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Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. [1]

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Academy Awards

The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.

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Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw

Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych w Warszawie) is a public university of visual arts and applied arts located in the Polish capital.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Aeolian processes

Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).

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Agencies of the European Union

An agency of the European Union is a decentralised body of the European Union (EU), which is distinct from the institutions.

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Alexander III of Russia

Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.

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All Saints' Day

All Saints' Day, also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown.

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Alstom

Alstom is a French multinational company operating worldwide in rail transport markets, active in the fields of passenger transportation, signalling and locomotives, with products including the AGV, TGV, Eurostar, and Pendolino high-speed trains, in addition to suburban, regional and metro trains, and Citadis trams.

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American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.

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Andrzej Wajda

Andrzej Witold Wajda (6 March 1926 – 9 October 2016) was a Polish film and theatre director.

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Anti-communism

Anti-communism is opposition to communism.

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Arable land

Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.

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Art Deco

Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.

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Astana

Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.

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Augustus II the Strong

Augustus II the Strong (August II.; August II Mocny; Augustas II; 12 May 16701 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Augustus III of Poland

Augustus III (August III Sas, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (Friedrich August II).

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Île-de-France

Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.

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Łazienki Palace

The Łazienki Palace (pałac Łazienkowski; in English, the Baths Palace; also called the Palace on the Water and the Palace on the Isle) is a classicist palace in Warsaw's Royal Baths Park, the city's largest park, occupying over 76 hectares of the city center.

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Łazienki Park

Łazienki Park (Park Łazienkowski or Łazienki Królewskie: "Baths Park" or "Royal Baths"; also rendered "Royal Baths Park") is the largest park in Warsaw, Poland, occupying 76 hectares of the city center.

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Łazienkowska Thoroughfare

Łazienkowska Thoroughfare (also translated as Łazienkowska Road, Łazienkowska Street, Łazienkowska Freeway, Łazienkowska Highway and Łazienkowska Tract, Trasa Łazienkowska) is a road in Warsaw, Poland.

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Łódź

Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.

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Śródmieście, Warsaw

Śródmieście (meaning "city centre", "downtown") is the central borough (dzielnica) of the city of Warsaw.

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Średnicowy Bridge

The Średnicowy Bridge is a rail bridge over the Vistula River in Warsaw, north of the Poniatowski Bridge.

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Żelazowa Wola

Żelazowa Wola is a village in Gmina Sochaczew, Sochaczew County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.

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Żoliborz

Żoliborz is one of the northern districts of the city of Warsaw.

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Backlot

A backlot is an area behind or adjoining a movie studio, containing permanent exterior buildings for outdoor scenes in filmmaking or television productions, or space for temporary set construction.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Bank Square, Warsaw

Plac Bankowy (in 'Bank Square') in Warsaw is one of that city's principal squares.

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Baroque

The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.

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Battle of Warsaw

The term Battle of Warsaw can refer to several battles fought in Warsaw.

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Battle of Warsaw (1920)

The Battle of Warsaw refers to the decisive Polish victory in 1920 during the Polish–Soviet War.

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Belarusians

Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.

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Belweder

Belweder (in full Pałac Belwederski, Belweder Palace, from the Italian belvedere) is a palace in Warsaw, near the Łazienki Park.

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Bemowo

Bemowo is a district of Warsaw located in the western part of the city.

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Benoit Mandelbrot

Benoit B.  Mandelbrot  (20 November 1924 – 14 October 2010) was a Polish-born, French and American mathematician and polymath with broad interests in the practical sciences, especially regarding what he labeled as "the art of roughness" of physical phenomena and "the uncontrolled element in life".

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Białołęka

Białołęka (from biały - white and łąka - meadow) is one of 18 districts of Warsaw, located in the northern part of the city.

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Bicycle-sharing system

A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike-share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free.

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Bielany

Bielany is a district in Warsaw located in the north-western part of the city.

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Bombing of Warsaw in World War II

The Bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers to the bombing campaign of Warsaw by the German Luftwaffe during the siege of Warsaw in the invasion of Poland in 1939.

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Botanical garden

A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.

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Bourgeoisie

The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.

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Bródno

Bródno is a neighborhood in the Warsaw borough of Targówek, located on the eastern side of the Vistula river.

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Brühl Palace, Warsaw

The Brühl Palace (Pałac Brühla), otherwise known as Sandomierski Palace was a palace standing at Piłsudski Square.

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Budapest

Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.

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Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.

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Bus transport in Warsaw

Bus transport in Warsaw was introduced in 1920.

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Business process outsourcing

Business process outsourcing (BPO) is defined as a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of a specific business process to a third-party service provider.

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Canal+ Poland

Canal+ Poland is Poland's variation of the French television network Canal+.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw

Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw (Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie) is a state university in Warsaw.

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Carmelite Church, Warsaw

Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and of St.

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Carpathian Mountains

The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.

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Casimir Funk

Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 – November 19, 1967 Casimir Funk A Biographical Sketch (1884–1967). Journal of Nutrition 1972 Sep;102(9):1105–13.. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/102/9/1105.full.pdf), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins, which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".

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Casimir Pulaski

Kazimierz Michał Władysław Wiktor Pułaski of Ślepowron (Casimir Pulaski; March 4 or March 6, 1745Makarewicz, 1998 October 11, 1779) was a Polish nobleman, soldier and military commander who has been called, together with his Hungarian friend Michael Kovats de Fabriczy, "the father of the American cavalry".

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Castle Square, Warsaw

Warsaw's Castle Square (plac Zamkowy w Warszawie) is a historic square in front of the Royal Castle – the former official residence of Polish monarchs – located in Warsaw, Poland.

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Cavalry

Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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Central and Eastern Europe

Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.

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Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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Centrum LIM

The Centrum LIM skyscraper was built in 1989 in the center of Warsaw, Poland, by LIM Joint Venture Sp.

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Chamber opera

Chamber opera is a designation for operas written to be performed with a chamber ensemble rather than a full orchestra.

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Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland

The Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland (Polish: Kancelaria Prezesa Rady Ministrów), or KPRM, is the executive office for the Prime Minister of Poland.

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Children's Memorial Health Institute

The Children's Memorial Health Institute (Instytut "Pomnik - Centrum Zdrowia Dziecka", literally "Children's Health Memorial Centre Institute"; CMHI or CZD) is the largest and best-equipped institute of paediatric healthcare in Poland.

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Chopin Statue, Warsaw

The Chopin Statue is a large bronze statue of Frédéric Chopin that now stands in the upper part of Warsaw's Royal Baths Park aka Łazienki Park, adjacent to Aleje Ujazdowskie (Ujazdów Avenue).

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Church of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Warsaw

The Church of the Visitation of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary (Kościół Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Marii Panny), otherwise known as St.

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Cinema of Poland

The history of cinema in Poland is almost as long as history of cinematography, and it has universal achievements, even though Polish movies tend to be less commercially available than movies from several other European nations.

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City council

A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.

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Civic Platform

Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, PO)The party is officially the Civic Platform of the Republic of Poland (Platforma Obywatelska Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej).

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Classicism

Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.

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Clay pit

A clay pit is a quarry or mine for the extraction of clay, which is generally used for manufacturing pottery, bricks or Portland cement.

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Coat of arms of Warsaw

The coat of arms of Warsaw consists of a syrenka ("little mermaid") in a red field.

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Coca-Cola Amatil

Coca-Cola Amatil (CCA) is one of the largest bottlers of non-alcoholic ready-to-drink beverages in the Asia-Pacific region and one of the world's five major Coca-Cola bottlers.

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Commemorative plaque

A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, or in other places referred to as a historical marker or historic plaque, is a plate of metal, ceramic, stone, wood, or other material, typically attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, and bearing text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing.

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Communism

In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Congress Hall (Warsaw)

The Congress Hall (Polish: Sala Kongresowa) is a 2,880 seat theatre at the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, Poland.

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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.

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Congress Poland

The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.

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Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland

The Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland (Konstytucja Królestwa Polskiego) was granted to the 'Congress' Kingdom of Poland by the King of Poland, Alexander I of Russia, who was obliged to issue a constitution to the newly recreated Polish state under his domain as specified by the Congress of Vienna.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Contemporary architecture

Contemporary architecture is the architecture of the 21st century.

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Copenhagen

Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Copernicus Science Centre

Copernicus Science Centre (Centrum Nauki Kopernik) is a science museum standing on the bank of the Vistula River in Warsaw, Poland.

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Cornelis van Haarlem

Cornelis Corneliszoon van Haarlem (1562 – 11 November 1638), Dutch Golden Age painter and draughtsman, was one of the leading Northern Mannerist artists in the Netherlands, and an important forerunner of Frans Hals as a portraitist.

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Corylus colurna

Corylus colurna, the Turkish hazel or Turkish filbert, is a deciduous tree native to southeast Europe and southwest Asia, from the Balkans through northern Turkey to northern Iran.

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Cosmopolitan Twarda 2/4

Cosmopolitan Twarda 2/4, formerly known as Twarda Tower or Hines Tower, is a mainly residential skyscraper (160 meters high, 44 storeys) in central Warsaw, Poland.

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Coventry

Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.

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Crown of the Kingdom of Poland

The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.

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Curie Institute, Warsaw

The Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology (Centrum Onkologii–Instytut im.) is a specialized research institute and hospital of the Polish Ministry of Health.

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Czapski Palace

The Czapski Palace (Pałac Czapskich), also called the Krasiński, Sieniawski or Raczyński Palace, is a substantial palace in the center of Warsaw, at 5 Krakowskie Przedmieście.

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Czartoryski

Czartoryski (feminine form: Czartoryska, plural: Czartoryscy; Чарторийські, Chartoryisky; Чорторийські, Chortoryisky; Čartoriskiai) is a Polish princely family of Lithuanian-Ruthenian origin, also known as the Familia.

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Daewoo

Daewoo (literally "Great Woo", after the first name of founder and chairman Kim Woo-jung) or the Daewoo Group was a major South Korean conglomerate and car manufacturer.

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Düsseldorf

Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.

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Dekalog

Dekalog (also known as Dekalog: The Ten Commandments and The Decalogue) is a 1989 Polish television drama series directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski and co-written by Kieślowski with Krzysztof Piesiewicz, with music by Zbigniew Preisner.

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Deluge (history)

The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Demography

Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

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Depression (geology)

A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area.

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Dresden

Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.

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Duchy of Warsaw

The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.

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Duke of Masovia

Duke of Masovia (Książę Mazowsza) was a title born by the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Dzielnica

In the Polish system of local administration, a dzielnica (Polish plural dzielnice) is an administrative subdivision or quarter of a city or town.

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Dziennik Polska-Europa-Świat

Dziennik Polska-Europa-Świat (Daily Poland-Europe-World) was a Polish nationwide daily newspaper published by Ringier Axel Springer, a joint venture between Germany's Axel Springer Verlag publishing company and Swiss media company Ringier.

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East-Central Europe

East-Central Europe is the region between German, West Slavic and Hungarian speaking Europe and the Eastern Slavic lands of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine.

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Economist Intelligence Unit

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.

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Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Edgar Vincent, 1st Viscount D'Abernon

Edgar Vincent, 1st Viscount D'Abernon, (19 August 1857 – 1 November 1941) was a British politician, diplomat, art collector and author.

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Ekstraklasa

The Ekstraklasa is the top Polish professional league for men's association football clubs (it is the country's primary football competition).

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Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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EuroBasket 2009

The FIBA EuroBasket 2009 was the 36th FIBA EuroBasket, the biennial regional basketball championship contested by European nations and held by FIBA Europe.

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European Border and Coast Guard Agency

The European Border and Coast Guard Agency, also known as Frontex (from French: Frontières extérieures for "external borders"), is an agency of the European Union headquartered in Warsaw, Poland, tasked with border control of the European Schengen Area, in coordination with the border and coast guards of Schengen Area member states.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Export of revolution

Export of revolution is actions by a victorious revolutionary government of one country to promote similar revolutions in unruled areas or other countries, as a manifestation of revolutionary internationalism of certain kind, e.g., the Marxist proletarian internationalism.

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Expressway S17 (Poland)

Expressway S17 or Express Road S17 (in Polish Droga ekspresowa S17) is an important road in Poland which, when completed, will run from Warsaw, through Lublin, to the border crossing with Ukraine at Hrebenne/Rava-Ruska.

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Expressway S2 (Poland)

Expressway S2 forms part of the southern section of the planned Warsaw Express Ring Road and is also the extension of the motorway A2 from the west, which will eventually link to the rest of the motorway A2, east of Warsaw.

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Expressway S8 (Poland)

Expressway S8 or express road S8 (in Polish droga ekspresowa S8) is major road in Poland which, when completed, will run along the route Wrocław – Łódź – Warsaw – Białystok.

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Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych

Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych (Passenger Automobile Factory), commonly known as FSO, was a Polish automobile manufacturer, located in Warsaw.

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False etymology

A false etymology (popular etymology, etymythology, pseudo-etymology, or par(a)etymology), sometimes called folk etymology – although the last term is also a technical term in linguistics - is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word.

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Fern flower

The fern flower is a magic flower in Baltic mythology (paparčio žiedas, papardes zieds), in Estonian mythology (sõnajalaõis) and in Slavic mythology (папараць-кветка, kwiat paproci, цветок папоротника, цвіт папороті).

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Film studio

title.

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Final Solution

The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.

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Financial centre

A financial centre is a location that is home to a cluster of nationally or internationally significant financial services providers such as banks, investment managers, or stock exchanges.

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First Polish Army (1944–1945)

The Polish First Army (Pierwsza Armia Wojska Polskiego, 1 AWP for short, also known as Berling's Army) was a Polish Army unit formed in the Soviet Union in 1944, from the previously existing Polish I Corps as part of the People's Army of Poland (LWP), a formation of the Polish Armed Forces in the East.

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Foreign direct investment

A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.

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Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.

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French formal garden

The French formal garden, also called the jardin à la française (literally, "garden in the French manner" in French), is a style of garden based on symmetry and the principle of imposing order on nature.

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Fryderyk Chopin Museum

The Fryderyk Chopin Museum ('Muzeum Fryderyka Chopina') is a museum in Warsaw, Poland, established in 1954 and dedicated to Polish composer Frédéric Chopin.

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Fryderyk Chopin University of Music

The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music (Uniwersytet Muzyczny Fryderyka Chopina, UMFC) is located at ulica Okólnik 2 in central Warsaw, Poland.

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Gazeta Wyborcza

Gazeta Wyborcza (meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland.

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Gdańsk

Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.

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General Government

The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.

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Gestapo

The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.

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Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced), also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.

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Global city

A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.

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Goldwyn Pictures

Goldwyn Pictures Corporation was an American motion picture production company that operated from 1916 to 1924 when it was merged with two other production companies to form the major studio, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Grand Theatre, Warsaw

The Grand Theatre in Warsaw (Teatr Wielki w Warszawie) or the Great Theatre—National Opera (Teatr Wielki—Opera Narodowa) is a theatre complex, opera company, and home of the Polish National Ballet, located on historic Theatre Square in Warsaw, Poland.

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Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Grozny

Grozny (p; Соьлжа-ГӀала) is the capital city of the Chechen Republic, Russia.

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Hamamatsu

is a city located in western Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

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Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz

Hanna Beata Gronkiewicz-Waltz (born 4 November 1952) is a Polish lawyer, Professor of Jurisprudence and politician who has been the Mayor of Warsaw since 2 December 2006.

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Hanoi

Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.

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Harbin

Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.

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Highways in Poland

Highways in Poland are public roads designed to carry large amounts of traffic.

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History of Poland

The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.

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History of the Jews in Poland

The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.

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History of Warsaw

The history of Warsaw spans over 1400 years.

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Holy Cross Church, Warsaw

The Church of the Holy Cross (Bazylika Świętego Krzyża) is a Roman Catholic house of worship in Warsaw, Poland.

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Holy Trinity Church, Warsaw

The Holy Trinity Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession (Kościół Świętej Trójcy), also known as Zug's Protestant Church (Zbór Zuga) is a Lutheran church in Warsaw, Poland.

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Home Army

The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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Information technology outsourcing

Information technology (ΙΤ) outsourcing is a company's outsourcing of computer or Internet related work, such as programming, to other companies.

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InterContinental Warsaw

InterContinental Warsaw, designed by a team of architects under the leadership of the late Tadeusz Spychała, is a five-star hotel in Warsaw, located between Emilia Plater, Śliska, and Sosnowa streets.

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International airport

An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.

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International Artists

International Artists (IA) was an independent record label based in Houston, Texas that originally existed from 1965 to 1970.

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International Chopin Piano Competition

Epitaph for heart of Frédéric Chopin in the Holy Cross Church, Warsaw The International Chopin Piano Competition (Polish: Międzynarodowy Konkurs Pianistyczny im. Fryderyka Chopina), often referred to as the Chopin Competition, is a piano competition held in Warsaw, Poland.

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Interwar period

In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.

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Intraco I

Intraco I is a skyscraper in Warsaw, built in 1975 by Swedish company Byggnadsproduktion AB.

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Invasion of Poland

The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.

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Isaac Bashevis Singer

Isaac Bashevis Singer (יצחק באַשעװיס זינגער; November 21, 1902 – July 24, 1991) was a Polish-born Jewish writer in Yiddish, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1978.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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January Uprising

The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.

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Janusz Korczak

Janusz Korczak, the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit (22 July 1878 or 1879 – 7 August 1942), was a Polish-Jewish educator, children's author, and pedagogue known as Pan Doktor ("Mr. Doctor") or Stary Doktor ("Old Doctor").

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Józef Piłsudski

Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.

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Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw

Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw (Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego w Warszawie) is a public institution of higher learning in Warsaw, Poland.

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Jesuit Church, Warsaw

Jesuit Church (Kościół Jezuitów), otherwise the Church of the Gracious Mother of God (Kościół Matki Bożej Łaskawej) is an ornate church in Warsaw, Poland.

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Jewish Cemetery, Warsaw

The Warsaw Jewish Cemetery is one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe and in the world.

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Jewish Combat Organization

The Jewish Combat Organization (Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa, ŻOB; ייִדישע קאַמף אָרגאַניזאַציע Yidishe Kamf Organizatsie; often translated to English as the Jewish Fighting Organization) was a World War II resistance movement in occupied Poland, which was instrumental in engineering the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

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Jewish culture

Jewish culture is the culture of the Jewish people from the formation of the Jewish nation in biblical times through life in the diaspora and the modern state of Israel.

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John III Sobieski

John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Joseph Rotblat

Sir Joseph Rotblat (4 November 1908 – 31 August 2005) was a Polish physicist, a self-described "Pole with a British passport".

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Juglans nigra

Juglans nigra, the eastern black walnut, is a species of deciduous tree in the walnut family, Juglandaceae, native to eastern North America.

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Jusepe de Ribera

Jusepe de Ribera (baptized February 17, 1591; died September 2, 1652) was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, also known as José de Ribera and Josep de Ribera.

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KADR (studio)

KADR (since 1989 Studio Filmowe Kadr) is a major Polish film production and distribution company, founded in 1955 and still producing films as of 2016.

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Kampinos Forest

Kampinos Forest is a large forest complex located in Masovian Voivodeship, west of Warsaw in Poland.

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Kanał

Kanał (Sewer) is a 1956 Polish film directed by Andrzej Wajda.

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Katyn massacre

The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kiev

Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Koleje Mazowieckie

Koleje Mazowieckie (Masovian Railways) is a regional rail operator in the Masovian Voivodeship of Poland.

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Korczak (film)

Korczak, is a 1990 film by Andrzej Wajda shot in black-and-white, about Polish-Jewish humanitarian Janusz Korczak.

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Kozminski University

Kozminski University (formerly known as Leon Kozminski Academy of Entrepreneurship and Management, in Polish Akademia Leona Koźmińskiego) is a private, non profit business school in Warsaw, Poland, and is considered to be "Poland’s highest rated private university".

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Kraków

Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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Krasiński Palace

The Krasiński Palace Pałac Krasińskich, or Palace of the Commonwealth Rzeczypospolitej, is a baroque palace in Warsaw, Poland, on Krasiński Square (Plac Krasińskich).

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Królikarnia

Królikarnia (in English, "The Rabbit House") is a historic classicist palace in Warsaw, Poland; and a neighborhood in the Mokotów district of Warsaw.

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Krzysztof Kieślowski

Krzysztof Kieślowski (27 June 1941 – 13 March 1996) was a Polish film director and screenwriter.

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Landscape architecture

Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.

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Largest capital cities of the European Union

This is a list of the largest capital cities of the European Union by population within city limits.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Legia Warsaw

Legia Warszawa, known in English as Legia Warsaw, is a professional football club based in Warsaw, Poland.

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Legia Warszawa (basketball)

Sportowy Klub Legia Warszawa is a Polish men's basketball club, based in Warsaw.

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Legislature

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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Leon Schiller

Leon Schiller or Leon Schiller de Schildenfeld (14 March 1887 – 25 March 1954) was a Polish theatre and film director, as well as critic and theatre theoretician.

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Leopold Stanisław Kronenberg

Leopold Stanisław Kronenberg (born March 24, 1812 in Warsaw, died April 5, 1878 in Nice) was a Polish banker, investor, and financier, and a leader of the 1863 January Uprising against the Russian Empire.

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Light rail

Light rail, light rail transit (LRT), or fast tram is a form of urban rail transport using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way.

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List of A2 roads

This is a list of roads designated A2.

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List of cities and towns in Poland

This page contains a list of cities and towns in Poland, preceded by a table of major Polish cities.

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List of cities in the European Union by population within city limits

Below is a list of the largest cities in the European Union according to the population within their city limits.

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List of cities with the most skyscrapers

This list of cities with most skyscrapers ranks cities around the world by their number of skyscrapers.

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List of honorary citizens of Warsaw

Recipients of the honorary citizenship of Warsaw (Honorowi Obywatele miasta stołecznego Warszawy), in order of date of presentation.

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List of mayors of Warsaw

The Mayor of Warsaw, or more literally the President of Warsaw (the customary title in Polish is "Prezydent Miasta Stołecznego Warszawy", literal translation "President of Warsaw Capital City") is the head of the capital of Poland.

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List of most expensive cities for expatriate employees

These are lists of the world's most expensive cities for expatriate employees (not residents), according to the Mercer, ECA International and Xpatulator.com cost-of-living surveys.

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List of necropoleis

This is a list of necropoleis sorted by country.

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List of tallest buildings in Warsaw

This is a list of tallest existing buildings in Warsaw, Poland, each with the height of over 100 meters.

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List of time periods

The categorization of the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time is called periodization.

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Lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe

The following are lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe.

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Lithuanian language

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Loughborough University

Loughborough University (abbreviated as Lough for post-nominals) is a public research university in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands of England.

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Lublin

Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.

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Mały Powstaniec

Mały Powstaniec (the "Little Insurrectionist") is a statue in commemoration of the child soldiers who fought and died during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944.

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Madrid

Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Manila

Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.

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Mannerism

Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520 and lasted until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it.

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Margraviate of Brandenburg

The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.

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Maria Skłodowska-Curie Museum

The Maria Skłodowska-Curie Museum (Muzeum Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie) is a museum in Warsaw, Poland, devoted to the life and work of Polish two-time Nobel laureate Maria Skłodowska-Curie (1867–1934).

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Mariavite Church

The Mariavite Church was an independent Christian church that emerged from the Catholic Church of Poland at the turn of the 20th century.

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Marie Curie

Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.

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Mariensztat

Mariensztat is a neighbourhood in Warsaw's borough of Śródmieście (city centre).

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Marszałkowska Street, Warsaw

Marszałkowska (lit. Marshal Street) is one of the main thoroughfares of Warsaw's city center.

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Martyr

A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.

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Masovian Voivodeship

Mazovian Voivodeship or Mazovia Province (województwo mazowieckie) is the largest and most populous of the 16 Polish provinces, or voivodeships, created in 1999.

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Mausoleum

A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.

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Mazovia

Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.

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Mazovian Lowland

The Mazovian Lowland (Nizina Mazowiecka), also known as the Masovian Plain, is the largest geographical region in central Poland, roughly covering the historical region of Masovia.

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Meadow

A meadow is a field habitat vegetated by grass and other non-woody plants (grassland).

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Medical University of Warsaw

The Medical University of Warsaw (Polish name: Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny) was founded in January 1950, building on the University of Warsaw's former Faculty of Medicine, which had been established in the early nineteenth century.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Member of the European Parliament

A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.

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Merkuriusz Polski Ordynaryjny

Merkuriusz Polski Ordynaryjny (The Polish Mercury Ordinary; original 17th-century Polish spelling: Merkuryusz Polski Ordynaryiny; full title: Merkuriusz Polski dzieje wszystkiego świata w sobie zamykający, dla informacji pospolitej: The Polish Mercury, Encompassing All the World's Affairs, for the Common Knowledge) was the first Polish newspaper (actually, a weekly), published from 1661, first in Kraków, then in Warsaw.

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Metro AG

Metro AG, otherwise known as Metro Group, is a German global diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in Düsseldorf. It was established in 1964 by Ernst Schmidt and Wilhelm Schmidt-Ruthenbeck., it was the fourth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues (after Wal-Mart, Carrefour and Tesco).

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Middle class

The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.

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Military

A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Military University of Technology in Warsaw

Military University of Technology in Warsaw - WAT) is the civil-military technical academic institution in Poland, located at Bemowo, Warsaw. It was established in 1951.

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Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (Poland)

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Republic of Poland (Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi) was formed on October 1999 from the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Economy of Poland; the ministry can trace its history to 1944.

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Ministry of Health (Poland)

Ministry of Health of the Republic of Poland (Ministerstwo Zdrowia Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is one of the Ministries of the Republic of Poland.

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Modern art

Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.

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Mokotów

Mokotów is a dzielnica (borough, district) of Warsaw, the capital of Poland.

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Monument to the Ghetto Heroes

The Ghetto Heroes Monument (pomnik Bohaterów Getta) is a monument in Warsaw, Poland, commemorating the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 during the Second World War.

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Moraine

A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.

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Moshe Wilensky

Moshe Wilensky (משה וילנסקי, also, "Vilensky"; April 17, 1910 – January 2, 1997) was a Polish-Israeli composer, lyricist, and pianist.

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Most livable cities in the world

The world's most liveable cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on an annual survey of living conditions.

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Mostowski Palace

Mostowski Palace (Pałac Mostowskich) is an 18th-century palace in Warsaw, Poland, located at ul.

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MTV Poland

MTV Polska is the Polish version of the international music channel MTV.

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Multikino

Multikino is the second largest multiplex chain in Poland, and has the distinction of having opened the nation's first multiplex, which was located in Poznań.

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Museum of Caricature, Warsaw

Museum of Caricature (Muzeum Karykatury) is a museum in Warsaw, Poland.

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Museum of Communism, Warsaw

The Museum of Communism is a museum focusing on the communist period of Polish history, located in the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw.

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Museum of Independence

The Museum of Independence (Muzeum Niepodległości) is a museum in Warsaw, Poland.

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Museum of John Paul II and Primate Wyszyński

The Museum of John Paul II and Primate Wyszyński (Muzeum Jana Pawła II i Prymasa Wyszyńskiego) is a Roman Catholic cultural and educational institution affiliated with the Archdiocese of Warsaw, honoring two prominent Polish Catholic leaders: Saint John Paul II, the first Polish Pope, and Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, the Archbishop of Warsaw and Gniezno and Primate of Poland.

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Museum of John Paul II Collection

The Museum of John Paul II Collection (Muzeum Kolekcji im.) in Warsaw, also known as the Porczyński Gallery or Carroll-Porczyński Collection, is a museum dedicated to its painting collection, which is housed in the building of the former stock exchange and National Bank.

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Museum of Modern Art, Warsaw

Muzeum Sztuki Nowoczesnej w Warszawie is a museum in Warsaw, Poland.

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Museum of Polish History

The Museum of Polish History or Polish History Museum (Polish: Muzeum Historii Polski) is a museum and national cultural institute in Warsaw, Poland.

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Museum of Sport and Tourism

Muzeum Sportu i Turystyki w Warszawie is a museum in Warsaw, Poland.

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Museum of Warsaw

Museum of Warsaw (Muzeum Warszawy) (in 1948–2014 Historical Museum of Warsaw, Muzeum Historyczne m.st.) is a museum in the Old Town Market Place in Warsaw, Poland.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Nathan Alterman

Nathan Alterman (נתן אלתרמן, August 14, 1910 – March 28, 1970) was an Israeli poet, playwright, journalist, and translator.

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National Defence University of Warsaw

The National Defence University of Warsaw (- AON) was the civil-military highest defence academic institution in Poland, located in Warszawa-Rembertów.

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National Library of Poland

The National Library of Poland (Biblioteka Narodowa) is the central Polish library, subject directly to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland.

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National Museum, Warsaw

The National Museum in Warsaw (Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie), popularly abbreviated as MNW, is a national museum in Warsaw, one of the largest museums in Poland and the largest in the capital.

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National Philharmonic in Warsaw

National Philharmonic in Warsaw (Polish: Filharmonia Narodowa w Warszawie) is a Polish cultural institution, located at 5 Jasna Street in Warsaw.

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National Stadium, Warsaw

The PGE Narodowy (official name since 2015) or National Stadium (Stadion Narodowy) is a retractable roof football stadium located in Warsaw, Poland.

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National Theatre, Warsaw

The National Theatre (Teatr Narodowy) in Warsaw, Poland, was founded in 1765, during the Polish Enlightenment, by that country's last monarch, Stanisław August Poniatowski.

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Natolin

Natolin is a historic park and nature reserve (1.2 km²) on the southern edge of Warsaw, Poland.

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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NC+

NC+ (formerly Cyfra+ (Canal+ Cyfrowy) is a Polish digital satellite platform, owned and operated by French media company Canal+ Group.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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New Town Market Place, Warsaw

New Town Market Place (Rynek Nowego Miasta) is the main square of the Warsaw New Town of Warsaw, Poland.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Warsaw

The Nicolaus Copernicus Monument in Warsaw is one of the Polish capital's notable landmarks.

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No. 651 Squadron RAF

No.

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Nożyk Synagogue

The Nożyk Synagogue (Synagoga Nożyków) is the only surviving prewar Jewish house of prayer in Warsaw, Poland.

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Norman Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank

Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, (born 1 June 1935) is a British architect whose company, Foster + Partners, maintains an international design practice famous for high-tech architecture.

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November Uprising

The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.

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Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą

Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą (which translates to New City by Pilica) is a town in Grójec County, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,022 inhabitants (2012).

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Nowy Świat-Uniwersytet metro station

Nowy Świat-Uniwersytet is the fourth station of the central part of Line M2 of the Warsaw Metro.

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Ochota

Ochota is a district of Warsaw, Poland, located in the central part of the Polish capital city's urban agglomeration.

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Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights

The Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) is the principal institution of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) dealing with the "human dimension" of security.

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Old Town Market Place, Warsaw

Warsaw's Old Town Market Place (Rynek Starego Miasta) is the center and oldest part of the Old Town of Warsaw, capital of Poland.

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Old-growth forest

An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, or late seral forest— is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community.

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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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Oslo

Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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Otrębusy

Otrębusy is a village in Poland, in Masovian Voivodship, to the west of Warsaw in the Gmina Brwinów.

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Overpass

An overpass (called a flyover in the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries) is a bridge, road, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway.

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Oxbow lake

An oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water.

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Oxford Tower, Warsaw

The Oxford Tower is a skyscraper located in Warsaw (formerly known as Twardej or Elektrim) on 8 Chałubiński Street next to the Centrum LIM skyscraper.

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Paganism

Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Palace

A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.

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Palace of Culture and Science

Palace of Culture and Science (Pałac Kultury i Nauki; abbreviated PKiN) is a notable high-rise building in Warsaw, Poland.

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Palace of the Four Winds

The Palace of the Four Winds (Pałac Pod Czterema Wiatrami), also known as the Tepper Palace, is a rococo palace in Warsaw located at ulica Długa (Long Street) 38/40.

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Palais Garnier

The Palais Garnier (French) is a 1,979-seat opera house, which was built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera.

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Palm house

A palm house is a greenhouse that is specialised for the growing of palms and other tropical and subtropical plants.

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Panorama

A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model.

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Paris Bordone

Paris Bordon (or Paris Paschalinus Bordone; 5 July 1500 – 19 January 1571) was an Italian painter of the Venetian Renaissance who, despite training with Titian, maintained a strand of Mannerist complexity and provincial vigor.

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Parliament of Poland

The parliament of Poland has an upper house, the Senate, and a lower house, the Sejm.

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Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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PAST (Poland)

PAST (Polska Akcyjna Spółka Telefoniczna, Polish Telephone Joint-stock Company) was a Polish telephone operator in the period between World War I and World War II.

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Pawiak

Pawiak was a prison built in 1835 in Warsaw, Poland.

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Płock

Płock (pronounced) is a city on the Vistula river in central Poland.

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Peat

Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.

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Personal union

A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.

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Peterborough

Peterborough is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, with a population of 183,631 in 2011.

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Piłsudski Square

Piłsudski Square (plac marsz.), previously Victory Square (plac Zwycięstwa, 1946), is the largest square of Poland's capital, located in the Warsaw city centre.

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Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.

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Planned destruction of Warsaw

The planned destruction of Warsaw refers to the largely-realized plans by Nazi Germany to raze the city that were put into motion after the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews

POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews (Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich) is a museum on the site of the former Warsaw Ghetto.

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Polish Academy of Sciences

The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) is a Polish state-sponsored institution of higher learning.

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Polish Army Museum

Museum of the Polish Army (Muzeum Wojska Polskiego) is a museum in Warsaw documenting the military aspects of the history of Poland.

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Polish Army Stadium

Marshal Józef Piłsudski Legia Warsaw Municipal Stadium (Stadion Miejski Legii Warszawa im.), traditionally also referred to as the Polish Army Stadium (Stadion Wojska Polskiego) in Warsaw, Poland, is an all-seater, highest fourth category football-specific stadium.

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Polish Basketball League

Polska Liga Koszykówki (PLK) (English: Polish Basketball League) is a professional men's club basketball league in Poland.

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Polish Cup

The Polish Cup in football (Puchar Polski w piłce nożnej) is an elimination tournament for Polish football clubs, held continuously from 1950, and is the second most important national title in Polish football after the Ekstraklasa title.

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Polish government-in-exile

The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile (Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.

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Polish National Government (January Uprising)

The Polish National Government 1863–64 was an underground Polish supreme authority during the January Uprising, a large scale insurrection during the Russian partition of the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Polish People's Republic

The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.

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Polish Scientific Publishers PWN

Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN (Polish Scientific Publishers PWN; until 1991 Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe - National Scientific Publishers PWN, PWN) is a Polish book publisher, founded in 1951.

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Polish State Railways

Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA (PKP SA, Polish State Railways, Inc.) is the dominant railway operator in Poland.

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Polish United Workers' Party

The Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR) was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989.

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Polish złoty

The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Polish–Soviet War

The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.

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Polonia Warsaw

Polonia Warsaw (Polonia Warszawa), founded in 1911, is the oldest existing Warsaw sports club, with football, basketball, track and field and swimming teams.

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Polsat

Polsat is one of Poland's biggest television channels, founded on 5 December 1992 and owned by Zygmunt Solorz-Żak.

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Polskie Radio

Polskie Radio Spółka Akcyjna (PR S.A.; English: Polish Radio) is Poland's state-owned national publicly funded radio broadcasting organization.

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Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Poster

A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface.

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Powązki Cemetery

Powązki Cemetery (Cmentarz Powązkowski), also known as the Stare Powązki (Old Powązki) is a historic cemetery located in the Wola district, western part of Warsaw, Poland.

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Powiat

A powiat (pronounced; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries.

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Poznań

Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.

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Praga Park

Soldiers of the Polish First Army Park otherwise known as Praga Park is a park in Warsaw, Poland.

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Praga-Północ

Praga-North (Praga-Północ) is a district in Warsaw located in the central part of the city.

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Praga-Południe

Praga-South (Praga-Południe) is a district of Warsaw located on the east bank of the Vistula River.

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Prague

Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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Prefabrication

Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located.

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President of Poland

The President of the Republic of Poland (Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, shorter form: Prezydent RP) is the head of state of Poland.

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Presidential Palace, Warsaw

The Presidential Palace (in Polish, Pałac Prezydencki; also known as Pałac Koniecpolskich, Lubomirskich, Radziwiłłów, and Pałac Namiestnikowski) in Warsaw, Poland, is the elegant classicist latest version of a building that has stood on the Krakowskie Przedmieście site since 1643.

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Prisoner of war

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.

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Pterocarya fraxinifolia

Pterocarya fraxinifolia is a species of tree in the Juglandaceae family.

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Public housing

Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Q22 (building)

Q22 is a neomodern office skyscraper in Warsaw by the Polish real estate developer Echo Investment and designed by APA Kuryłowicz & Associates with collaboration from Buro Happold Polska.

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Queen's Royal Hussars

The Queen's Royal Hussars (The Queen's Own and Royal Irish) (QRH) is the senior United Kingdom armoured regiment.

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Radio broadcasting

Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience.

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Reaktion Books

Reaktion Books is an independent book publisher based in Islington, London, England.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Regional rail

Regional rail, also known as local trains and stopping trains, are passenger rail services that operate between towns and cities.

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Religion

Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Rembertów

Rembertów is a district of the city of Warsaw, the capital of Poland.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renaissance architecture

Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

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Riga

Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.

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Riga City Council

Riga City Council (Rīgas Dome) is the government of Riga City, the capital of Latvia.

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Ring road

A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.

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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.

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Rococo

Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.

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Roman Polanski

Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański (born 18 August 1933) is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer, and actor.

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Rondo 1

Rondo 1 is an office skyscraper with a total height of 192 m located in Warsaw, Poland at Rondo ONZ.

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Royal Castle, Warsaw

The Royal Castle in Warsaw (Zamek Królewski w Warszawie) is a castle residency that formerly served throughout the centuries as the official residence of the Polish monarchs.

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Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute

The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (Dutch: Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut or KNMI) is the Dutch national weather forecasting service, which has its headquarters in De Bilt, in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands.

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Royal Route, Warsaw

The Royal Route (Trakt Królewski) in Warsaw, Poland, is a former communication route that led southward from the city's Old Town.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Empire Census

The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).

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Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Rzeczpospolita (newspaper)

Rzeczpospolita is a nationwide daily economic and legal newspaper and the only conservative-liberal newspaper in Poland.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Saint-Étienne

Saint-Étienne (Sant-Etiève; Saint Stephen) is a city in eastern central France, in the Massif Central, southwest of Lyon in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, on the trunk road that connects Toulouse with Lyon.

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Samuel Goldwyn

Samuel Goldwyn (born Szmuel Gelbfisz; שמואל געלבפֿיש; c. August 27, 1879 – January 31, 1974), also known as Samuel Goldfish, was a Polish American film producer of Jewish descent.

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Saxon Garden

The Saxon Garden (Ogród Saski) is a 15.5–hectare public garden in central (Śródmieście) Warsaw, Poland, facing Piłsudski Square.

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Saxon Palace

The Saxon Palace (pałac Saski w Warszawie) was one of the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw, Poland.

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Saxony

The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).

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Sea monster

Sea monsters are beings from folklore believed to dwell in the sea and often imagined to be of immense size.

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Second Polish Republic

The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).

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Sejm

The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.

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Senate of Poland

The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the 'Sejm'.

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Seoul

Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.

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Siege of Warsaw (1939)

The Siege of Warsaw in 1939 was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the invading German Army.

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Sigismund III Vasa

Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.

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Sigismund's Column

Sigismund's Column (Kolumna Zygmunta), originally erected in 1644, is located in Castle Square, Warsaw, Poland and is one of Warsaw's most famous landmarks.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) is an American architectural, urban planning, and engineering firm.

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Slavic names

Given names originating from the Slavic languages are most common in Slavic countries.

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Socialist realism

Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.

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Sokrates Starynkiewicz

Sokrates Starynkiewicz (1820–1902; Сократ Иванович Старынкевич) was a Russian general and the 19th President of Warsaw between 1875 and 1892.

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Solidarity (Polish trade union)

Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.

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South Prussia

South Prussia (Südpreußen; Prusy Południowe) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.

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Spektrum (building)

The Spektrum Tower (formerly TP S.A. Tower) is a highrise office tower in Warsaw, the capital of Poland.

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St. Anne's Church, Warsaw

St.

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St. Hyacinth's Church, Warsaw

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St. John's Archcathedral, Warsaw

St.

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St. Kazimierz Church

St.

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Stanisław August Poniatowski

Stanisław II Augustus (also Stanisław August Poniatowski; born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski; 17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798), who reigned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, was the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Stanisław Moniuszko

Stanisław Moniuszko (May 5, 1819, Ubiel, Minsk Governorate – June 4, 1872, Warsaw, Congress Poland) was a Polish composer, conductor and teacher.

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Staszic Palace

Staszic Palace (Pałac Staszica) is an edifice at ulica Nowy Świat 72, Warsaw, Poland.

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Steel mill

A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel.

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Stefan Starzyński

Stefan Bronisław Starzyński (August 19, 1893, Warsaw – between December 21 and 23, 1939) was a Polish statesman, economist, military officer and Mayor of Warsaw before and during the Siege of 1939.

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Stock exchange

A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.

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Street names of Warsaw

Warsaw is the capital of Poland.

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Stuttgart

Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

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Supreme Administrative Court of Poland

The Supreme Administrative Court of the Republic of Poland (Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny) is the court of last resort in administrative cases e.g. those betweens private citizens (or corporations) and administrative bodies.

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Supreme Court of Poland

The Supreme Court (Sąd Najwyższy) of the Republic of Poland supervises the adjudication in.

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SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities

SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities or simply SWPS University (SWPS Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny) is a private university in Poland affiliated with the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology and the Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Sciences.

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Szybka Kolej Miejska (Warsaw)

Szybka Kolej Miejska (Fast City Rail) is a rail operator providing services in the Warsaw metropolitan area using the national rail network while constituting a part of the city's integrated public transport system organized by the Warsaw Transport Authority.

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Taipei

Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").

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Tamara de Lempicka

Tamara Łempicka (born: Maria Górska; 16 May 1898 – 18 March 1980; colloquial: Tamara de Lempicka) was a Polish painter active in the 1920s and 1930s, who spent her working life in France and the United States.

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Targówek

Targówek is a district in Warsaw, Poland located in the northern part of the city.

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Tbilisi

Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

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Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.

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Telewizja Polska

Telewizja Polska S.A. (TVP S.A., or Polish Television) is a public broadcasting corporation, the only public TV broadcaster in the territory of the Republic of Poland.

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Temperate coniferous forest

Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.

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Tenement

A tenement is a multi-occupancy building of any sort.

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The Hague

The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.

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The New York Times Magazine

The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times.

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The Pianist (2002 film)

The Pianist is a 2002 biographical drama film co-produced and directed by Roman Polanski, scripted by Ronald Harwood, and starring Adrien Brody.

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Theatre Square (Warsaw)

Theatre Square (plac Teatralny) is a major square in the Śródmieście district of Warsaw, Poland.

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Thomas Cook Group

Thomas Cook Group plc is a British global travel company listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.

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Three Crosses Square

Three Crosses Square (Plac Trzech Krzyży,, also "Square of Three Crosses", "Three Cross Square", and "Triple Cross Square") is an important square in the central district of Warsaw, Poland.

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Three-Year Plan

The Three-Year Plan of Reconstructing the Economy (Trzyletni Plan Odbudowy Gospodarki) was a centralized plan created by the Polish communist government to rebuild Poland after the devastation of the Second World War.

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Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Warsaw)

The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Grób Nieznanego Żołnierza) is a monument in Warsaw, Poland, dedicated to the unknown soldiers who have given their lives for Poland.

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Toronto

Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.

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Torwar Hall

Torwar Hall is an indoor arena in Warsaw, Poland.

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Tourism in Poland

Poland is a part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors.

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Tourist attraction

A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.

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Townhouse

A townhouse, or town house as used in North America, Asia, Australia, South Africa and parts of Europe, is a type of terraced housing.

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Tram

A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.

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Trams in Warsaw

Trams in Warsaw are a (of single track) tram system serving a third of Warsaw, Poland, and serving half the city's population. It operates over 750 cars, and is the second-largest system in the country (after the Silesian system) and one of the biggest in Europe. There are about 27 regular lines, forming a part of the city's integrated public transport system organized by the Warsaw Transport Authority. Since 1994 the system is operated by the municipally-owned company Tramwaje Warszawskie sp. z.o.o.

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Transylvania

Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.

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Triton (mythology)

Triton (Τρίτων Tritōn) is a mythological Greek god, the messenger of the sea.

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TV Puls

TV Puls is a Polish commercial television channel, which was based on Telewizja Niepokalanów with the support of companies such as PKN Orlen, KGHM Polska Miedź, PZU Życie, Prokom and which started broadcasting in March 2001.

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TV4 (Poland)

TV 4 is a private Polish TV station.

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TVN (Poland)

TVN is a Polish commercial television station.

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UEFA Euro 2012

The 2012 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2012 or simply Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for men's national football teams organised by UEFA.

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Ujazdów Castle

Ujazdów Castle (Zamek Ujazdowski) is a castle in the historic Ujazdów district, between Ujazdów Park (Park Ujazdowski) and the Royal Baths Park (Łazienki Królewskie), in Warsaw, Poland.

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Ukrainians in Poland

The Ukrainian minority in Poland (Українці, Ukrayintsi, Ukraińcy), according to the Polish census of 2011 used to be composed of approximately 51,000 people (including 11,451 without Polish citizenship).

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Umschlagplatz

The Umschlagplatz (collection point or reloading point) was a holding area set up by Nazi Germany adjacent to a railway station in occupied Poland, where the ghettoised Jews were assembled for deportation to death camps during the ghetto liquidation.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Unicameralism

In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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University of Warsaw

The University of Warsaw (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland.

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Ursus, Warsaw

Ursus is a district (dzielnica) of Warsaw, one of the 18 such units into which the city is divided.

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Ursynów

Ursynów is the southernmost district of Warsaw.

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Veturilo

Veturilo is a public bicycle sharing system in Warsaw, Poland, launched on 1 August 2012 with 55 stations and 1000 bicycles in 3 districts - Śródmieście (city centre), Bielany and Ursynów, 2 other stations started operating in the middle of August in Wilanów.

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Vietnamese people

The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.

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Vilnius

Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.

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Vincent van Gogh

Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.

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Virtuti Militari

The War Order of Virtuti Militari (Latin: "For Military Virtue", Polish: Order Wojenny Virtuti Militari) is Poland's highest military decoration for heroism and courage in the face of the enemy at war.

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Visitationist Church

Church of St.

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Vistula

The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).

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Vistula–Oder Offensive

The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II in January 1945.

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Vogt

A Vogt (from the Old High German, also Voigt or Fauth; plural Vögte; Dutch (land-) voogd; Danish foged; Norwegian fogd; Swedish fogde; wójt; Finnish vouti; Romanian voit; ultimately from Latin vocatus) in the Holy Roman Empire was a title of a reeve or advocate, an overlord (mostly of nobility) exerting guardianship or military protection as well as secular justice (Blutgericht) over a certain territory (Landgericht).

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Voivodeships of Poland

A województwo (plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries.

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Vršovci

The Vršovci (Vrshovici) were a Czech noble family in the Duchy of Bohemia.

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Warsaw Autumn

Warsaw Autumn (Warszawska Jesień) is the largest international Polish festival of contemporary music.

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Warsaw Barbican

The Warsaw Barbican (barbakan warszawski) is a barbican (semicircular fortified outpost) in Warsaw, Poland, and one of few remaining relics of the complex network of historic fortifications that once encircled Warsaw.

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Warsaw Chopin Airport

Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport (Lotnisko Chopina w Warszawie), more commonly referred to as Chopin Airport or Warsaw-Chopin Airport, is an international airport located in the Włochy district of Warsaw, Poland.

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Warsaw Chopin Airport railway station

Warsaw Chopin Airport railway station (Warszawa Lotnisko Chopina) is the railway station of the Warsaw Chopin Airport in Warsaw, Poland.

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Warsaw Citadel

Warsaw Citadel (Polish: Cytadela Warszawska) is a 19th-century fortress in Warsaw, Poland.

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Warsaw City Council

Warsaw City Council (Rada Miasta Warszawy) is a unicameral governing body of the city of Warsaw, the capital of Poland.

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Warsaw Commuter Railway

Warsaw Commuter Railway (Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa, WKD) is a commuter rail line in Poland's capital city of Warsaw.

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Warsaw concentration camp

The Warsaw concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Warschau, short KL or KZ Warschau) was an associated group of the German Nazi concentration camps, including an extermination camp, located in German-occupied Warsaw, capital city of Poland.

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Warsaw Confederation

The Warsaw Confederation, signed on 28 January 1573 by the Polish national assembly (sejm konwokacyjny) in Warsaw, was the first European act granting religious freedoms.

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Warsaw dialect

The Warsaw dialect (called Gwara warszawska in standard Polish, pronounced), or Masovian, is a regional dialect of the Polish language centered on Warsaw.

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Warsaw Fire Guard

Warsaw Fire Guard (Warszawska Straż Ogniowa) was a fire fighting unit in the city of Warsaw.

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Warsaw Fotoplastikon

The Warsaw Fotoplastikon is a stereoscopic theatre based on the Kaiserpanorama system of rotating stereoscopic images located in Warsaw, Poland.

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Warsaw Ghetto

The Warsaw Ghetto (Warschauer Ghetto, officially Jüdischer Wohnbezirk in Warschau Jewish Residential District in Warsaw; getto warszawskie) was the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Europe during World War II.

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Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ; powstanie w getcie warszawskim; Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka.

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Warsaw Metro

The Warsaw Metro (Polish: Metro Warszawskie) is a rapid transit system serving the city of Warsaw, the capital of Poland.

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Warsaw metropolitan area

The Warsaw metropolitan area (known in Polish as: Aglomeracja warszawska) is the metropolitan area of Warsaw, the capital of Poland.

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Warsaw Modlin Airport

Warsaw Modlin Airport is an international airport, formerly a disused military airfield, which opened in July 2012.

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Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra

The Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra (Orkiestra Filharmonii Narodowej w Warszawie) is a Polish orchestra based in Warsaw.

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Warsaw New Town

The Warsaw New Town is a neighbourhood dating from the 15th century in Warsaw, Poland.

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Warsaw Old Town

The Warsaw Old Town (italic and collectively with the New Town, known colloquially as: Starówka) is the oldest part of Warsaw, the capital city of Poland.

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Warsaw School of Economics

The Warsaw School of Economics (Szkoła Główna Handlowa, SGH Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie.) is the oldest business school in Poland.

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Warsaw Spire

The Warsaw Spire is a complex of Neomodern office buildings in Warsaw, Poland constructed by the Belgian real estate developer Ghelamco.

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Warsaw Stock Exchange

The Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE), Giełda Papierów Wartościowych w Warszawie, is a stock exchange in Warsaw, Poland.

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Warsaw University of Life Sciences

The Warsaw University of Life Sciences (Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, SGGW) is the largest agricultural university in Poland, established in 1816 in Warsaw.

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Warsaw University of Technology

No description.

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Warsaw Uprising

The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.

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Warsaw Uprising Museum

The Warsaw Uprising Museum (named Warsaw Rising Museum, Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego), in the Wola district of Warsaw, Poland, is dedicated to the Warsaw Uprising of 1944.

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Warsaw Voivodeship (1975–98)

Warszawa Voivodeship (województwo warszawskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975–1998, superseded by Masovian Voivodeship.

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Warsaw Zoo

The Warsaw Zoological Garden, known simply as the Warsaw Zoo (Warszawskie Zoo), is a scientific zoo located alongside the Vistula River in Warsaw, Poland.

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Warszawa Centralna railway station

Warszawa Centralna is the primary railway station in Warsaw, Poland.

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Warszawa Główna railway station

Warsaw Main Railway Station (Warszawa Główna) was the name of two different railway stations in Warsaw, Poland, both now defunct.

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Wawer

Wawer is one of the districts of Warsaw, located in the south-eastern part of the city.

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Władysław Szpilman

Władysław Szpilman (5 December 19116 July 2000) was a Polish pianist and classical composer of Jewish descent.

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Włochy

Włochy is one of the districts of Warsaw, located in the south-western part of city.

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Wesoła

Wesoła is one of the districts of Warsaw, and has been since October 27, 2002.

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Wianki

Wianki (Wreaths, in English) is a cyclical cultural event, taking place annually in Kraków at the bend of Wisła river, near the Wawel hill.

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Wilanów

Wilanów is a district of the city of Warsaw, Poland.

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Wilanów Palace

Wilanów Palace or Wilanowski Palace (pałac w Wilanowie) is a royal palace located in the Wilanów district, Warsaw.

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William Heerlein Lindley

Sir William Heerlein Lindley (30 January 1853, in Hamburg – 30 December 1917, in London) was a British civil engineer.

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William Lindley

William Lindley (7 September 1808 in London – 22 May 1900 in Blackheath, London), was an English engineer who together with his sons designed water and sewerage systems for over 30 cities across Europe.

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William-Adolphe Bouguereau

William-Adolphe Bouguereau (30 November 1825 – 19 August 1905) was a French academic painter.

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Wojciech Bogusławski

Wojciech Bogusławski (9 April 1757 – 23 July 1829) was a Polish actor, theater director and playwright of the Polish Enlightenment.

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Wola

Wola is a district in western Warsaw, Poland, formerly the village of Wielka Wola, incorporated into Warsaw in 1916.

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Wolfgang Schuster

Wolfgang Schuster (born 5 September 1949 in Ulm) was the Lord Mayor of Stuttgart, Germany, from January 1997 until January 2013.

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World Heritage Committee

The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wreath

A wreath is an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs, or various materials that is constructed to resemble a ring.

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Wrocław

Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.

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Yerevan

Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

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Yiddish

Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Załuski Library

The Załuski Library (Biblioteka Załuskich, Bibliotheca Zalusciana) was built in Warsaw in 1747–1795 by Józef Andrzej Załuski and his brother, Andrzej Stanisław Załuski, both Roman Catholic bishops.

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Zachęta

The Zachęta National Gallery of Art (Polish: Narodowa Galeria Sztuki), is a contemporary art museum in the centre of Warsaw, Poland.

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Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego

Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego w Warszawie (lit. Municipal Transport Authority in Warsaw, translated as Warsaw Transport Authority; ZTM Warszawa) is a local authority controlled body managing all means of public transport in Warsaw.

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Złota 44

Złota 44 is a residential skyscraper (192 meters high, 52 story) in central Warsaw, Poland.

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Złote Tarasy

The Złote Tarasy (Golden Terraces) is a commercial, office, and entertainment complex in the center of Warsaw, Poland, located next to the Warszawa Centralna railway station between the Jana Pawła II and Emilii Plater streets.

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Zoo

A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.

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10th-Anniversary Stadium

10th-Anniversary Stadium (Stadion Dziesięciolecia), opened in 1955, was for decades the largest stadium in Warsaw, and one of the largest in Poland.

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2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP19 or CMP9 was held in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 23 November 2013.

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2016 Warsaw summit

The 2016 Warsaw Summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was the 27th formal meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, held at the National Stadium in Warsaw, Poland, on 8 and 9 July 2016.

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Redirects here:

Boroughs of Warsaw, Capital of Poland, City of Warsaw, Geography of Warsaw, Legend of Warsaw, PLWAW, UN/LOCODE:PLWAW, Varshava, Varshe, Varsovian, Varsovie, Varšuva, Wa-wa, WarsaW, Warsaw (Poland), Warsaw City, Poland, Warsaw Invasion, Warsaw, Poland, Warsawa, Warschau, Warszawa, Warszawa, Poland, Warszawianka Courts, Warszewa, Warszowa, Warwaw, Waršawa.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw

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