410 relations: Adams–Onís Treaty, Alabama, Alabama River, Alan Taylor (historian), Albert Gallatin, Alexander Cochrane, Alexander I of Russia, Alexander Macomb (general), Alexander Smyth, American Civil War, Amherstburg, Andrew Jackson, Anglican Communion, Anglicisation, Anti-Catholicism in the United States, Apalachicola River, Aroostook War, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Artillery battery, Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991, Bahia, Baltimore, Bangor, Maine, Barings Bank, Battle of Baltimore, Battle of Beaver Dams, Battle of Bladensburg, Battle of Burnt Corn, Battle of Chippawa, Battle of Crysler's Farm, Battle of Fort Dearborn, Battle of Fort Peter, Battle of Fort Stephenson, Battle of Frenchtown, Battle of Hampden, Battle of Holy Ground, Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814), Battle of Lacolle Mills (1814), Battle of Lake Erie, Battle of Lundy's Lane, Battle of Mackinac Island (1814), Battle of New Orleans, Battle of North Point, Battle of Ogdensburg, Battle of Pensacola (1814), Battle of Plattsburgh, Battle of Queenston Heights, Battle of Stoney Creek, Battle of Talladega, Battle of Tallushatchee, ..., Battle of the Chateauguay, Battle of the Sink Hole, Battle of the Thames, Battle of Trafalgar, Battle of Valparaíso, Battle of York, Battles of Emuckfaw and Enotachopo Creek, Benjamin Hawkins, Bermuda, Bermuda sloop, Bibliography of early U.S. naval history, Bibliography of the War of 1812, Black Hawk (Sauk leader), Black Refugee (War of 1812), Blockade, Boston Harbor, Boston Manufacturing Company, Brig, British Army, British North America, Buffalo, New York, Burning of Washington, Camden County, Georgia, Canada, Canadian Voltigeurs, Capture of Fort Niagara, Capture of HMS Boxer, Capture of USS Chesapeake, Capture of USS President, Castine, Maine, Catholic Church, Charles de Salaberry, Charles Napier (Royal Navy officer), Charles Turner Jr., Chattahoochee River, Cherokee, Chesapeake Bay, Chesapeake Bay Flotilla, Chesapeake–Leopard affair, Chile, Choctaw, Citadel Hill (Fort George), Citadelle of Quebec, Citizenship of the United States, Coastal management, Colonial militia in Canada, Commander-in-chief, Commerce raiding, Congreve rocket, Convoy, Coosa River, Corps of Colonial Marines, Council on Foreign Relations, Credit Island, Cumberland Island, Dalhousie University, David Milne (Royal Navy officer), David Porter (naval officer), Delaware River, Democratic-Republican Party, Dolley Madison, Dundurn Press, Eastport, Maine, Ebenezer Seaver, Edward Pakenham, Elgin Military Museum, Encyclopædia Britannica, Engagements on Lake Huron, Engagements on Lake Ontario, Era of Good Feelings, Federalist Party, Felix Grundy, First Bank of the United States, First French Empire, Foreign Affairs, Fort Belle Fontaine, Fort Bowyer, Fort Cap au Gris, Fort Covington, New York, Fort Dearborn, Fort Erie, Ontario, Fort George, Ontario, Fort Henry, Ontario, Fort Howard (Maryland), Fort Jackson (Alabama), Fort Johnson, Fort Mackinac, Fort Madison, Iowa, Fort McHenry, Fort Meigs, Fort Mims massacre, Fort Osage, Fort St. Joseph (Ontario), Fort Strother, Fort Sullivan (Maine), Francis Scott Key, French Canadians, Frigate, George Downie, George IV of the United Kingdom, George Izard, George Prévost, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgian Bay, Gordon Drummond, Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, H. W. Brands, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Hampden, Maine, Hampton Roads, Hartford Convention, Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst, Henry Clay, Henry Dearborn, Henry Goulburn, Henry Procter (British Army officer), History of Spain (1810–73), HMS Boxer (1812), HMS Leander (1780), Ho-Chunk, Hulk (ship type), Impressment, Indian Territory, Indiana in the War of 1812, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Industrial Revolution, Intracoastal Waterway, Iroquois, Isaac Brock, Isaac Chauncey, Isaac Hull, Jacob Brown, James FitzGibbon, James Lawrence, James Lucas Yeo, James Madison, James Monroe, James Wilkinson, John Adams Harper, John Armstrong Jr., John Borlase Warren, John Coape Sherbrooke, John Coffee, John Floyd (Georgia politician), John Rodgers (1772–1838), Joseph Wanton Morrison, Joshua Barney, Journal of American Studies, Kentucky in the War of 1812, Kickapoo people, Killed in action, Kingston, Ontario, Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Ontario, Laura Secord, Lenape, Letter of marque, List of richest Americans in history, List of sailing frigates of the United States Navy, List of War of 1812 Battles, Little Belt affair, Lloyd's of London, Louisiana, Louisiana Purchase, Lower Canada, Machias Seal Island, Machias, Maine, Mackinac Island, Maine, Mascouten, Massachusetts, Merchant Navy (United Kingdom), Merikins, Meskwaki, Methodism, Miami people, Michigan, Militia (United States), Mingo, Mississippi River, Mississippi Territory, Missouri Compromise, Missouri Territory, Mobile Point, Mobile, Alabama, Mohawk people, Montreal, Morrisburg, Ontario, Muscogee, Nancy (1789 ship), Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Narragansett, Rhode Island, National Museum of Bermuda, Naturalization, New Brunswick, New England, New Ireland (Maine), New London, Connecticut, New Orleans, New York Harbor, Niagara River, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Norfolk, Virginia, North America and West Indies Station, North Carolina, Northwest Territory, Nottawasaga Bay, Nova Scotia, Odawa, Ogdensburg, New York, Ohio, Ojibwe, Oklahoma, Oliver Hazard Perry, Opposition to the War of 1812 in the United States, Orders in Council (1807), Oregon Country, Oregon Treaty, Osage River, Osprey Publishing, Patterson Park, Patuxent River, PBS, Peninsular War, Peter Buell Porter, Peter McQueen, Philip Broke, Pierre Berton, Pig War (1859), Plattsburgh (city), New York, Plymouth, Massachusetts, Potawatomi, Potomac River, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, Prescott, Ontario, Privateer, Prize (law), Prospect Bluff Historic Sites, Protection papers, Protestantism, Provincial Marine, Put-in-Bay, Ohio, Pyrrhic victory, Quebec City, Raid on Havre de Grace, Razee, Red Sticks, Richard Mentor Johnson, Rideau Canal, River Raisin, Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, Robert McDouall, Robert Ross (British Army officer), Roger Hale Sheaffe, Royal Marines, Royal Navy, Rush–Bagot Treaty, Sackets Harbor, New York, Saint Lawrence River, Samuel Smith (Maryland), Sandusky River, Sandy Hook, Sauk people, Schooner, Second Bank of the United States, Second Battle of Sacket's Harbor, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, Seminole, Seminole Wars, Seneca people, Shawnee, Ship of the line, Siege of Detroit, Siege of Fort Erie, Siege of Fort Mackinac, Siege of Fort Meigs, Siege of Fort St. Philip (1815), Siege of Prairie du Chien, Sine qua non, Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet, Sir Thomas Hardy, 1st Baronet, Sister ship, Slavery in the United States, Sloop-of-war, Smithsonian (magazine), South Carolina, Spanish Florida, Special Relationship, Spencer Perceval, St. Joseph Island (Ontario), St. Louis, Status quo ante bellum, Stephen Decatur, Stephen Girard, Stephen Van Rensselaer, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Striking the colors, Tallapoosa River, Tecumseh, Tecumseh's Confederacy, Tenskwatawa, The Boston Associates, The Buffalo News, The Invasion of Canada, The Star-Spangled Banner, Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Pinckney, Timeline of the War of 1812, Treaty of 1818, Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814), Treaty of Fort Jackson, Treaty of Ghent, Treaty of Paris (1783), Tukabatchee, United Empire Loyalist, United Kingdom, United Kingdom in the Napoleonic Wars, United States, United States Army, United States Army Rangers, United States Capitol, United States declaration of war upon the United Kingdom, United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Revenue Cutter Service, Upper Canada, Upper Midwest, USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere, Uti possidetis, Valparaíso, Wade Hampton I, War hawk, War of 1812 Campaigns, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., Webster–Ashburton Treaty, West Florida, West India Regiments, White House, William Bainbridge, William H. Winder, William Henry Harrison, William Hull, William James (naval historian), William Jones (statesman), William Mulcaster, William Weatherford, William Widgery, Winfield Scott, Winston Churchill, Wyandot people, York, Upper Canada, Zachary Taylor, Zebulon Pike, 2nd Regiment of York Militia. Expand index (360 more) » « Shrink index
The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty,Weeks, p.168.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Alabama River, in the U.S. state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, which unite about north of Montgomery, near the suburb of Wetumpka.
Alan Shaw Taylor (born June 17, 1955) is an American historian specializing in early United States history.
Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was a Swiss-American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist.
Sir Alexander Inglis Cochrane GCB RN (23 April 1758 – 26 January 1832, born Alexander Forrester Cochrane) was a senior Royal Navy commander during the Napoleonic Wars and achieved the rank of Admiral.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexander Macomb (April 3, 1782 – June 25, 1841) was the Commanding General of the United States Army from May 29, 1828 until his death on June 25, 1841.
Alexander Smyth (1765 – April 17, 1830) was an American lawyer, soldier, and politician from Virginia.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Amherstburg (2016 population 21,936; UA population 13,910) is a town near the mouth of the Detroit River in Essex County, Ontario, Canada.
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
Anti-Catholicism in the United States is historically deeply rooted in the anti-Catholic attitudes brought by British Protestant to the American colonies.
The Apalachicola River is a river, approximately 112 mi (180 km) long in the State of Florida.
The Aroostook War (sometimes called the Pork and Beans WarLe Duc, Thomas (1947). The Maine Frontier and the Northeastern Boundary Controversy. The American Historical Review Vol. 53, No. 1 (Oct., 1947), pp. 30–41) was a military and civilian-involved confrontation in 1838–1839 between the United States and the United Kingdom over the international boundary between the British colony of New Brunswick and the U.S. state of Maine.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of artillery, mortars, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface to surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles etc, so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems.
The Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution (short title) or Joint Resolution to authorize the use of United States Armed Forces pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 678 (official title), was the United States Congress's January 14, 1991 authorization of the use of U.S. military force in the Gulf War.
Bahia (locally) is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
Bangor is a city in the U.S. state of Maine, and the county seat of Penobscot County.
Barings Bank was a British merchant bank based in London, and the world's second oldest merchant bank (after Berenberg Bank).
The Battle of Baltimore was a sea/land battle fought between British invaders and American defenders in the War of 1812.
The Battle of Beaver Dams took place on 24 June 1813, during the War of 1812.
The Battle of Bladensburg was a battle of the Chesapeake campaign of the War of 1812, fought on 24 August 1814.
The Battle of Burnt Corn, also known as the Battle of Burnt Corn Creek, was an encounter between United States armed forces and Creek Indians that took place July 27, 1813 in present-day southern Alabama.
The Battle of Chippawa (sometimes incorrectly spelled Chippewa) was a victory for the United States Army in the War of 1812, during an invasion of the British Empire's colony of Upper Canada along the Niagara River on July 5, 1814.
The Battle of Crysler's Farm, also known as the Battle of Crysler's Field, was fought on 11 November 1813, during the Anglo-American War of 1812 (the name Chrysler's Farm is sometimes used for the engagement, but Crysler is the proper spelling).
The Battle of Fort Dearborn (sometimes Fort Dearborn Massacre) was an engagement between United States troops and Potawatomi Indians that occurred on August 15, 1812, near Fort Dearborn in what is now Chicago, Illinois (then an undeveloped part of the Illinois Territory).
The Battle of Fort Point Peter was a successful attack in early 1815 by a British force on a smaller American force on the Georgia side of the St. Marys River near St. Marys, Georgia.
The Battle of Fort Stephenson was an American victory during the War of 1812.
The Battles of Frenchtown, also known as the Battle of the River Raisin and the River Raisin Massacre, was a series of conflicts in Michigan Territory that took place from January 18–23, 1813 during the War of 1812.
The Battle of Hampden was an action in the British campaign to conquer present-day Maine and remake it into the colony of New Ireland during the War of 1812.
The Battle of Holy Ground, or Battle of Econochaca, was a battle fought on December 23, 1813 between the United States militia and the Red Stick Creek Indians during the Creek War.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend (also known as Tohopeka, Cholocco Litabixbee, or The Horseshoe), was fought during the War of 1812 in the Mississippi Territory, now central Alabama.
The Battle of Lacolle Mill was fought on 30 March 1814 during the War of 1812.
The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes called the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813, on Lake Erie off the coast of Ohio during the War of 1812.
The Battle of Lundy's Lane (also known as the Battle of Niagara Falls) was a battle of the Anglo-American War of 1812, which took place on 25 July 1814, in present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario.
The Battle of Mackinac Island (pronounced Mackinaw) was a British victory in the War of 1812.
The Battle of New Orleans was a series of engagements fought between December 14, 1814 and January 18, 1815, constituting the last major battle of the War of 1812.
The Battle of North Point was an engagement in the War of 1812, fought on September 12, 1814, between Brigadier General John Stricker's Third Brigade (Baltimore City Brigade) of the Maryland State Militia and a British landing force, composed of units from the British Army, Royal Navy seamen, Colonial Marines, Royal Marines, and led by Major General Robert Ross and Rear Admiral George Cockburn.
The Battle of Ogdensburg was a battle of the War of 1812.
The Battle of Pensacola was a battle in the War of 1812 in which American forces fought against forces from the kingdoms of Britain and Spain, along with Creek Native Americans and African-American slaves allied with the British.
The Battle of Plattsburgh, also known as the Battle of Lake Champlain, ended the final invasion of the northern states of the United States during the War of 1812.
The Battle of Queenston Heights was the first major battle in the War of 1812 and resulted in a British victory.
The Battle of Stoney Creek was fought on 6 June 1813, during the War of 1812 near present-day Stoney Creek, Ontario.
The Battle of Talladega was a battle fought between the Tennessee Militia and the Red Stick Creek Indians during the Creek War, in the vicinity of the present-day county and city of Talladega, Alabama, in the United States.
The Battle of Tallasseehatchee was a battle fought during the War of 1812 and Creek War on November 3, 1813, in Alabama between Native American Red Stick Creeks and United States dragoons.
The Battle of the Chateauguay was an engagement of the War of 1812.
The Battle of the Sink Hole was fought on May 24, 1815, after the official end of the War of 1812, between Missouri Rangers and Sauk Indians led by Black Hawk.
The Battle of the Thames, also known as the Battle of Moraviantown, was a decisive American victory in the War of 1812 against Great Britain and its Indian allies in the Tecumseh's Confederacy.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
The Battle of Valparaíso, also called the Capture of USS Essex, was a naval action fought during the War of 1812.
The Battle of York was fought on April 27, 1813, in York (present-day Toronto), the capital of the colonial province of Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), during the Anglo-American War of 1812.
The battles of Emuckfaw and Enotachopo Creek (or Enotachopco Creek) were part of Andrew Jackson's campaign in the Creek War.
Benjamin Hawkins (August 15, 1754June 6, 1816, Encyclopedia of Alabama, accessed July 15, 2011) was an American planter, statesman, and U.S. Indian agent.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
The Bermuda sloop is a type of fore-and-aft rigged single-masted sailing vessel developed on the islands of Bermuda in the 17th century.
Historical accounts for early U.S. naval history now occur across the spectrum of two and more centuries.
The War of 1812 bibliography is a selective, annotated bibliography using APA style citations of the many books related to the War of 1812.
Black Hawk, born Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, (1767 – October 3, 1838) was a band leader and warrior of the Sauk American Indian tribe in what is now the Midwest of the United States.
Black Refugees were African Americans who escaped slavery in the United States during the War of 1812 and settled in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Trinidad.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, and is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston Manufacturing Company was a business that operated the first factory in America.
A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.
The Burning of Washington was a British invasion of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, during the War of 1812.
Camden County is a county located in the southeastern corner of the U.S. state of Georgia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Voltigeurs were a light infantry unit, raised in Lower Canada (the present-day Province of Quebec) in 1812, that fought in the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States.
The Capture of Fort Niagara took place late in 1813, during the War of 1812 between the United Kingdom and the United States.
The capture of HMS Boxer in 1813 was a sea fight off the coast of Maine in the War of 1812.
The Capture of USS Chesapeake, or the Battle of Boston Harbor, was fought on 1 June 1813, between the Royal Navy's frigate and American frigate, as part of the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain.
The capture of USS President was one of many naval actions fought at the end of the War of 1812.
Castine is a town in Hancock County in eastern Maine, USA, which served from 1670 to 1674 as the capital of Acadia.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Lieutenant Colonel Charles-Michel d'Irumberry de Salaberry, CB (November 19, 1778 – February 27, 1829) was a French-speaking Canadien of the seigneurial class who served as an officer of the British army in Lower Canada (now Quebec).
Admiral Sir Charles John Napier KCB GOTE RN (6 March 1786 – 6 November 1860) was a British naval officer whose sixty years in the Royal Navy included service in the War of 1812 (with the United States), the Napoleonic Wars, Syrian War and the Crimean War (with the Russians), and a period commanding the Portuguese navy in the Liberal Wars.
Charles Turner Jr. (June 20, 1760 – May 16, 1839) was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts.
The Chattahoochee River forms the southern half of the Alabama and Georgia border, as well as a portion of the Florida border.
The Cherokee (translit or translit) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia.
The Chesapeake Bay Flotilla was a motley collection of barges and gunboats that the United States assembled under the command of Joshua Barney, an 1812 privateer captain, to stall British attacks in the Chesapeake Bay which came to be known as the "Chesapeake Campaign" during the War of 1812.
The Chesapeake–Leopard affair was a naval engagement that occurred off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia, on 22 June 1807, between the British warship and the American frigate.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Choctaw (in the Choctaw language, Chahta)Common misspellings and variations in other languages include Chacta, Tchakta and Chocktaw.
Citadel Hill is a hill that is a National Historic Site in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
The Citadelle of Quebec (Citadelle de Québec), also known as La Citadelle, is an active military installation and the secondary official residence of both the Canadian monarch and the Governor General of Canada.
Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits.
Coastal management is defence against flooding and erosion, and techniques that stop erosion to claim lands.
The colonial militias in Canada were made up of various militias prior to Confederation in 1867.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Commerce raiding is a form of naval warfare used to destroy or disrupt logistics of the enemy on the open sea by attacking its merchant shipping, rather than engaging its combatants or enforcing a blockade against them.
The Congreve rocket was a British military weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804, based directly on Mysorean rockets.
A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.
The Coosa River is a tributary of the Alabama River in the U.S. states of Alabama and Georgia.
The Corps of Colonial Marines were two Marine units raised from former slaves for service in the Americas by the British at the behest of Alexander Cochrane.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Credit Island is an island in the Mississippi River on the south west side of Davenport, Iowa within the Quad Cities area.
Cumberland Island, Georgia, is the largest of the Sea Islands of the southeastern United States.
Dalhousie University (commonly known as Dal) is a public research university in Nova Scotia, Canada, with three campuses in Halifax, a fourth in Bible Hill, and medical teaching facilities in Saint John, New Brunswick.
Admiral Sir David Milne of Milne Graden GCB FRSE RN (May 1763 – 5 May 1845) was a Scottish Royal Navy admiral.
David Porter (February 1, 1780 – March 3, 1843) was an officer in the United States Navy in the rank of captain and the honorary title of commodore.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, who was secretary of the treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration.
Dorothea "Dolley" Dandridge Payne Todd Madison (May 20, 1768 – July 12, 1849) was the wife of James Madison, President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
Dundurn Press is the largest Canadian-owned book publishing company of adult and children’s fiction and non-fiction in Canada.
Eastport is a small city (consisting entirely of islands) in Washington County, Maine, United States.
Ebenezer Seaver (July 5, 1763 – March 1, 1844) was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts.
The Honourable Sir Edward Michael Pakenham GCB (pro. pack-en-um) (19 March 1778 – 8 January 1815), was an Anglo-Irish army officer and politician.
The Elgin Military Museum is located in St. Thomas, Ontario.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The series of Engagements on Lake Huron left the British in control of the lake and their Native American allies in control of the Old Northwest for the latter stages of the War of 1812.
The Engagements on Lake Ontario encompass the prolonged naval contest for control of the lake during the War of 1812.
The Era of Good Feelings marked a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the War of 1812.
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress (as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party), was the first American political party.
Felix Grundy (September 11, 1777 – December 19, 1840) was a congressman and senator from Tennessee and served as the 13th Attorney General of the United States.
The President, Directors and Company, of the Bank of the United States, commonly known as the First Bank of the United States, was a national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Fort Belle Fontaine (formerly known as Cantonment Belle Fontaine) is a former U.S. military base located in St. Louis County, Missouri, across the Mississippi and Missouri rivers from Alton, Illinois.
Fort Bowyer was a short-lived earthen and stockade fortification that the United States Army erected in 1813 on Mobile Point, near the mouth of Mobile Bay in what is now Baldwin County, Alabama, but then was part of the Mississippi Territory.
Fort Cap au Gris, also called Capo Gray, was a temporary fort built in September 1814 near Troy, Missouri during the War of 1812 by Missouri Rangers under the direction of Nathan Boone, son of Daniel Boone.
Fort Covington is a town in Franklin County, New York.
Fort Dearborn was a United States fort built in 1803 beside the Chicago River, in what is now Chicago, Illinois.
Fort Erie is a town on the Niagara River in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada.
Fort George National Historic Site is a historic military structure at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, that was the scene of several battles during the War of 1812.
Fort Henry (also known as Fort Henry National Historic Site) is located in Kingston, Ontario, Canada on Point Henry, a strategic, elevated point near the mouth of the Cataraqui River where it flows into the St. Lawrence River at the east end of Lake Ontario.
Fort Howard is the name of a Park in Baltimore County.
Fort Toulouse and Fort Jackson are two forts that shared the same site at the fork of the Coosa River and the Tallapoosa River, near Wetumpka, Alabama.
Fort Johnson was a U.S. Army post built on bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River in modern-day Warsaw, Illinois during the War of 1812.
Fort Mackinac (pronounced: MACK-in-awe) is a former British and American military outpost garrisoned from the late 18th century to the late 19th century in the city of Mackinac Island, Michigan, on Mackinac Island.
Fort Madison is a city and a county seat of Lee County, Iowa, United States along with Keokuk.
Fort McHenry is a historical American coastal pentagonal bastion fort located in the Locust Point neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland.
Fort Meigs was a United States fortification along the Maumee River in what is now Perrysburg, Ohio during the War of 1812.
The Battle at Fort Mims occurred on August 30, 1813 during the Creek War, when a force of Creek Indians belonging to the "Red Sticks" faction, under the command of head warriors Peter McQueen and William Weatherford (also known as Lamochattee or Red Eagle), stormed the fort and defeated the militia garrison.
Fort Osage (also known as Fort Clark or Fort Sibley) was an early 19th-century factory trading post system run by the United States Government, on the American frontier being located in present-day Sibley, Missouri.
Fort Strother was a stockade fort at Ten Islands in the Mississippi Territory, in what is today St. Clair County, Alabama.
Fort Sullivan (briefly Fort Sherbrooke) was a 19th-century military fortification in Eastport, Maine.
Francis Scott Key (August 1, 1779January 11, 1843) was an American lawyer, author, and amateur poet from Frederick, Maryland who is best known for writing a poem which later became the lyrics for the United States' national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner".
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
George Downie (19 January 1778 – 11 September 1814) was a Scottish officer of the British Royal Navy who, during the War of 1812, commanded a British squadron which fought an American squadron on Lake Champlain in the Battle of Plattsburgh, during which he was killed.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
George Izard (October 21, 1776 – November 22, 1828) was a senior officer of the United States Army who served as the second Governor of Arkansas Territory from 1825 to 1828.
Lieutenant-General Sir George Prévost, 1st Baronet (19 May 1767 – 5 January 1816) was a British Army officer and colonial administrator.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Georgian Bay (French: Baie Georgienne) is a large bay of Lake Huron, located entirely within Ontario, Canada.
General Sir Gordon Drummond, GCB (27 September 1772 – 10 October 1854) was a Canadian-born British army officer and the first official to command the military and the civil government of Canada.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.
Henry William Brands Jr. (born August 7, 1953 in Portland, Oregon) is an American educator, author and historian.
Halifax, officially known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.
Hampden is a town on the Penobscot River estuary in Penobscot County, Maine, United States.
Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water in Virginia and the surrounding metropolitan region in Southeastern Virginia and Northeastern North Carolina, United States.
The Hartford Convention was a series of meetings from December 15, 1814 – January 5, 1815, in Hartford, Connecticut, United States, in which the New England Federalist Party met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government's increasing power.
Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst, (22 May 1762 – 27 July 1834) was a High Tory, High Church Pittite from the end of the Second Empire.
Henry Clay Sr. (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was an American lawyer, planter, and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives.
Henry Dearborn (February 23, 1751 – June 6, 1829) was an American soldier and statesman.
Henry Goulburn PC FRS (19 March 1784 – 12 January 1856) was an English Conservative statesman and a member of the Peelite faction after 1846.
Henry Patrick Procter or Proctor (1763–31 October 1822) was a British major-general who served in Canada during the War of 1812.
Spain in the 19th century was a country in turmoil.
HMS Boxer was a 12-gun built and launched in July 1812.
HMS Leander was a ''Portland''-class 50-gun fourth rate of the Royal Navy, launched at Chatham on 1 July 1780.
The Ho-Chunk, also known as Hoocąągra or Winnebago, are a Siouan-speaking Native American people whose historic territory includes parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and Illinois.
A hulk is a ship that is afloat, but incapable of going to sea.
Impressment, colloquially "the press" or the "press gang", is the taking of men into a military or naval force by compulsion, with or without notice.
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land.
During the War of 1812, Indiana Territory was home to several conflicts between the United States territorial government and partisan Native American forces backed by the British in Canada.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Intracoastal Waterway (ICW) is a inland waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States, running from Boston, Massachusetts, southward along the Atlantic Seaboard and around the southern tip of Florida, then following the Gulf Coast to Brownsville, Texas.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
Major-General Sir Isaac Brock KB (6 October 1769 – 13 October 1812) was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Guernsey.
Isaac Chauncey (February 20, 1772 – January 27, 1840) was an officer in the United States Navy who served in the Quasi-War, The Barbary Wars and the War of 1812.
Isaac Hull (March 9, 1773 – February 13, 1843) was a Commodore in the United States Navy.
Jacob Jennings Brown (May 9, 1775 – February 24, 1828) was an American army officer in the War of 1812.
James FitzGibbon (16 November 1780 – 10 December 1863) was a British soldier in the War of 1812.
James Lawrence (October 1, 1781 – June 4, 1813) was an American naval officer.
Sir James Lucas Yeo,, (7 October 1782 – 21 August 1818) was a British naval commander who served in the War of 1812.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825.
James Wilkinson (March 24, 1757 – December 28, 1825) was an American soldier and statesman, who was associated with several scandals and controversies.
John Adams Harper (November 2, 1779 – June 18, 1816) was an American politician and a United States Representative from New Hampshire.
John Armstrong Jr. (November 25, 1758April 1, 1843) was an American soldier and statesman who was a delegate to the Continental Congress, U.S. Senator from New York, and Secretary of War.
Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, 1st Baronet (2 September 1753 – 27 February 1822) was a British Royal Navy officer, diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1774 and 1807.
General Sir John Coape Sherbrooke, GCB (baptised 29 April 1764 – 14 February 1830) was a British soldier and colonial administrator.
John R. Coffee (June 2, 1772 – July 7, 1833) was an American planter and state militia general in Tennessee.
John Floyd (October 3, 1769 – June 24, 1839) was an American politician and brigadier general in the First Brigade of Georgia Militia in the War of 1812.
John Rodgers (July 11, 1772 – August 1, 1838) was a senior naval officer in the United States Navy who served under six Presidents for nearly four decades during its formative years in the 1790s through the late 1830s, committing the bulk of his adult life to his country.
Joseph Wanton Morrison (4 May 1783 – 15 February 1826) was a British soldier, best known for commanding the British troops at the Battle of Crysler's Farm during the War of 1812.
Joshua Barney (6 July 1759 – 1 December 1818) was an American Navy officer who served in the Continental Navy during the Revolutionary War.
The Journal of American Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering international perspectives on the history, literature, politics and culture of the United States.
During the War of 1812, Kentucky supplied numerous troops and supplies to the war effort.
The Kickapoo people (Kickapoo: Kiikaapoa or Kiikaapoi) are an Algonquian-speaking Native American and Indigenous Mexican tribe.
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
Kingston is a city in eastern Ontario, Canada.
Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area.
Lake Huron is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
Laura Secord (Ingersoll; 13 September 1775 – 17 October 1868) was a Canadian heroine of the War of 1812.
The Lenape, also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States.
A letter of marque and reprisal (lettre de marque; lettre de course) was a government license in the Age of Sail that authorized a person, known as a privateer or corsair, to attack and capture enemy vessels.
Second richest in terms of wealth over contemporary GDP is disputed, with various sources listing Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt, John Jacob Astor IV, Bill Gates or Henry Ford.
This is a list of sailing frigates of the United States Navy.
This is a list of War of 1812 battles, organized chronologically and by the theater in which they occurred.
The Little Belt affair was a naval battle on the night of 16 May 1811.
Lloyd's of London, generally known simply as Lloyd's, is an insurance market located in London, United Kingdom.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).
Machias Seal Island is an island in the Gulf of Maine, about southeast from Cutler, Maine, and southwest of Southwest Head on Grand Manan Island.
Machias is a town in and the county seat of Washington County in downeast Maine, United States.
Mackinac Island is an island and resort area, covering in land area, in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Mascouten (also Mascoutin, Mathkoutench, Muscoden, or Musketoon) were a tribe of Algonquian-speaking Native Americans located in the Midwest.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Merchant Navy is the maritime register of the United Kingdom, and comprises the seagoing commercial interests of UK-registered ships and their crews.
The Merikins were African-American Marines of the War of 1812 – former African slaves who fought for the British against the USA in the Corps of Colonial Marines and then, after post-war service in Bermuda, were established as a community in the south of Trinidad and Tobago in 1815–16.
The Meskwaki (sometimes spelled Mesquakie) are a Native American people often known to European-Americans as the Fox tribe.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
The Miami (Miami-Illinois: Myaamiaki) are a Native American nation originally speaking one of the Algonquian languages.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
The militia of the United States, as defined by the U.S. Congress, has changed over time.
The Mingo people are an Iroquoian-speaking group of Native Americans made up of peoples who migrated west to the Ohio Country in the mid-18th century, primarily Seneca and Cayuga.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Territory of Mississippi was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from April 7, 1798, until December 10, 1817, when the western half of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Mississippi and the eastern half became the Alabama Territory until its admittance to the Union as the State of Alabama on December 14, 1819.
The Missouri Compromise is the title generally attached to the legislation passed by the 16th United States Congress on May 9, 1820.
The Territory of Missouri was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 4, 1812 until August 10, 1821.
Mobile Point is the apex of a long, low, narrow, sandy peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico on the south and Bon Secour Bay and Navy Cove on the north.
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States.
The Mohawk people (who identify as Kanien'kehá:ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Morrisburg is an unincorporated village that is part of the Township of South Dundas, located in Eastern Ontario, Canada.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Nancy was a schooner, built in Detroit, Michigan and launched in 1789.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Narragansett is a town in Washington County, Rhode Island, United States.
The National Museum of Bermuda, previously the Bermuda Maritime Museum from its opening in 1974 until 2009 (legislatively formalised in 2013), explores the maritime and island history of Bermuda.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Ireland was a Crown colony of the United Kingdom established in modern-day Maine after British forces captured the area during the American Revolution and again during the War of 1812.
New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
New York Harbor, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey, is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean at the East Coast of the United States.
The Niagara River is a river that flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.
Niagara-on-the-Lake is a town in Ontario, Canada.
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
The North America and West Indies Station was a formation or command of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy stationed in North American waters from 1745 to 1956.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), and was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Nottawasaga Bay is a sub-bay within Georgian Bay in Southern Ontario, Canada located at the southernmost end of the main bay.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
The Odawa (also Ottawa or Odaawaa), said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who primarily inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada.
Ogdensburg is a city in St. Lawrence County, New York, United States.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
Oliver Hazard Perry (August 23, 1785 – August 23, 1819) was an American naval commander, born in South Kingstown, Rhode Island.
Opposition to the War of 1812 was widespread in the United States, especially in New England.
The Orders in Council were a series of decrees, in the form of Orders in Council, made by the Privy Council of the United Kingdom in the course of the wars with Napoleonic France which instituted its policy of commercial warfare.
The Oregon Country was a predominantly American term referring to a disputed region of the Pacific Northwest of North America.
The Oregon Treaty is a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States that was signed on June 15, 1846, in Washington, D.C. Signed under the presidency of James K. Polk, the treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country; the area had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818.
The Osage River is a U.S. Geological Survey.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
Patterson Park is an urban park in Southeast Baltimore, Maryland, United States, adjacent to the neighborhoods of Canton, Highlandtown, Patterson Park, and Butchers Hill.
The Patuxent River is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay in the state of Maryland.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
Peter Buell Porter (August 14, 1773 – March 20, 1844) was an American lawyer, soldier and politician who served as United States Secretary of War from 1828 to 1829.
Peter McQueen (c. 1780 – 1820) was a Creek Indian chief, prophet, trader and warrior from Talisi (Tallassee, among the Upper Towns in present-day Alabama.) He was one of the young men known as Red Sticks, who became a prophet for expulsion of the European Americans from Creek territory and a revival of traditional practices.
Rear-Admiral Sir Philip Bowes Vere Broke, 1st Baronet, KCB (9 September 1776 – 2 January 1841) was a distinguished officer in the British Royal Navy.
Pierre Francis de Marigny Berton (July 12, 1920 – November 30, 2004) was a noted Canadian author of non-fiction, especially Canadiana and Canadian history, and was a television personality and journalist.
The Pig War was a confrontation in 1859 between the United States and United Kingdom over the British–U.S. border in the San Juan Islands, between Vancouver Island and the mainland.
Plattsburgh is a city in and the seat of Clinton County, New York, United States.
Plymouth (historically known as Plimouth and Plimoth) is a town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States.
ThePottawatomi, also spelled Pottawatomie and Potawatomi (among many variations), are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River, and western Great Lakes region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. The Potawatomi called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. The Potawatomi were part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe and Odawa (Ottawa). In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi were considered the "youngest brother" and were referred to in this context as Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and refers to the council fire of three peoples. In the 19th century, they were pushed to the west by European/American encroachment in the late 18th century and removed from their lands in the Great Lakes region to reservations in Oklahoma. Under Indian Removal, they eventually ceded many of their lands, and most of the Potawatomi relocated to Nebraska, Kansas, and Indian Territory, now in Oklahoma. Some bands survived in the Great Lakes region and today are federally recognized as tribes. In Canada, there are over 20 First Nation bands.
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay.
Prairie du Chien is a city in and the county seat of Crawford County, Wisconsin, United States.
Prescott, Ontario is a small town on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River in the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville, Canada.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
Prize is a term used in admiralty law to refer to equipment, vehicles, vessels, and cargo captured during armed conflict.
Prospect Bluff Historic Sites (until 2016 Fort Gadsden Historic Site, and sometimes given as Fort Gadsden Historic Memorial) is located in Franklin County, Florida, on the Apalachicola River, SW of Sumatra, Florida.
Protection papers, also known as "Seamen Protection Papers," "Seamen Protection Certificates," or "Sailor's Protection Papers", were issued to American seamen during the last part of the 18th century through the first half of the 20th century.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Provincial Marine was a coastal protection service in charge of the waters in the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence River and parts of Lake Champlain under British control.
Put-in-Bay is a village located on South Bass Island in Put-in-Bay Township, Ottawa County, Ohio, United States.
A Pyrrhic victory is a victory that inflicts such a devastating toll on the victor that it is tantamount to defeat.
Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.
The Raid on Havre de Grace was a seaborne military operation that took place on 3 May 1813.
A razee or razée is a sailing ship that has been cut down (razeed) to reduce the number of decks.
Red Sticks (also Redsticks or Red Clubs), the name deriving from the red-painted war clubs of some Native American Creeks—refers to an early 19th-century traditionalist faction of these people in the American Southeast.
Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States from 1837 to 1841.
The Rideau Canal, also known unofficially as the Rideau Waterway, connects Canada's capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, to Lake Ontario and the Saint Lawrence River at Kingston, Ontario.
The River Raisin is a river in southeastern Michigan, United States that flows through glacial sediments into Lake Erie.
Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, (7 June 1770 – 4 December 1828) was a British statesman and Prime Minister (1812–27).
Major-General Robert McDouall, CB (March, 1774 – 15 November 1848) was a Scottish-born officer in the British Army, who saw much action during the Napoleonic Wars and the Anglo-American War of 1812.
Major-General Robert Ross (176612 September 1814) was an Anglo-Irish officer in the British Army who served in the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812.
General Sir Roger Hale Sheaffe, 1st Baronet (15 July 1763 – 17 July 1851) was a Loyalist General in the British Army during the War of 1812.
The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is the amphibious light infantry of the Royal Navy.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Rush–Bagot Treaty or Rush–Bagot Disarmament was a treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom limiting naval armaments on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, following the War of 1812.
Sackets Harbor (earlier spelled Sacketts Harbor) is a village in Jefferson County, New York, United States, on Lake Ontario.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Samuel Smith (July 27, 1752April 22, 1839) was a United States Senator and Representative from Maryland, a mayor of Baltimore, Maryland, and a general in the Maryland militia.
The Sandusky River (Shawnee: Potakihiipi) is a tributary to Lake Erie in north-central Ohio in the United States.
Sandy Hook is a barrier spit in Middletown Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States.
The Sac or Sauk are a group of Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands culture group, who lived primarily in the region of what is now Green Bay, Wisconsin, when first encountered by the French in 1667.
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts.
The Second Bank of the United States, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was the second federally authorized Hamiltonian national bank in the United States during its 20-year charter from February 1816 to January 1836.
The Second Battle of Sacket's Harbor or simply the Battle of Sacket's Harbor, took place on 29 May 1813, during the War of 1812.
The Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was a British cabinet-level position responsible for the army and the British colonies (other than India).
The Seminole are a Native American people originally from Florida.
The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between the Seminole, a Native American tribe that formed in Florida in the early 18th century, and the United States Army.
The Seneca are a group of indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who historically lived south of Lake Ontario.
The Shawnee (Shaawanwaki, Ša˙wano˙ki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki) are an Algonquian-speaking ethnic group indigenous to North America. In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation, primarily inhabiting areas of the Ohio Valley, extending from what became Ohio and Kentucky eastward to West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Western Maryland; south to Alabama and South Carolina; and westward to Indiana, and Illinois. Pushed west by European-American pressure, the Shawnee migrated to Missouri and Kansas, with some removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s. Other Shawnee did not remove to Oklahoma until after the Civil War. Made up of different historical and kinship groups, today there are three federally recognized Shawnee tribes, all headquartered in Oklahoma: the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, and Shawnee Tribe.
A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside firepower to bear.
The Siege of Detroit, also known as the Surrender of Detroit, or the Battle of Fort Detroit, was an early engagement in the British-U.S. War of 1812.
The Siege of Fort Erie was one of the last and most protracted engagements between British and American forces during the Niagara campaign of the American War of 1812.
The Siege of Fort of Mackinac was one of the first engagements of the War of 1812.
The Siege of Fort Meigs took place during the War of 1812, in northwestern Ohio.
The Siege of Fort St.
The Siege of Prairie du Chien was a British victory in the far western theater of the War of 1812.
Sine qua non or condicio sine qua non (plural: condiciones sine quibus non) is an indispensable and essential action, condition, or ingredient.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet (22 April 1772 – 19 August 1853) was a Royal Navy officer.
Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy, 1st Baronet, GCB (5 April 1769 – 20 September 1839) was a Royal Navy officer.
A sister ship is a ship of the same class or of virtually identical design to another ship.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
In the 18th century and most of the 19th, a sloop-of-war in the Royal Navy was a warship with a single gun deck that carried up to eighteen guns.
Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
The Special Relationship is an unofficial term for the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States.
Spencer Perceval (1 November 1762 – 11 May 1812) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1809 until his assassination in May 1812.
The term status quo ante bellum (often shortened to status quo ante) is a Latin phrase meaning "the state existing before the war".
Stephen Decatur Jr. (January 5, 1779 – March 22, 1820) was a United States naval officer and commodore.
Stephen Girard (May 20, 1750 – December 26, 1831; born Étienne Girard) was a French-born, naturalized American, philanthropist and banker.
Stephen Van Rensselaer III (November 1, 1764January 26, 1839) was a New York landowner, businessman, militia officer, and politician.
The Strait of Juan de Fuca (officially named Juan de Fuca Strait in Canada) is a large body of water about long that is the Salish Sea's outlet to the Pacific Ocean.
Striking the colors, meaning to lower the flag (the "colors") which signifies a ship's or garrison's allegiance, is a universally recognized indication of surrender, particularly for ships at sea.
The Tallapoosa River runs U.S. Geological Survey.
Tecumseh (March 1768 – October 5, 1813) was a Native American Shawnee warrior and chief, who became the primary leader of a large, multi-tribal confederacy in the early 19th century.
Tecumseh's Confederacy was a confederation of Native Americans in the Great Lakes region of the United States that began to form in the early 19th century around the teaching of Tenskwatawa (The Prophet).
Tenskwatawa(also called Tenskatawa, Tenskwatawah, Tensquatawa or Lalawethika) (January 1775 – November 1836) was a Native American religious and political leader of the Shawnee tribe, known as the Prophet or the Shawnee Prophet.
The Boston Associates were a loosely linked group of investors in 19th-century New England.
The Buffalo News is the daily newspaper of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area, located at 1 News Plaza in Downtown Buffalo, New York.
The Invasion of Canada: 1812–1813 is a 1980 book by Pierre Berton.
"The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem of the United States.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas Pinckney (October 23, 1750 – November 2, 1828) was an early American statesman, diplomat, and soldier in both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, achieving the rank of major general.
Timeline of the War of 1812 is a chronology of events for the War of 1812.
The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was an international treaty signed in 1818 between the above parties.
The Treaty of Fontainebleau was an agreement established in Fontainebleau, France, on 11 April 1814 between Napoleon I and representatives from the Austrian Empire, Russia and Prussia.
The Treaty of Fort Jackson (also known as the Treaty with the Creeks, 1814) was signed on August 9, 1814 at Fort Jackson near Wetumpka, Alabama following the defeat of the Red Stick (Upper Creek) resistance by United States allied forces at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The Treaty of Ghent was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
Tukabatchee or Tuckabutche (Creek: Tokepahce) is one of the four mother towns of the Muscogee Creek confederacy.
United Empire Loyalists (or Loyalists) is an honorific given in 1799 by Lord Dorchester, the governor of Quebec and Governor-general of British North America, to American Loyalists who resettled in British North America during or after the American Revolution.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Between 1793 and 1815, the Great Britain was the most constant of Napoleon's enemies.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Rangers are designated U.S. Army Ranger units, past or present, or are graduates of the U.S. Army Ranger School.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
An Act Declaring War between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Dependencies Thereof and the United States of America and Their Territories was passed by the United States Congress on June 18, 1812, thereby beginning the War of 1812.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Revenue Cutter Service was established by an act of Congress on 4 August 1790 as the Revenue-Marine upon the recommendation of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton to serve as an armed customs enforcement service.
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees of the United States after the American Revolution.
The Upper Midwest is a region in the northern portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's Midwestern United States.
USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere was a single ship action between the two ships during the War of 1812, approximately 400 miles southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Uti possidetis (Latin for "as you possess") is a principle in international law that territory and other property remains with its possessor at the end of a conflict, unless otherwise provided for by treaty; if such a treaty does not include conditions regarding the possession of property and territory taken during the war, then the principle of uti possidetis will prevail.
Valparaíso is a major city, seaport, and educational center in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile.
Wade Hampton (1752 – February 4, 1835) was a South Carolina soldier, politician, two-term U.S. Congressman, and may have been the wealthiest planter and one of the largest slave holders in the U.S. at the time of his death.
A War Hawk, or simply hawk, is a term used in politics for someone favouring war in a debate over whether to go to war, or whether to continue or escalate an existing war.
The following is a synopsis of the land campaigns of the War of 1812.
The Washington Navy Yard (WNY) is the former shipyard and ordnance plant of the United States Navy in Southeast Washington, D.C. It is the oldest shore establishment of the U.S. Navy.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The Webster–Ashburton Treaty, signed August 9, 1842, was a treaty that resolved several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies (the region that became Canada).
West Florida (Florida Occidental) was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico that underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history.
The West India Regiments (WIR) were infantry units of the British Army recruited from and normally stationed in the British colonies of the Caribbean between 1795 and 1927.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
William Bainbridge (May 7, 1774 – July 27, 1833) was a Commodore in the United States Navy.
William Henry Winder (1775 – 1824) was an American soldier and a Maryland lawyer.
William Henry Harrison Sr. (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military officer, a principal contributor in the War of 1812, and the ninth President of the United States (1841).
William Hull (June 24, 1753 – November 29, 1825) was an American soldier and politician.
William M. James (1780 – 28 May 1827) was a British lawyer turned naval historian who wrote important naval histories of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1793–1815.
William Jones (1760September 6, 1831) was an American politician.
Capt Sir William Howe Mulcaster CB, KCH, KTS, RN, (1783 – 12 March 1837) was an officer in the British Royal Navy who played a distinguished part in the Anglo-American War of 1812, in particular in the Engagements on Lake Ontario.
William Weatherford, known as Red Eagle (ca. 1781–March 24, 1824), was a Creek chief of the Upper Creek towns who led many of the Red Sticks actions in the Creek War (1813–1814) against Lower Creek towns and against allied forces of the United States.
William Widgery (1753July 31, 1822) was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts.
Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general and the unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig Party in 1852.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called the Huron Nation and Huron people, in most historic references are believed to have been the most populous confederacy of Iroquoian cultured indigenous peoples of North America.
York was a town and second capital of the district of Upper Canada.
Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850.
Zebulon Montgomery Pike (January 5, 1779 – April 27, 1813) was an American brigadier general and explorer for whom Pikes Peak in Colorado was renamed (from El Capitan).
The 2nd York Militia were a Canadian Provincial Militia Line Infantry Regiment at the time of the War of 1812.
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