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War on drugs

Index War on drugs

War on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade. [1]

209 relations: Addiction, Air Bridge Denial Program, Alberto Fujimori, Alcohol, Allegations of CIA drug trafficking, Andrew Mellon, Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, Ayahuasca, Baker (military code-name), Beckley Foundation, Bill Clinton, Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Cannabis (drug), Central America, Central Intelligence Agency, Charles F. Manski, Chasing the Scream, Chile, Civil forfeiture in the United States, Class conflict, Coca, Cocaine, Cognitive liberty, Collateral consequences of criminal conviction, Commerce Clause, Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, Congressional Research Service, Continuing Criminal Enterprise, Contras, Counter-insurgency, Crack cocaine, Crack epidemic, Dark Alliance, Decorticator, Demand reduction, Direct tax, Driver's licenses in the United States, Drug czar, Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Free America Foundation, Drug liberalization, Drug Policy Alliance, Drug policy of Sweden, Drugs in the United States, Du Pont family, DuPont, DynCorp, Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, El Salvador, Ethanol, ..., Ethnic conflict, Eugene Hasenfus, Evo Morales, Fair Sentencing Act, Federal Bureau of Narcotics, Federal government of the United States, Felony, Felony disenfranchisement, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Opium War, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frederick Hitz, Free base, Free Exercise Clause, Frontline (U.S. TV series), Gary Webb, George Akerlof, George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, Gerald Ford, Gil Kerlikowske, Global Commission on Drug Policy, Glyphosate, Golden Crescent, Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), Governance failure, Government Accountability Office, Guatemala, Harper's Magazine, Harrison Narcotics Tax Act, Harvard University, Herbicide, Heroin, Honduras, Human Rights Watch, Illegal drug trade, Inspector general, International Narcotics Control Board, Invasion, Iran–Contra affair, Italian Communist Party, Jefferson Fish, Jeffrey Miron, Jimmy Carter, John Ehrlichman, John Kerry, Latin American drug legalization, Law Enforcement Action Partnership, Len Bias, Lester Grinspoon, List of anti-cannabis organizations, List of Nobel laureates, Los Zetas, Lucky Luciano, Lyndon B. Johnson, Mandatory sentencing, Manuel Noriega, Mapiripán Massacre, Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, Marijuana Control, Regulation, and Education Act, Marijuana Policy Project, Massacre of Trujillo, Max Lerner, Mérida Initiative, Methamphetamine, Mexican Drug War, Michael Tonry, Military aid, Military Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies Act, Milton Friedman, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Narcotic, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, Native American Church, Needle exchange programme, November Coalition, NPR, Office of National Drug Control Policy, Operation Intercept, Opiate, Otto Pérez Molina, Papal diplomacy, Partnership for Drug-Free Kids, Peyote, Philippine Drug War, Plan Colombia, Presidency of Barack Obama, Presidency of Bill Clinton, President of the United States, Prison Policy Initiative, Prison–industrial complex, Prohibition in the United States, Prohibition of drugs, Psychoactive drug, Public relations, Pulp (paper), Race and the War on Drugs, RAND Corporation, Recreational drug use, Regina Benjamin, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, Richard Davenport-Hines, Richard Nixon, Right-wing paramilitarism in Colombia, Robert DuPont, Ronald Reagan, Sandinista National Liberation Front, Sicilian Mafia, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Solomon–Lautenberg amendment, Students for Sensible Drug Policy, Substantive due process, Summits of the Americas, Taboo, Taxpayer, The Local, The Mercury News, The New England Journal of Medicine, The New Jim Crow, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wire, Thomas Szasz, Time (magazine), Tobacco, Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution, UMOPAR, União do Vegetal, Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act, United Nations, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia, United States, United States Department of Justice, United States Department of State, United States Department of the Treasury, United States invasion of Panama, United States Secretary of the Treasury, United States Senate, United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Valle del Cauca Department, Vernon L. Smith, Vietnam War, Volstead Act, War as metaphor, War on Gangs, Washington Office on Latin America, Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation, White House, William Randolph Hearst, Wired (magazine), Woman's Christian Temperance Union, World Federation Against Drugs. Expand index (159 more) »

Addiction

Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.

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Air Bridge Denial Program

The Air Bridge Denial (ABD) Program is an anti-narcotics program operated by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in Colombia and Peru.

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Alberto Fujimori

Alberto Kenya Fujimori Fujimori (born 26 July 1938 or 4 August 1938) is a Peruvian former politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 22 November 2000.

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Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Allegations of CIA drug trafficking

The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has been accused of involvement in drug trafficking.

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Andrew Mellon

Andrew William Mellon (March 24, 1855 – August 26, 1937), sometimes A.W., was an American banker, businessman, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector, and politician.

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Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986

The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 was a law of the War on Drugs passed by the U.S. Congress.

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Ayahuasca

Ayahuasca, iowaska, or yagé, is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients.

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Baker (military code-name)

Baker is the code-name for a series of training exercises conducted by the United States Army and several Asian countries which hosted the exercises.

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Beckley Foundation

The Beckley Foundation is a UK-based think-tank and UN-accredited NGO, dedicated to activating global drug policy reform and initiating scientific research into psychoactive substances.

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Bill Clinton

William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs

The Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD) was a bureau within the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) and a predecessor agency of the modern Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

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Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Charles F. Manski

Charles Frederick Manski (born November 27, 1948 in Boston), is the Professor of Economics at Northwestern University, an econometrician in the realm of rational choice theory, and an innovator in the arena of parameter identification.

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Chasing the Scream

Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs is a book by British writer and journalist Johann Hari examining the history and impact of drug criminalisation, collectively known as "the War on Drugs." The book was published simultaneously in the United Kingdom and United States in January 2015.

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Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Civil forfeiture in the United States

Civil forfeiture in the United States, also called civil asset forfeiture or civil judicial forfeiture or occasionally civil seizure, is a legal process in which law enforcement officers take assets from persons suspected of involvement with crime or illegal activity without necessarily charging the owners with wrongdoing.

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Class conflict

Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.

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Coca

Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.

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Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Cognitive liberty

Cognitive liberty, or the "right to mental self-determination", is the freedom of an individual to control his or her own mental processes, cognition, and consciousness.

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Collateral consequences of criminal conviction

Collateral consequences of criminal conviction are the additional civil state penalties, mandated by statute, that attach to criminal convictions.

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Commerce Clause

The Commerce Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3).

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Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970

The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970,, is a United States federal law that, with subsequent modifications, requires the pharmaceutical industry to maintain physical security and strict record keeping for certain types of drugs.

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Congressional Research Service

The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.

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Continuing Criminal Enterprise

The Continuing Criminal Enterprise Statute (commonly referred to as CCE Statute or The Kingpin Statute) is a United States federal law that targets large-scale drug traffickers who are responsible for long-term and elaborate drug conspiracies.

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Contras

The Contras were the various U.S.-backed and funded right-wing rebel groups that were active from 1979 to the early 1990s in opposition to the socialist Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua.

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Counter-insurgency

A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".

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Crack cocaine

Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked.

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Crack epidemic

The American crack epidemic was a surge of crack cocaine use in major cities across the United States between the early 1980s and the early 1990s.

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Dark Alliance

Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion is a 1998 book by journalist Gary Webb.

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Decorticator

A decorticator (from Latin: cortex, bark) is a machine for stripping the skin, bark, or rind off nuts, wood, plant stalks, grain, etc., in preparation for further processing.

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Demand reduction

Demand reduction refers to efforts aimed at reducing the public desire for illegal and illicit drugs.

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Direct tax

Though the actual definitions vary between jurisdictions, in general, a direct tax is a tax imposed upon a person or property as distinct from a tax imposed upon a transaction, which is described as an indirect tax.

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Driver's licenses in the United States

In the United States of America, driver's licenses are issued by each individual state, territory, and the federal district rather than by the federal government because of the concept of federalism.

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Drug czar

Drug czar is an informal name for the person who directs drug-control policies in various areas.

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Drug Enforcement Administration

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.

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Drug Free America Foundation

The Drug Free America Foundation (DFAF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit charitable organization focused on drug prevention and policy that is committed to developing, promoting and sustaining national and international policies and laws that will reduce illegal drug use and drug addiction.

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Drug liberalization

Drug liberalization is the process of eliminating or reducing drug prohibition laws.

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Drug Policy Alliance

The Drug Policy Alliance (DPA) is a New York City-based non-profit organization, led by executive director Maria McFarland Sánchez-Moreno, with the principal goal of ending the American "War on Drugs".

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Drug policy of Sweden

The drug policy of Sweden is based on zero tolerance focusing on prevention, treatment, and control, aiming to reduce both the supply of and demand for illegal drugs.

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Drugs in the United States

In the United States, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act defined the word "drug" as an "article intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals" and those "(other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals." Consistent with that definition, the U.S. separately defines narcotic drugs and controlled substances, which may include non-drugs, and explicitly excludes tobacco, caffeine and alcoholic beverages.

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Du Pont family

The Du Pont family is an American family descended from Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours (1739–1817).

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DuPont

E.

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DynCorp

DynCorp, most recently DynCorp International, is an American Global service provider.

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Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Eighteenth Amendment (Amendment XVIII) of the United States Constitution effectively established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport, and sale of alcohol (though not the consumption or private possession) illegal.

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El Salvador

El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethnic conflict

An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.

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Eugene Hasenfus

Eugene H. Hasenfus is a former United States Marine who helped fly weapons shipments on behalf of the U.S. government to the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.

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Evo Morales

Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.

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Fair Sentencing Act

The Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 was an Act of Congress that was signed into federal law by U.S. President Barack Obama on August 3, 2010 that reduces the disparity between the amount of crack cocaine and powder cocaine needed to trigger certain federal criminal penalties from a 100:1 weight ratio to an 18:1 weight ratio and eliminated the five-year mandatory minimum sentence for simple possession of crack cocaine, among other provisions.

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Federal Bureau of Narcotics

The Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN) was an agency of the United States Department of the Treasury.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Felony

The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.

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Felony disenfranchisement

Felony disenfranchisement is the exclusion from voting of people otherwise eligible to vote (known as disfranchisement) due to conviction of a criminal offense, usually restricted to the more serious class of crimes: felonies (crimes of incarceration for a duration of more than a year).

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Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases.

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First Amendment to the United States Constitution

The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.

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First Opium War

The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.

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Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Frederick Hitz

Frederick Porter Hitz (born 14 October 1939) is an author and former Inspector General of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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Free base

Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.

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Free Exercise Clause

The Free Exercise Clause accompanies the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Frontline (U.S. TV series)

Frontline (styled by the program as FRONTLINE) is the flagship investigative journalism series of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, and broadcasting them on air and online.

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Gary Webb

Gary Stephen Webb (August 31, 1955 – December 10, 2004) was an American investigative journalist.

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George Akerlof

George Arthur Akerlof (born June 17, 1940) is an American economist who is a University Professor at the McCourt School of Public Policy at Georgetown University and Koshland Professor of Economics Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley.

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George H. W. Bush

George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.

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George W. Bush

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Gerald Ford

Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.

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Gil Kerlikowske

Richard Gil Kerlikowske (born November 23, 1949) is a former Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

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Global Commission on Drug Policy

The Global Commission on Drug Policy (GCDP) is a panel of world leaders and intellectuals, with a Secretariat based in Geneva, Switzerland.

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Glyphosate

Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.

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Golden Crescent

The Golden Crescent is the name given to one of Asia's two principal areas of illicit opium production (with the other being the Golden Triangle), located at the crossroads of Central, South, and Western Asia.

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Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia)

The Golden Triangle is the area where the borders of Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar meet at the confluence of the Ruak and Mekong Rivers.

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Governance failure

A governance failure refers to any failures of governance or ineffectiveness of governance processes.

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Government Accountability Office

The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.

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Guatemala

Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.

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Harper's Magazine

Harper's Magazine (also called Harper's) is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts.

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Harrison Narcotics Tax Act

The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (Ch. 1) was a United States federal law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, and distribution of opiates and coca products.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Herbicide

Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.

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Heroin

Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.

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Honduras

Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Illegal drug trade

The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.

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Inspector general

An inspector general is an investigative official in a civil or military organization.

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International Narcotics Control Board

The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.

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Invasion

An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof.

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Iran–Contra affair

The Iran–Contra affair (ماجرای ایران-کنترا, caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate, Contragate or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration.

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Italian Communist Party

The Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy.

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Jefferson Fish

Jefferson Morris Fish is a professor emeritus of psychology at St. John's University in New York City, where he previously served as Chair of the Department of Psychology and as Director of the PhD Program in Clinical Psychology.

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Jeffrey Miron

Jeffrey Alan "Jeff" Miron (born 1957) is an American economist.

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Jimmy Carter

James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.

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John Ehrlichman

John Daniel Ehrlichman (March 20, 1925 – February 14, 1999) was counsel and Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs under President Richard Nixon.

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John Kerry

John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.

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Latin American drug legalization

In the late 2000s and early 2010s, advocacy for drug legalization has increased in Latin America.

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Law Enforcement Action Partnership

The Law Enforcement Action Partnership (LEAP), formerly Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) nonprofit group of current and former police, judges, prosecutors, and other criminal justice professionals who use their expertise to advance drug policy and criminal justice solutions that enhance public safety.

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Len Bias

Leonard Kevin Bias (November 18, 1963 – June 19, 1986) was a first-team All-American college basketball forward at the University of Maryland.

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Lester Grinspoon

Dr.

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List of anti-cannabis organizations

The following is a list of anti-cannabis organizations and campaigns.

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List of Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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Los Zetas

Los Zetas (Spanish for "The Zs") is a Mexican criminal syndicate, regarded as the most dangerous of the country's drug cartels.

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Lucky Luciano

Charles "Lucky" Luciano (born Salvatore Lucania; November 24, 1897 – January 26, 1962) was an Italian-born mobster and crime boss who operated mainly in the United States.

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Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.

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Mandatory sentencing

Mandatory sentencing requires that offenders serve a predefined term for certain crimes, commonly serious and violent offenses.

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Manuel Noriega

Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (February 11, 1934 – May 29, 2017) was a Panamanian politician and military officer who was the de facto ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989.

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Mapiripán Massacre

The Mapiripán Massacre was a massacre of civilians that took place in Mapiripán, Meta Department, Colombia.

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Marihuana Tax Act of 1937

The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937,, was a United States Act that placed a tax on the sale of cannabis.

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Marijuana Control, Regulation, and Education Act

The Marijuana Control, Regulation, and Education Act, also known as California Assembly Bill 390 (A.B. 390) and later Assembly Bill 2254 (A.B. 2254), is the first bill ever introduced to regulate the sale and use of marijuana in the U.S. state of California.

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Marijuana Policy Project

The Marijuana Policy Project (MPP) is the largest organization working solely on marijuana policy reform in the United States in terms of its budget, number of members, and staff.

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Massacre of Trujillo

The Massacre of Trujillo (Masacre de Trujillo) was a series of murders perpetrated between 1988 and 1994 in the town of Trujillo, Valle del Cauca Department in southwestern Colombia by paramilitaries and the Cali Cartel with the complicity of active members of the Colombian military and police.

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Max Lerner

Maxwell Alan "Max" Lerner (December 20, 1902 – June 5, 1992) was a Russian-born American journalist and educator known for his controversial syndicated column.

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Mérida Initiative

The Mérida Initiative (also called Plan Mexico by critics, in reference to Plan Colombia) is a security cooperation agreement among the United States, the government of Mexico, and the countries of Central America, with the declared aim of combating the threats of drug trafficking, transnational organized crime, and money laundering.

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Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

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Mexican Drug War

The Mexican Drug War (also known as the Mexican War on Drugs) is an ongoing, low-intensity asymmetric war between the Mexican Government and various drug trafficking syndicates.

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Michael Tonry

Michael H. Tonry, an American criminologist, is the McKnight Presidential Professor of Criminal Law and Policy at the University of Minnesota Law School.

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Military aid

Military aid is aid which is used to assist a country or its people in its defense efforts, or to assist a poor country in maintaining control over its own territory.

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Military Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies Act

The Military Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies Act is a United States federal law enacted in 1981 that allows the United States Armed Forces to cooperate with domestic and foreign law enforcement agencies.

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Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.

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N,N-Dimethyltryptamine

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.

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Narcotic

The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.

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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.

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National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws

The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) is an American non-profit organization based in Washington, DC whose aim is to move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the legalization of non-medical marijuana in the United States so that the responsible use of cannabis by adults is no longer subject to penalty.

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National Survey on Drug Use and Health

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health, often abbreviated NSDUH, is an annual nationwide survey on the use of legal and illegal drugs, as well as mental disorders, that has been conducted by the United States federal government since 1971.

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National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign

The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign is a current domestic government propaganda campaign in the United States conducted by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) within the Executive Office of the President of the United States with the goal to "influence the attitudes of the public and the news media with respect to drug abuse" and of "reducing and preventing drug abuse among young people in the United States".

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Native American Church

The Native American Church (NAC), also known as Peyotism and Peyote Religion, is a Native American religion that teaches a combination of traditional Native American beliefs and Christianity, with sacramental use of the entheogen peyote.

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Needle exchange programme

A needle and syringe programme (NSP), syringe-exchange programme (SEP), or needle exchange program (NEP) is a social service that allows injecting drug users (IDUs) to obtain hypodermic needles and associated paraphernalia at little or no cost.

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November Coalition

The November Coalition is a non-profit grassroots organization, founded in 1997, which fights against the War on Drugs and for the rights of the prisoners incarcerated as the effect of that war.

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NPR

National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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Office of National Drug Control Policy

The Office of National Drug Control Policy is a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

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Operation Intercept

Operation Intercept was an anti-drug measure announced by President Nixon on at 2:30pm on Sunday, September 21, 1969, resulting in a near shutdown of border crossings between Mexico and the United States.

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Opiate

Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.

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Otto Pérez Molina

Otto Fernando Pérez Molina (born 1 December 1950) is a Guatemalan politician and retired military officer, who was President of Guatemala from 2012 to 2015.

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Papal diplomacy

Nuncio (officially known as an Apostolic nuncio and also known as a papal nuncio) is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or international organization.

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Partnership for Drug-Free Kids

The Partnership for Drug-Free Kids, first known as the Partnership for a Drug-Free America (PDFA) then later as the Partnership at DrugFree.org, is a New York City-based non-profit organization which runs campaigns to prevent teenage drug and alcohol abuse in the United States.

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Peyote

Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.

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Philippine Drug War

The "Philippine Drug War" refers to the drug policy of the Philippine government under President Rodrigo Duterte.

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Plan Colombia

Plan Colombia was the name of a United States foreign aid, military and diplomatic initiative aimed at combating Colombian drug cartels and left-wing insurgent groups in Colombia.

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Presidency of Barack Obama

The presidency of Barack Obama began at noon EST on January 20, 2009, when Barack Obama was inaugurated as 44th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2017.

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Presidency of Bill Clinton

The presidency of Bill Clinton began at noon EST on January 20, 1993, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as 42nd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2001.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Prison Policy Initiative

The Prison Policy Initiative (PPI) is a criminal justice oriented American public policy think tank based in Easthampton, Massachusetts.

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Prison–industrial complex

The term "prison–industrial complex" (PIC), derived from the "military–industrial complex" of the 1950s, describes the attribution of the rapid expansion of the US inmate population to the political influence of private prison companies and businesses that supply goods and services to government prison agencies for profit.

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Prohibition in the United States

Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.

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Prohibition of drugs

The prohibition of drugs through sumptuary legislation or religious law is a common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain harmful drugs and other intoxicating substances.

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Psychoactive drug

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.

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Public relations

Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.

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Pulp (paper)

Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.

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Race and the War on Drugs

The War on Drugs is a term for the actions taken and legislation enacted by the United States government, intended to reduce or eliminate the production, distribution, and use of illicit drugs.

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RAND Corporation

RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.

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Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

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Regina Benjamin

Regina Marcia Benjamin (born October 26, 1956) is an American physician and a former vice admiral in the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps who served as the 18th Surgeon General of the United States.

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Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia

The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia—Ejército del Pueblo, FARC–EP and FARC) was a guerrilla movement involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict from 1964 to 2017.

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Richard Davenport-Hines

Richard Davenport-Hines (born 21 June 1953 in London) is a noted British historian and literary biographer, best known for his biography of the poet W. H. Auden.

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Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.

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Right-wing paramilitarism in Colombia

Right-wing paramilitary groups in Colombia are paramilitary groups acting in opposition to revolutionary Marxist-Leninist guerrilla forces and their allies among the civilian population.

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Robert DuPont

Robert L. DuPont (born March 25, 1936 in Toledo, Ohio) is an American psychiatrist, known for his advocacy in the field of substance abuse.

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Sandinista National Liberation Front

The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.

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Sicilian Mafia

The Sicilian Mafia, also known as simply the Mafia and frequently referred to by members as Cosa Nostra (this thing of ours), is a criminal syndicate in Sicily, Italy.

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Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.

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Solomon–Lautenberg amendment

The Solomon–Lautenberg amendment is a U.S. federal law enacted in 1990, encouraging states to suspend the driver's license of anyone who commits a drug offense.

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Students for Sensible Drug Policy

Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP) is an international non-profit advocacy and education organization based in Washington D.C. SSDP is focused on reforming drug policy in the United States and internationally.

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Substantive due process

Substantive due process, in United States constitutional law, is a principle allowing courts to protect certain fundamental rights from government interference, even if procedural protections are present or the rights are not specifically mentioned elsewhere in the US Constitution.

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Summits of the Americas

The Summits of the Americas (SOA) is a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in the OAS.

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Taboo

In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.

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Taxpayer

A taxpayer is a person or organization (such as a company) subject to a tax on income.

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The Local

The Local is an English-language digital news publisher with local editions in Sweden, Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Austria and Italy.

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The Mercury News

The Mercury News (formerly San Jose Mercury News, often locally known as The Merc) is a morning daily newspaper published in San Jose, California, United States.

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The New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.

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The New Jim Crow

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness is a book by Michelle Alexander, a civil rights litigator and legal scholar.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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The Wire

The Wire is an American crime drama television series set and produced in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Thomas Szasz

Thomas Stephen Szasz (Szász Tamás István; 15 April 1920 – 8 September 2012) was a Hungarian-American academic, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Tobacco

Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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Transform Drug Policy Foundation

The Transform Drug Policy Foundation (Transform) is a registered non-profit charity based in the United Kingdom working in the field of drug policy and law reform.

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Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Twenty-first Amendment (Amendment XXI) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol on January 16, 1919.

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UMOPAR

The Unidad Móvil Policial para Áreas Rurales (UMOPAR) (Mobile Police Unit for Rural Areas), a subsidiary of the Special Antinarcotics Force (Fuerza Especial de Lucha Contra el Narcotráfico—FELCN) of the Bolivian National Police (Cuerpo de Policía Nacional) was created in 1987 and is a Bolivian anti-narcotics and counterinsurgency force which was founded by, and is funded, advised, equipped, and trained by the United States government as part of its "War on Drugs".

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União do Vegetal

The Beneficent Spiritist Center União do Vegetal (Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal; or UDV) is a religious society founded on July 22, 1961 by José Gabriel da Costa, known as Mestre Gabriel.

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Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act

The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws developed the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act in 1934 due to the lack of restrictions in the Harrison Act of 1914.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.

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United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia

The United Self-Defenders of Colombia (Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia, or AUC, in Spanish) was a Colombian paramilitary and drug trafficking group which was an active belligerent in the Colombian armed conflict during the period from 1997 to 2006.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Department of Justice

The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States Department of the Treasury

The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.

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United States invasion of Panama

The United States Invasion of Panama, code named Operation Just Cause occurred between mid-December 1989 and late January 1990.

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United States Secretary of the Treasury

The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the U.S. Department of the Treasury which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also included several federal law enforcement agencies.

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United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.

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United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate.

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Valle del Cauca Department

Valle del Cauca, or Cauca Valley is a department of Colombia.

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Vernon L. Smith

Vernon Lomax Smith (born January 1, 1927) is an American professor of economics and law at Chapman University's Argyros School of Business and Economics and School of Law in Orange, California, a former professor of economics and law at George Mason University, and a board member of the Mercatus Center in Arlington, Virginia.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Volstead Act

The National Prohibition Act, known informally as the Volstead Act, was enacted to carry out the intent of the 18th Amendment (ratified January 1919), which established prohibition in the United States.

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War as metaphor

The use of war as metaphor is a longstanding literary and rhetorical trope.

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War on Gangs

In the United States, the War on Gangs is a national movement to reduce gang-related activity, gang violence, and gang drug involvement on the local, state, and federal level.

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Washington Office on Latin America

The Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA) is an American non-governmental organization (NGO) whose stated goal is to promote human rights, democracy and social and economic justice in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation

The Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHINSEC), formerly known as the U.S. Army School of the Americas (SOA), is a United States Department of Defense Institute located at Fort Benning near Columbus, Georgia, that provides military training to government personnel in US-allied Latin American nations.

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White House

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.

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William Randolph Hearst

William Randolph Hearst Sr. (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American businessman, politician, and newspaper publisher who built the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company Hearst Communications and whose flamboyant methods of yellow journalism influenced the nation's popular media by emphasizing sensationalism and human interest stories.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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Woman's Christian Temperance Union

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is an active temperance organization that was among the first organizations of women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity." It was influential in the temperance movement, and supported the 18th Amendment.

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World Federation Against Drugs

World Federation Against Drugs (WFAD) is a group of individuals and non-governmental organizations from different parts of the world (139 organizations in 47 countries in July 2015).

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Redirects here:

Alternatives to the War on Drugs, Counter Narcotics, Counter narcotics, Counter-narcotics, Drug interdiction, Drug policy of the United States, Economic effects of the War on Drugs, Federal war on drugs, Public opinion on the War on Drugs, Social effects of the War on Drugs, Socio-economic effects of the War on Drugs, The War Against Drugs, U.S. government involvement in drug trafficking, War On Drugs, War against drugs, War of drugs, War on Drug, War on Drugs, War on Drugs/Archive 1.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_on_drugs

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