fight against US-led NATO forces and the government of Afghanistan.
Harold Joseph "Harry" Greene (February 11, 1959 – August 5, 2014) was a United States Army general who was killed during the War in Afghanistan.
Hashish, or hash, is a drug made from cannabis.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
Helmand (Pashto/Dari: هلمند), also known as Hillmand or Helman, and, in ancient times, as Hermand and Hethumand is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, in the south of the country.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
The Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin (حزب اسلامی گلبدین; abbreviated HIG), also referred to as Hezb-e-Islami or Hezb-i-Islami Afghanistan (HIA), is an Afghan political party and former militia, founded and led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.
Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada (هبت الله اخونزاده; هيبة الله أخوند زاده Haibatullāh Aḫūnd Zādah; born 1961) is the leader of the Taliban, an armed militant group that was the former government of Afghanistan.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human shield is a military and political term describing the deliberate placement of non-combatants in or around combat targets to deter the enemy from attacking these combat targets.
Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help.
The II Marine Expeditionary Force (II MEF) is a Marine Air-Ground Task Force consisting of ground, air and logistics forces capable of projecting offensive combat power ashore while sustaining itself in combat without external assistance for a period of 60 days.
An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
The Insurgents bodies incident is an incident involving American soldiers and Afghan policemen who posed with body parts of dead insurgents during the War in Afghanistan.
Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information.
The Inter-Services Intelligence (بین الخدماتی مخابرات, abbreviated as ISI) is the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan, operationally responsible for gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world.
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world.
After Operation Enduring Freedom in which the Taliban government was toppled in Afghanistan, in December 2001, the German city of Bonn hosted a conference of Afghan leaders at Hotel Petersberg, to choose the leader of an Afghan Interim Authority – widely known as the Bonn Conference.
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) is a non-partisan federation of national medical groups in 63 countries, representing doctors, medical students, other health workers, and concerned people who share the common goal of creating a more peaceful and secure world free from the threat of nuclear annihilation.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
Ipsos Reid was the name of a research company based in Canada and still exists under the name Ipsos as the Canadian arm of the global Ipsos Group.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Iraqi Civil War is an armed conflict which began in January 2014.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov (Islom Abdugʻaniyevich Karimov; Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов; 30 January 1938 – 2 September 2016) was the leader of Uzbekistan and its predecessor state, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, from 1989 until his death in 2016.
The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (د افغانستان اسلامي امارات) was an Islamic state established in September 1996 when the Taliban began their rule of Afghanistan after the fall of Kabul.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
The Islamic State of Afghanistan (دولت اسلامی افغانستان, Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan) was the official name of the country of Afghanistan after the fall of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Khorasan Province (الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام – ولاية خراسان, ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām – Wilayah Khorasan), or ISIL-KP, is a branch of the militant Islamist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), active in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Mohammad Ismail Khan (Persian: محمد اسماعیل خان) (born 1946) is a politician in Afghanistan, who served as Minister of Water and Energy from 2005 to 2013.
Mawlawi Jalaluddin Haqqani (جلال الدين حقاني) (1939 – 2014) is the leader of the Haqqani network, an insurgent group fighting in guerilla warfare initially against US-led NATO forces, and the present government of Afghanistan they support.
The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.
A jirga (occasionally jarga or jargah; Pashto) is a traditional assembly of leaders that make decisions by consensus and according to the teachings of Pashtunwali.
General Sir John Chalmers McColl, KCB, CBE, DSO, KStJ (born 17 April 1952) is a retired senior British Army officer and a past Lieutenant Governor of Jersey.
John S. Brown is a retired Brigadier General in the United States Army who was the Chief of Military History of the United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) from December 1998 to October 2005.
John William Nicholson Jr. (born May 8, 1957) is a United States Army four-star general who has commanded U.S. Forces - Afghanistan (USFOR-A) and the Resolute Support Mission since March 2016, succeeding General John F. Campbell.
On 23 July 2016 a twin bombing occurred in the vicinity of Deh Mazang square in Kabul, capital of Afghanistan, when the #Enlightenment_Movement protesters, mostly from the Hazara ethnic, were marching against a decision to bypass their region in the development of the TUTAP mega power project.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
Kajaki is a village in southern Afghanistan, and is split between two townsteads, Kajaki 'Olya, and Kajaki Sofla.
Kajaki is a district in the east of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
The Kandahar massacre, more precisely identified as the Panjwai massacre, occurred in the early hours of 11 March 2012, when United States Army Staff Sergeant Robert Bales murdered sixteen civilians and wounded six others in the Panjwayi District of Kandahar Province, Afghanistan.
Kandahar (کندھار; قندهار) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southern part of the country next to Pakistan.
Karl Winfrid Eikenberry (born November 10, 1951) is a retired United States Army lieutenant general who served as the U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan from April 2009 to July 2011.
Karshi-Khanabad, better known as K2, is an air base in southeastern Uzbekistan, just east of Karshi.
Khakrez District is a rural agrarian community with a population of more than 20,000 located in north-central Kandahar Province.
Khanashin, or Khan Neshin, (other names: Khān Neshīn, Khannesin, Khan Nashin, Khān Nashīn, Khan Nashim, Khānnešīn) is a village located in the Reg District of Helmand Province, Afghanistan at at 642 altitude.
Reg (Khanashin) District is situated in the southeastern part of Helmand Province, Afghanistan along the Helmand River on its western bank.
Khogyani (خوګياڼي ولسوالۍ, ولسوالی خوگیانی) is a district in the south of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan, bordering on Pakistan.
Khost (خوست) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, and the largest city of Loya Paktia.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd., operating as Korean Air, is the largest airline and flag carrier of South Korea based on fleet size, international destinations and international flights.
Kunar (کونړ, کنر) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country.
Kunduz (کندز; قندوز) is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province.
Kunduz (Pashto/کندز) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northern part of the country next to Tajikistan.
On May 31, 2016, Taliban militants posing as government officials kidnapped around 220 civilians at a fake checkpoint along the Kunduz-Takhar highway near Arzaq Angor Bagh in Kunduz province, Afghanistan, on the outskirts of the city of Kunduz.
Lashkargāh (لښکرګاه; لشکرگاه), historically called Bost or Boost (بست، بوست), is a city in southwestern Afghanistan and the capital of Helmand Province.
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
This is a partial list of Afghan security forces killed in the War in Afghanistan (2001–present).
List of documentary films and TV specials about the War in Afghanistan (2001–present).
The following is a list aviation accidents and incidents in the war in Afghanistan.
This is a list of the governors of the province of Ghazni, Afghanistan.
Since October 7, 2001 following the September 11, 2001 attacks, the United States has been engaged in a war in Afghanistan as a part of War on Terror.
This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.
War in the context of this list broadly construed to be armed conflict between organized U.S. military forces and organized forces of (a) belligerent(s).
Logar (Pashto/لوگر) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louis Buller Gohmert Jr. (born August 18, 1953) is a Republican Party U.S. Representative from Texas' 1st congressional district who is part of the Tea Party movement.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Maidan Wardak Province (د ميدان وردگ ولايت, ولایت میدان وردک), also called Maidan Wardag or simply Wardak Province, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central east region of Afghanistan.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies that have strategic working relationships with the US Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Malalai Joya (Pashto ملالۍ جویا) (born April 25, 1978) is an activist, writer, and a former politician from Afghanistan.
Marinejegerkommandoen (MJK) is the maritime/naval special warfare unit of the Norwegian Special Operations Command and was established in 1953.
Marjah (also spelled Marjeh; Pashto/مارجه) is an agricultural town in southern Afghanistan.
Maruf District (from the Persian: معروف) (also:Ma'ruf, Maroof) is a district in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan.
A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial.
Maiwand District is situated in the western part of the Kandahar Province, Afghanistan.
The Maywand District killings were the murders of at least three Afghan civilians perpetrated by a group of U.S. Army soldiers in 2010, during the War in Afghanistan.
Mazar-i-Sharif (Dari/مزار شریف), often called just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 UN–Habitat population estimate between 577,500 and 693,000.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
Michael Thomas Flynn (born December 1958) is a retired United States Army Lieutenant General who served in the U.S. Army for 33 years, from 1981 until 2014.
Michael Glenn Mullen, AO, MSC (born October 4, 1946) is a retired United States Navy admiral, who served as the 17th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from October 1, 2007, to September 30, 2011.
Michael Richard Pence (born June 7, 1959) is an American politician and lawyer serving as the 48th and current Vice President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Military necessity, along with distinction, and proportionality, are three important principles of international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict.
The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
Mission Essential (formerly Mission Essential Personnel or MEP) is a government contractor primarily serving intelligence and military clients.
Najibullah Ahmadzai (ډاکټر نجیب ﷲ احمدزی; February 1947 – 27 September 1996), commonly known as Najibullah or Dr.
Mohammed Daoud Khan or Daud Khan (July 18, 1909 – April 28, 1978) was the Prime Minister of Afghanistan from 1953 to 1963 and later the President of Afghanistan.
Mullah Mohammed Omar (ملا محمد عمر, Mullā Muḥammad 'Umar; c. 1960 – 23 April 2013), widely known as Mullah Omar, was the supreme commander and spiritual leader of the Taliban.
Mohammed Zahir Shah (محمد ظاهرشاه, محمد ظاهر شاه; 16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973.
Momand Dara is a district in the east of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan, bordering Pakistan.
Muhammad Mohaqiq (محمد محقق) is a politician in Afghanistan, serving as a member of the Afghanistan Parliament.
Muhammad Qasim (born on 1 May 1984) is a Pakistani footballer, who plays for KRL FC.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
Musa Qala is a district in the north of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Nad Ali or Nad-e Ali is a district in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Nahri Saraj District (نهر سراج ولسوالۍ) (population 114,200), also called Nahre Saraj, is a district in Helmand Province in southern Afghanistan.
The Nangar Khel incident, sometimes called the Nangar Khel massacre, took place in the Afghan village of Nangar Khel (Paktika Province) on August 16, 2007.
Nangarhār (ننګرهار; ننگرهار) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country.
The National Assembly (ملی شورا Mili Shura, شورای ملی Shura-i Milli), also known as the Afghan Parliament, is Afghanistan's national legislature.
The National Coalition of Afghanistan (ائتلاف ملی, Etelaf-e Milli; previously known as the Coalition for Change and Hope), is a political coalition in Afghanistan led by Abdullah Abdullah, Afghanistan's former foreign minister (2001-2005) and main challenger of President Hamid Karzai in the 2009 Afghan presidential elections.
The National Directorate of Security (NDS, Riyāsat-e Amniyat-e Milli) is the primary intelligence agency of Afghanistan.
The National Front of Afghanistan (جبهه ملی افغانستان, Jabhe Melli; NFA, also Afghanistan National Front, ANF) or Jabh-e Melli was established in late 2011 by Ahmad Zia Massoud, Haji Mohammad Mohaqiq and Abdul Rashid Dostum.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA) or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor,The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1.
The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-governmental, non-profit research and archival institution located on the campus of the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 to check rising government secrecy, the National Security Archive is an investigative journalism center, open government advocate, international affairs research institute, and is the largest repository of declassified U.S. documents outside the federal government.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
NATO logistics in the Afghan War refers to the efforts of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to deliver vital fuel, food, hardware and other logistic supplies to Afghanistan in support of the War in Afghanistan (2001-present).
Navoi International Airport is an airport of entry in Navoi, Uzbekistan.
Nāwa-I-Barakzāyi District (ناوۀ بارکزائی /ناوۀ بارکزائی) is an administrative district in Helmand Province, Afghanistan located south of the provincial capital of Lashkar Gah along the Helmand River.
Nawzad is a district in the north of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.
Nicholas Donabet Kristof (born April 27, 1959) is an American journalist and political commentator.
Nils Horner (5 December 1962 – 11 March 2014) was a Swedish Radio journalist.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
North Waziristan (Urdu:شمالی وزیرستان) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan and covering.
The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i Afghānistān), was a united military front that came to formation in late 1996 after the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban) took over Kabul.
NRC Handelsblad, often abbreviated to NRC, is a daily evening newspaper published in the Netherlands by NRC Media.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nur Muhammad Taraki (15 July 1917 – 8 October 1979) was an Afghan statesman during the Cold War who served as President of Afghanistan from 1978 to 1979.
Nuristan, also spelled Nurestan or Nooristan, (Nuristani: نورستان) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country.
Operation Achilles was a NATO operation, part of the war in Afghanistan.
Operation Anaconda took place in early March 2002.
Operation Eagle's Summit (Oqab Tsuka in Pashto) was a military operation conducted by ISAF and Afghan National Army troops, with the objective of transporting a 220-tonne turbine to the Kajaki Dam in Helmand Province through territory controlled by Taliban insurgents.
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is the official name used by the U.S. government for the Global War on Terrorism.
Operation Falcon Summit (Pashto: Baaz Tsuka) was a Canadian-led operation in the Battle of Panjwaii and, on a larger scale, in the 2001–present War in Afghanistan.
Operation Infinite Reach was the codename for American cruise missile strikes on al-Qaeda bases in Khost, Afghanistan, and the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum, Sudan, on August 20, 1998.
Operation Medusa (September 2–17, 2006) was a Canadian-led offensive during the second Battle of Panjwaii of the war in Afghanistan.
Operation Moshtarak (Dari for Together or Joint), also known as the Battle of Marjah, an International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) pacification offensive in the town of Marjah, Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Operation Mountain Fury was a NATO-led operation begun on September 16, 2006 as a follow-up operation to Operation Medusa, to clear Taliban rebels from the eastern provinces of Afghanistan.
Operation Mountain Thrust was a NATO and Afghan-led operation in the war in Afghanistan, with more than 3,300 British troops, 2,300 U.S., 2,200 Canadian troops, about 3,500 Afghan soldiers and large air support.
Operation Omari also called the Spring Offensive is an offensive launched by the Taliban against the Afghan government in Afghanistan.
Operation Panchai Palang, or Panther's Claw, was a British-led military operation of the Afghan War in Helmand Province in southern Afghanistan.
Operation Lastay Kulang or Pickaxe Handle was a British-led NATO offensive in the southern Helmand province of Afghanistan.
Operation Storm-333 (Шторм-333, Shtorm-333) was an operation that took place on 27 December 1979, in which Soviet Union forces stormed the Tajbeg Palace in Afghanistan and assassinated Afghan President Hafizullah Amin.
Operation Volcano was a British operation to clear a village that the Taliban were using as a command and control node, consisting of 25 compounds, near the Kajaki hydroelectric dam in February 2007.
Operation Zarb-e-Azb (Pashto/آپریشن ضربِ عضب ALA-LC) was a joint military offensive conducted by the Pakistan Armed Forces against various militant groups, including the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, al-Qaeda, Jundallah and the Haqqani network. The operation was launched on 15 June 2014 in North Waziristan along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border as a renewed effort against militancy in the wake of the 8 June attack on Jinnah International Airport in Karachi, for which the TTP and the IMU claimed responsibility. As of 14 July 2014, the operation internally displaced about 929,859 people belonging to 80,302 families from North Waziristan. Part of the war in North-West Pakistan, up to 30,000 Pakistani soldiers were involved in Zarb-e-Azb, described as a "comprehensive operation" to flush out all foreign and local militants hiding in North Waziristan. The operation has received widespread support from the Pakistani political, defence and civilian sectors. As a consequence, the overall security situation improved and terrorist attacks in Pakistan dropped to a six-year low since 2008. Zarb-e-Azb was followed by Operation Radd-ul-Fasaad which began in February 2017, following a resurgence in terrorist incidents.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Opposition to the Afghanistan war stems from numerous factors, including the view that the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan was illegal under international law and constituted an unjustified aggression, the view that the continued military presence constitutes a foreign military occupation, the view that the war does little to prevent terrorism but increases its likelihood, and views on the involvement of geo-political and corporate interests.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.
Panjwayi (also spelled Panjwaye, Panjwaii, Panjway, Panjwa'i, or Panjwai) is a district in Kandahar Province, Afghanistan.
Parcham (Pashto/پرچم, meaning "Banner" or "Flag") was the name of one of the factions of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan.
The Parwan Detention Facility (also called Detention Facility in Parwan) is Afghanistan's main military prison.
Parwān (Persian/Pashto: پروان), also spelled Parvān, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan.
Pashtun nationalism (پښتون ملتپالنه) is a political and social movement which promotes the idea that the Pashtuns are deserving of a sovereign nation in their homeland of Pashtunistan, which consists of the Pashtun-majority parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (حزب دموکراتيک خلق افغانستان, Hezb-e dimūkrātĩk-e khalq-e Afghānistān, د افغانستان د خلق دموکراټیک ګوند, Da Afghanistān da khalq dimukrātīk gund; abbreviated PDPA) was a political party established on 1 January 1965.
Peter Tomsen (born November 19, 1940), is a retired American diplomat and educator, serving as United States Special Envoy to Afghanistan from 1989 to 1992, and United States Ambassador to Armenia between 1995 and 1998.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Philippe Morillon (born 24 October 1935) is a former French general and was a Member of the European Parliament until 2009.
Physicians for Global Survival (PGS) is the Canadian chapter of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW).
Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) is a US-based not-for-profit human rights NGO that uses medicine and science to document and advocate against mass atrocities and severe human rights violations around the world.
Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) is the largest physician-led organization in the US working to protect the public from the threats of nuclear proliferation, climate change, and environmental toxins.
A plurality vote (in North America) or relative majority (in the United Kingdom) describes the circumstance when a candidate or proposition polls more votes than any other, but does not receive a majority.
Pol-e Alam (Pashto/Persian: پل علم) is the provincial capital of Logar Province, Afghanistan as well as of Puli Alam District.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Political opportunity theory, sometimes also known as the political process theory or political opportunity structure, is an approach of social movements heavily influenced by political sociology.
The politics of Afghanistan consists of the council of ministers, provincial governors and the national assembly, with a president serving as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Afghan Armed Forces.
A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae.
Poti (ფოთი; Mingrelian: ფუთი; Laz: ჶაში/Faşi or ფაში/Paşi) is a port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti in the west of the country.
The presidency of Bill Clinton began at noon EST on January 20, 1993, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as 42nd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2001.
Donald Trump was inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States at noon EST on January 20, 2017, succeeding Barack Obama.
The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The war in Afghanistan prompted large protests around the world, with the first large-scale demonstrations beginning in the days leading up to the war's official launch on October 7, 2001.
A Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) was a unit introduced by the United States government, consisting of military officers, diplomats, and reconstruction subject matter experts, working to support reconstruction efforts in unstable states.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Ramak Village is the district center of Dih Yak District, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan.
The Red Group (Sara Kheta) is a military unit of the Taliban, described in some accounts as a special forces group.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
In public choice theory and in economics, rent-seeking involves seeking to increase one's share of existing wealth without creating new wealth.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Resolute Support Mission or Operation Resolute Support is a NATO-led train, advise and assist mission consisting of over 13,000 troops in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, which began on January 1, 2015.
Rethink Afghanistan is a 2009 documentary by Robert Greenwald and Brave New Films, about the US military presence in Afghanistan following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Richard Alan Clarke (born October 27, 1950) is the former National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection and Counter-terrorism for the United States.
Colonel Richard Justin Kemp CBE (born 14 April 1959) is a retired British Army officer who served from 1977 to 2006.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
The right to family life is the right of all individuals to have their established family life respected, and to have and maintain family relationships.
Robert Bales (born June 30, 1973) is a former United States Army soldier who murdered 16 Afghan civilians in Panjwayi, Kandahar, Afghanistan, on March 11, 2012 – an event known as the Kandahar massacre.
Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is an American statesman, scholar, intelligence analyst, and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011.
Robert Greenwald (born August 28, 1943) is the founder of Brave New Films, a nonprofit film studio whose work is distributed for free in concert with nonprofit partners and movements in order to educate and mobilize for progressive causes.
Robin Lynn Raphel (born 1947) is an American former diplomat, ambassador, CIA analyst and an expert on Pakistan affairs.
A rocket-propelled grenade (often abbreviated RPG) is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead.
The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.
The Royal Netherlands Army (Koninklijke Landmacht (KL), "Royal Army") is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sangin (سنگين) is a town in Helmand province of Afghanistan, with population of approximately 14,000 people.
Sangin is a district in the east of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Saur Revolution (إنقلاب ثور or ۷ ثور (literally 7th Saur); د ثور انقلاب), also called the April Revolution or April Coup, was a coup d'état (or self-proclaimed revolution) led by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) against the rule of Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan on 27–28 April 1978.
Scribd is a digital library, e-book and audiobook subscription service that includes one million titles.
Secrecy (also called clandestinity or furtiveness) is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know", perhaps while sharing it with other individuals.
A private security company is a business corporation, which provides armed and unarmed security services and expertise to private and public clients.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Shah Wali Kot District (شاه ولي کوټ ولسوالۍ, ولسوالی شاه ولی کوت) is situated in the northern part of Kandahar Province, Afghanistan.
Shamsi Airfield, also known as Bhandari Airstrip, is an airfield situated about 200 miles (320 km) southwest of Quetta and about 248 miles (400 km) northwest of Gwadar in the Balochistan province of Pakistan.
Shanksville is a borough in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, United States, with a population of 237, as of the 2010 census.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shorabak District is a remote district situated in the southeastern part of Kandahar Province, Afghanistan, 110 km south and east of Kandahar.
Sirajuddin Haqqani (سراج الدين حقاني aliases Khalifa, and, Siraj Haqqani. born c. 1973 or 1977/78) is a military leader hailing from Afghanistan, who as deputy leader of the Taliban oversees armed combat against American and coalition forces, reportedly from a base within North Waziristan in Pakistan, from which he provides shelter to Al Qaeda operatives.
Small arms include handguns (revolvers and pistols) and long guns, such as rifles, carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns.
The final and complete withdrawal of Soviet combatant forces from Afghanistan began on 15 May 1988 and ended on 15 February 1989 under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.
The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.
The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.
Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) is the U.S. government’s leading oversight authority on Afghanistan reconstruction.
Specialist (abbreviated "SPC") is a military rank in some countries' armed forces.
Staff sergeant is a rank of non-commissioned officer used in the armed forces of several countries.
Stanley Allen McChrystal (born August 14, 1954) is a retired United States Army general best known for his command of Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) in the mid-2000s.
Steve Coll (born October 8, 1958) is an American journalist, academic and executive.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
Sushma Swaraj (born 14 February 1952. India Today. Retrieved 28 May 2016.) is an Indian politician and a former Supreme Court lawyer.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Taliban insurgency began shortly after the group's fall from power following the 2001 War in Afghanistan.
Task Force 373 is a joint military commando unit active in the War in Afghanistan.
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP; تحریک طالبان پاکستان; "Taliban Movement of Pakistan"), alternatively referred to as the Taliban, is a terrorist group which is an umbrella organization of various militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan.
Termez (Termiz/Термиз; Термез; Тирмиз; ترمذ Termez, Tirmiz; ترمذ Tirmidh) is a city in the southernmost part of Uzbekistan near the Hairatan border crossing of Afghanistan.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The News & Observer is an American regional daily newspaper that serves the greater Triangle area based in Raleigh, North Carolina.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Seattle Times is a daily newspaper serving Seattle, Washington, United States.
The Spokesman-Review is a daily broadsheet newspaper in the northwest United States, based in Spokane, Washington, that city's only daily publication.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
The Weekly Standard is an American conservative opinion magazine published 48 times per year.
TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.
Thomas Powers (New York City, December 12, 1940) is an American author and intelligence expert.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
TOLO (طلوع) is a commercial television station operated by MOBY Group in Afghanistan. Launched in 2004, it became one of the first commercial stations in the country and laid the foundation for an accessible media outlet by offering a large library of shows. It is a Persian-language channel and is currently Afghanistan's most popular television channel. TOLO was first launched in Kabul but as of November 2007, has broadcasts in 14 cities in Afghanistan on free-to-air and throughout the region by terrestrial and satellite. Its sister channels are TOLOnews, which broadcasts news all day, and Lemar TV, which is a Pashto-language channel. TOLO was the subject of documentary film in 2012 called The Network, by Eva Orner. The film saw limited international release in 2013.
Tommy Ray Franks (born June 17, 1945) is a retired general in the United States Army.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Train Advise Assist Command – South (TAAC – South) is a multinational military formation, part of NATO's Resolute Support Mission within Afghanistan.
The Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA), also known as the Afghan Transitional Authority, was the name of a temporary administration of Afghanistan put in place by the loya jirga of June 2002.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
A turncoat is a person who shifts allegiance from one loyalty or ideal to another, betraying or deserting an original cause by switching to the opposing side or party.
The response of the U.S. government to the September 11 attacks sparked investigations into the motivations and execution of the attacks, as well as the ongoing War on Terrorism in Afghanistan The response included funds for affected families, plans for the War on Terrorism, rebuilding of Lower-East Manhattan, and the invasion and investigation of Iraq and Afghanistan.
The U.S.–Afghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement, officially titled Enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the United States of America, is an agreement between Afghanistan and the United States of America that provides the long-term framework for the relationship between Afghanistan and the United States of America after the drawdown of U.S. forces in the Afghanistan war.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) is a political UN mission established at the request of the Government of Afghanistan to assist it and the people of Afghanistan in laying the foundations for sustainable peace and development.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1267 was adopted unanimously on 15 October 1999.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Rangers are designated U.S. Army Ranger units, past or present, or are graduates of the U.S. Army Ranger School.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States invasion of Afghanistan occurred after the September 11 attacks in late 2001, supported by close allies.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
The United States Navy's Sea, Air and Land Teams, commonly abbreviated as the Navy SEALs, are the U.S. Navy's primary special operations force and a component of the Naval Special Warfare Command.
The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM or SOCOM) is the Unified Combatant Command charged with overseeing the various Special Operations Component Commands of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force of the United States Armed Forces.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
The Uzbin Valley ambush occurred when French ISAF troops were ambushed by Afghan militants in eastern Afghanistan on 18 August 2008.
A video of U.S. Marines urinating on Taliban fighters was posted to websites in January 2012.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
Waghaz is a district in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
The War in North-West Pakistan, also known as the War in Waziristan, is an armed conflict involving Pakistan, and armed militant groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Jundallah, Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI), TNSM, al-Qaeda, and their Central Asian allies such as the ISIL–Khorasan (ISIL), Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, East Turkistan Movement, Emirate of Caucasus, and elements of organized crime.
A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Washir (also spelt Washer or Washar) is a district in the west of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
The Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs is an interdisciplinary research center at Brown University.
A whistleblower (also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
White phosphorus is a material made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus that is used in smoke, tracer, illumination, and incendiary munitions.
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.
Winning hearts and minds is a concept occasionally expressed in the resolution of war, insurgency, and other conflicts, in which one side seeks to prevail not by the use of superior force, but by making emotional or intellectual appeals to sway supporters of the other side.
The withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan describes the draw down of United States Armed Forces in the Afghanistan war and the plans after its post-2014 presence when most combat troops had left Afghanistan at the end of 2014.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Yahoo! News is a news website that originated as an internet-based news aggregator by Yahoo!.
Yochi J. Dreazen (born c. 1976) is an American journalist whose area of expertise is military affairs and national security.
Zabul (Persian and زابل) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the south of the country.
Zana Khan district is a mountainous district in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan with more than 12,000 people living there (100% Pashtun).
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973.
The 055 Brigade (or 55th Arab Brigade) was an elite guerrilla organization sponsored and trained by Al Qaeda that was integrated into the Taliban army between 1995 and 2001.
The 101st Airborne Division ("Screaming Eagles") is an elite modular specialized light infantry division of the US Army.
The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division in the United States Army based at Fort Drum, New York.
The 10th Special Forces Group (Airborne) (10th SFG(A) or 10th Group) is an active duty United States Army Special Forces (SF) Group.
16 Air Assault Brigade (16 Air Asslt Bde) is a formation of the British Army based in Colchester in the county of Essex.
The United States Army 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne), abbreviated as the 160th SOAR (A) and also known as Night Stalkers, or within JSOC as Task Force Brown, is a special operations force of the United States Army that provides helicopter aviation support for general purpose forces and special operations forces.
The 1842 retreat from Kabul (or Massacre of Elphinstone's army) took place during the First Anglo-Afghan War.
The 1973 Afghan coup d'etat took place on July 17, 1973 in Kabul, Afghanistan when forces led by then-army commander Lieutenant General Mohammed Daoud Khan and then-Chief of Staff General Abdul Karim Mustaghni overthrew the monarchy in a somewhat bloodless coup.
The 1979 Herat uprising was an insurrection that took place in and around the town of Herat, Afghanistan in March 1979.
The 1998 United States embassy bombings were attacks that occurred on August 7, 1998, in which over 200 people were killed in nearly simultaneous truck bomb explosions in two East African cities, one at the United States Embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, the other at the United States Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.
An emergency "loya jirga" (Pashto for "grand assembly") was held in Kabul, Afghanistan between 11 and 19 June 2002 to elect a transitional administration.
The 2005 Andijan Unrest occurred when Uzbek Interior Ministry (MVD) and National Security Service (SNB) troops fired into a crowd of protesters in Andijan in the Republic of Uzbekistan on 13 May 2005.
The 2006 Dutch-Australian offensive was a military operation carried out in Afghanistan by a combined force of Dutch and Australian troops that commenced in late April 2006 and concluded on 16 July 2006.
The 2007 Shinwar shooting, also known as the Shinwar Massacre, was the killing of a number of Afghan people on 4 March 2007, in the village of Spinpul, in the Shinwar District of the Nangarhar Province of Afghanistan.
The 2009 Kunduz airstrike took place on Friday 4 September 2009 at roughly 2:30 am local time, southwest of Kunduz City, Kunduz province in northern Afghanistan, near the hamlets of Omar Kheil by the border of the Chahar Dara and Ali Abad districts.
The 2011 Helmand Province incident was the manslaughter of an injured Taliban insurgent by Alexander Blackman, which occurred on 15 September 2011.
The 2012 Afghanistan Quran burning protests was a series of protests of varying levels of violence which took place early in 2012 in response to the burning of Islamic religious material by soldiers from the United States Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan.
The 2014 Kabul Serena Hotel attack was a mass shooting that took place in the restaurant of the Kabul Serena Hotel, in Kabul, Afghanistan on March 20, 2014 carried out by Taliban militants.
On 16 December 2014, six gunmen affiliated with the Tehrik-i-Taliban (TTP) conducted a terrorist attack on the Army Public School in the northwestern Pakistani city of Peshawar.
On 21 April 2017, at least ten Taliban fighters attacked Camp Shaheen, headquarters of the 209 Corps of the Afghan National Army (ANA), near Mazar-i-Sharif, Balkh Province.
The 209th 'Shaheen' (Falcon) Corps is a corps, or military district, of the Afghan National Army.
The 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division is an infantry Brigade Combat Team of the United States Army based at Fort Drum, New York.
The 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade is a brigade (a formation) of the United States Marine Corps.
The 3rd (United Kingdom) Division, known at various times as the Iron Division, 3rd (Iron) Division, Monty's Iron Sides or as Iron Sides;Delaforce is a regular army division of the British Army.
The 5th Special Forces Group (5th SFG(A)) is one of the most decorated active duty United States Army Special Forces groups in the U.S. armed forces.
The 6th Marine Regiment (also referred to as "6th Marines") is an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.
The 7th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the United States Army.
The 87th Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment in the United States Army.
The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up on November 27, 2002, "to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11 attacks", including preparedness for and the immediate response to the attacks.
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