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The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych w Warszawie) is a public university of visual arts and applied arts located in the Polish capital.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).
An agency of the European Union is a decentralised body of the European Union (EU), which is distinct from the institutions.
Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.
All Saints' Day, also known as All Hallows' Day, Hallowmas, Feast of All Saints, or Solemnity of All Saints, is a Christian festival celebrated in honour of all the saints, known and unknown.
Alstom is a French multinational company operating worldwide in rail transport markets, active in the fields of passenger transportation, signalling and locomotives, with products including the AGV, TGV, Eurostar, and Pendolino high-speed trains, in addition to suburban, regional and metro trains, and Citadis trams.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Andrzej Witold Wajda (6 March 1926 – 9 October 2016) was a Polish film and theatre director.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.
Augustus II the Strong (August II.; August II Mocny; Augustas II; 12 May 16701 February 1733) of the Albertine line of the House of Wettin was Elector of Saxony (as Frederick Augustus I), Imperial Vicar and elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Augustus III (August III Sas, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (Friedrich August II).
Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.
The Łazienki Palace (pałac Łazienkowski; in English, the Baths Palace; also called the Palace on the Water and the Palace on the Isle) is a classicist palace in Warsaw's Royal Baths Park, the city's largest park, occupying over 76 hectares of the city center.
Łazienki Park (Park Łazienkowski or Łazienki Królewskie: "Baths Park" or "Royal Baths"; also rendered "Royal Baths Park") is the largest park in Warsaw, Poland, occupying 76 hectares of the city center.
Łazienkowska Thoroughfare (also translated as Łazienkowska Road, Łazienkowska Street, Łazienkowska Freeway, Łazienkowska Highway and Łazienkowska Tract, Trasa Łazienkowska) is a road in Warsaw, Poland.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Śródmieście (meaning "city centre", "downtown") is the central borough (dzielnica) of the city of Warsaw.
The Średnicowy Bridge is a rail bridge over the Vistula River in Warsaw, north of the Poniatowski Bridge.
Żelazowa Wola is a village in Gmina Sochaczew, Sochaczew County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.
Żoliborz is one of the northern districts of the city of Warsaw.
A backlot is an area behind or adjoining a movie studio, containing permanent exterior buildings for outdoor scenes in filmmaking or television productions, or space for temporary set construction.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Plac Bankowy (in 'Bank Square') in Warsaw is one of that city's principal squares.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The term Battle of Warsaw can refer to several battles fought in Warsaw.
The Battle of Warsaw refers to the decisive Polish victory in 1920 during the Polish–Soviet War.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Belweder (in full Pałac Belwederski, Belweder Palace, from the Italian belvedere) is a palace in Warsaw, near the Łazienki Park.
Bemowo is a district of Warsaw located in the western part of the city.
Benoit B.  Mandelbrot  (20 November 1924 – 14 October 2010) was a Polish-born, French and American mathematician and polymath with broad interests in the practical sciences, especially regarding what he labeled as "the art of roughness" of physical phenomena and "the uncontrolled element in life".
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Białołęka (from biały - white and łąka - meadow) is one of 18 districts of Warsaw, located in the northern part of the city.
A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike-share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free.
Bielany is a district in Warsaw located in the north-western part of the city.
The Bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers to the bombing campaign of Warsaw by the German Luftwaffe during the siege of Warsaw in the invasion of Poland in 1939.
A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Bródno is a neighborhood in the Warsaw borough of Targówek, located on the eastern side of the Vistula river.
The Brühl Palace (Pałac Brühla), otherwise known as Sandomierski Palace was a palace standing at Piłsudski Square.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Bus transport in Warsaw was introduced in 1920.
Business process outsourcing (BPO) is defined as a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of a specific business process to a third-party service provider.
Canal+ Poland is Poland's variation of the French television network Canal+.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw (Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie) is a state university in Warsaw.
Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and of St.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 – November 19, 1967 Casimir Funk A Biographical Sketch (1884–1967). Journal of Nutrition 1972 Sep;102(9):1105–13.. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/102/9/1105.full.pdf), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins, which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".
Kazimierz Michał Władysław Wiktor Pułaski of Ślepowron (Casimir Pulaski; March 4 or March 6, 1745Makarewicz, 1998 October 11, 1779) was a Polish nobleman, soldier and military commander who has been called, together with his Hungarian friend Michael Kovats de Fabriczy, "the father of the American cavalry".
Warsaw's Castle Square (plac Zamkowy w Warszawie) is a historic square in front of the Royal Castle – the former official residence of Polish monarchs – located in Warsaw, Poland.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Centrum LIM skyscraper was built in 1989 in the center of Warsaw, Poland, by LIM Joint Venture Sp.
Chamber opera is a designation for operas written to be performed with a chamber ensemble rather than a full orchestra.
The Chancellery of the Prime Minister of Poland (Polish: Kancelaria Prezesa Rady Ministrów), or KPRM, is the executive office for the Prime Minister of Poland.
The Children's Memorial Health Institute (Instytut "Pomnik - Centrum Zdrowia Dziecka", literally "Children's Health Memorial Centre Institute"; CMHI or CZD) is the largest and best-equipped institute of paediatric healthcare in Poland.
The Chopin Statue is a large bronze statue of Frédéric Chopin that now stands in the upper part of Warsaw's Royal Baths Park aka Łazienki Park, adjacent to Aleje Ujazdowskie (Ujazdów Avenue).
The Church of the Visitation of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary (Kościół Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Marii Panny), otherwise known as St.
The history of cinema in Poland is almost as long as history of cinematography, and it has universal achievements, even though Polish movies tend to be less commercially available than movies from several other European nations.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, PO)The party is officially the Civic Platform of the Republic of Poland (Platforma Obywatelska Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej).
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.
A clay pit is a quarry or mine for the extraction of clay, which is generally used for manufacturing pottery, bricks or Portland cement.
The coat of arms of Warsaw consists of a syrenka ("little mermaid") in a red field.
Coca-Cola Amatil (CCA) is one of the largest bottlers of non-alcoholic ready-to-drink beverages in the Asia-Pacific region and one of the world's five major Coca-Cola bottlers.
A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, or in other places referred to as a historical marker or historic plaque, is a plate of metal, ceramic, stone, wood, or other material, typically attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, and bearing text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Congress Hall (Polish: Sala Kongresowa) is a 2,880 seat theatre at the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, Poland.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland (Konstytucja Królestwa Polskiego) was granted to the 'Congress' Kingdom of Poland by the King of Poland, Alexander I of Russia, who was obliged to issue a constitution to the newly recreated Polish state under his domain as specified by the Congress of Vienna.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Contemporary architecture is the architecture of the 21st century.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Copernicus Science Centre (Centrum Nauki Kopernik) is a science museum standing on the bank of the Vistula River in Warsaw, Poland.
Cornelis Corneliszoon van Haarlem (1562 – 11 November 1638), Dutch Golden Age painter and draughtsman, was one of the leading Northern Mannerist artists in the Netherlands, and an important forerunner of Frans Hals as a portraitist.
Corylus colurna, the Turkish hazel or Turkish filbert, is a deciduous tree native to southeast Europe and southwest Asia, from the Balkans through northern Turkey to northern Iran.
Cosmopolitan Twarda 2/4, formerly known as Twarda Tower or Hines Tower, is a mainly residential skyscraper (160 meters high, 44 storeys) in central Warsaw, Poland.
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
The Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology (Centrum Onkologii–Instytut im.) is a specialized research institute and hospital of the Polish Ministry of Health.
The Czapski Palace (Pałac Czapskich), also called the Krasiński, Sieniawski or Raczyński Palace, is a substantial palace in the center of Warsaw, at 5 Krakowskie Przedmieście.
Czartoryski (feminine form: Czartoryska, plural: Czartoryscy; Чарторийські, Chartoryisky; Чорторийські, Chortoryisky; Čartoriskiai) is a Polish princely family of Lithuanian-Ruthenian origin, also known as the Familia.
Daewoo (literally "Great Woo", after the first name of founder and chairman Kim Woo-jung) or the Daewoo Group was a major South Korean conglomerate and car manufacturer.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Dekalog (also known as Dekalog: The Ten Commandments and The Decalogue) is a 1989 Polish television drama series directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski and co-written by Kieślowski with Krzysztof Piesiewicz, with music by Zbigniew Preisner.
The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
Duke of Masovia (Książę Mazowsza) was a title born by the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
In the Polish system of local administration, a dzielnica (Polish plural dzielnice) is an administrative subdivision or quarter of a city or town.
Dziennik Polska-Europa-Świat (Daily Poland-Europe-World) was a Polish nationwide daily newspaper published by Ringier Axel Springer, a joint venture between Germany's Axel Springer Verlag publishing company and Swiss media company Ringier.
East-Central Europe is the region between German, West Slavic and Hungarian speaking Europe and the Eastern Slavic lands of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Edgar Vincent, 1st Viscount D'Abernon, (19 August 1857 – 1 November 1941) was a British politician, diplomat, art collector and author.
The Ekstraklasa is the top Polish professional league for men's association football clubs (it is the country's primary football competition).
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The FIBA EuroBasket 2009 was the 36th FIBA EuroBasket, the biennial regional basketball championship contested by European nations and held by FIBA Europe.
The European Border and Coast Guard Agency, also known as Frontex (from French: Frontières extérieures for "external borders"), is an agency of the European Union headquartered in Warsaw, Poland, tasked with border control of the European Schengen Area, in coordination with the border and coast guards of Schengen Area member states.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Export of revolution is actions by a victorious revolutionary government of one country to promote similar revolutions in unruled areas or other countries, as a manifestation of revolutionary internationalism of certain kind, e.g., the Marxist proletarian internationalism.
Expressway S17 or Express Road S17 (in Polish Droga ekspresowa S17) is an important road in Poland which, when completed, will run from Warsaw, through Lublin, to the border crossing with Ukraine at Hrebenne/Rava-Ruska.
Expressway S2 forms part of the southern section of the planned Warsaw Express Ring Road and is also the extension of the motorway A2 from the west, which will eventually link to the rest of the motorway A2, east of Warsaw.
Expressway S8 or express road S8 (in Polish droga ekspresowa S8) is major road in Poland which, when completed, will run along the route Wrocław – Łódź – Warsaw – Białystok.
Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych (Passenger Automobile Factory), commonly known as FSO, was a Polish automobile manufacturer, located in Warsaw.
A false etymology (popular etymology, etymythology, pseudo-etymology, or par(a)etymology), sometimes called folk etymology – although the last term is also a technical term in linguistics - is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word.
The fern flower is a magic flower in Baltic mythology (paparčio žiedas, papardes zieds), in Estonian mythology (sõnajalaõis) and in Slavic mythology (папараць-кветка, kwiat paproci, цветок папоротника, цвіт папороті).
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
A financial centre is a location that is home to a cluster of nationally or internationally significant financial services providers such as banks, investment managers, or stock exchanges.
The Polish First Army (Pierwsza Armia Wojska Polskiego, 1 AWP for short, also known as Berling's Army) was a Polish Army unit formed in the Soviet Union in 1944, from the previously existing Polish I Corps as part of the People's Army of Poland (LWP), a formation of the Polish Armed Forces in the East.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
The French formal garden, also called the jardin à la française (literally, "garden in the French manner" in French), is a style of garden based on symmetry and the principle of imposing order on nature.
The Fryderyk Chopin Museum ('Muzeum Fryderyka Chopina') is a museum in Warsaw, Poland, established in 1954 and dedicated to Polish composer Frédéric Chopin.
The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music (Uniwersytet Muzyczny Fryderyka Chopina, UMFC) is located at ulica Okólnik 2 in central Warsaw, Poland.
Gazeta Wyborcza (meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced), also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
Goldwyn Pictures Corporation was an American motion picture production company that operated from 1916 to 1924 when it was merged with two other production companies to form the major studio, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
The Grand Theatre in Warsaw (Teatr Wielki w Warszawie) or the Great Theatre—National Opera (Teatr Wielki—Opera Narodowa) is a theatre complex, opera company, and home of the Polish National Ballet, located on historic Theatre Square in Warsaw, Poland.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
Grozny (p; Соьлжа-ГӀала) is the capital city of the Chechen Republic, Russia.
is a city located in western Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.
Hanna Beata Gronkiewicz-Waltz (born 4 November 1952) is a Polish lawyer, Professor of Jurisprudence and politician who has been the Mayor of Warsaw since 2 December 2006.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.
Highways in Poland are public roads designed to carry large amounts of traffic.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
The history of Warsaw spans over 1400 years.
The Church of the Holy Cross (Bazylika Świętego Krzyża) is a Roman Catholic house of worship in Warsaw, Poland.
The Holy Trinity Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession (Kościół Świętej Trójcy), also known as Zug's Protestant Church (Zbór Zuga) is a Lutheran church in Warsaw, Poland.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Information technology (ΙΤ) outsourcing is a company's outsourcing of computer or Internet related work, such as programming, to other companies.
InterContinental Warsaw, designed by a team of architects under the leadership of the late Tadeusz Spychała, is a five-star hotel in Warsaw, located between Emilia Plater, Śliska, and Sosnowa streets.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
International Artists (IA) was an independent record label based in Houston, Texas that originally existed from 1965 to 1970.
Epitaph for heart of Frédéric Chopin in the Holy Cross Church, Warsaw The International Chopin Piano Competition (Polish: Międzynarodowy Konkurs Pianistyczny im. Fryderyka Chopina), often referred to as the Chopin Competition, is a piano competition held in Warsaw, Poland.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Intraco I is a skyscraper in Warsaw, built in 1975 by Swedish company Byggnadsproduktion AB.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Isaac Bashevis Singer (יצחק באַשעװיס זינגער; November 21, 1902 – July 24, 1991) was a Polish-born Jewish writer in Yiddish, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1978.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Janusz Korczak, the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit (22 July 1878 or 1879 – 7 August 1942), was a Polish-Jewish educator, children's author, and pedagogue known as Pan Doktor ("Mr. Doctor") or Stary Doktor ("Old Doctor").
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw (Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego w Warszawie) is a public institution of higher learning in Warsaw, Poland.
Jesuit Church (Kościół Jezuitów), otherwise the Church of the Gracious Mother of God (Kościół Matki Bożej Łaskawej) is an ornate church in Warsaw, Poland.
The Warsaw Jewish Cemetery is one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe and in the world.
The Jewish Combat Organization (Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa, ŻOB; ייִדישע קאַמף אָרגאַניזאַציע Yidishe Kamf Organizatsie; often translated to English as the Jewish Fighting Organization) was a World War II resistance movement in occupied Poland, which was instrumental in engineering the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
Jewish culture is the culture of the Jewish people from the formation of the Jewish nation in biblical times through life in the diaspora and the modern state of Israel.
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Sir Joseph Rotblat (4 November 1908 – 31 August 2005) was a Polish physicist, a self-described "Pole with a British passport".
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Juglans nigra, the eastern black walnut, is a species of deciduous tree in the walnut family, Juglandaceae, native to eastern North America.
Jusepe de Ribera (baptized February 17, 1591; died September 2, 1652) was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, also known as José de Ribera and Josep de Ribera.
KADR (since 1989 Studio Filmowe Kadr) is a major Polish film production and distribution company, founded in 1955 and still producing films as of 2016.
Kampinos Forest is a large forest complex located in Masovian Voivodeship, west of Warsaw in Poland.
Kanał (Sewer) is a 1956 Polish film directed by Andrzej Wajda.
The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, "Katyń massacre" or "Katyn crime"; Катынская резня or Катынский расстрел Katynskij reznya, "Katyn massacre") was a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD ("People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs", the Soviet secret police) in April and May 1940.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Koleje Mazowieckie (Masovian Railways) is a regional rail operator in the Masovian Voivodeship of Poland.
Korczak, is a 1990 film by Andrzej Wajda shot in black-and-white, about Polish-Jewish humanitarian Janusz Korczak.
Kozminski University (formerly known as Leon Kozminski Academy of Entrepreneurship and Management, in Polish Akademia Leona Koźmińskiego) is a private, non profit business school in Warsaw, Poland, and is considered to be "Poland’s highest rated private university".
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Krasiński Palace Pałac Krasińskich, or Palace of the Commonwealth Rzeczypospolitej, is a baroque palace in Warsaw, Poland, on Krasiński Square (Plac Krasińskich).
Królikarnia (in English, "The Rabbit House") is a historic classicist palace in Warsaw, Poland; and a neighborhood in the Mokotów district of Warsaw.
Krzysztof Kieślowski (27 June 1941 – 13 March 1996) was a Polish film director and screenwriter.
Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.
This is a list of the largest capital cities of the European Union by population within city limits.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Legia Warszawa, known in English as Legia Warsaw, is a professional football club based in Warsaw, Poland.
Sportowy Klub Legia Warszawa is a Polish men's basketball club, based in Warsaw.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leon Schiller or Leon Schiller de Schildenfeld (14 March 1887 – 25 March 1954) was a Polish theatre and film director, as well as critic and theatre theoretician.
Leopold Stanisław Kronenberg (born March 24, 1812 in Warsaw, died April 5, 1878 in Nice) was a Polish banker, investor, and financier, and a leader of the 1863 January Uprising against the Russian Empire.
Light rail, light rail transit (LRT), or fast tram is a form of urban rail transport using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way.
This is a list of roads designated A2.
This page contains a list of cities and towns in Poland, preceded by a table of major Polish cities.
Below is a list of the largest cities in the European Union according to the population within their city limits.
This list of cities with most skyscrapers ranks cities around the world by their number of skyscrapers.
Recipients of the honorary citizenship of Warsaw (Honorowi Obywatele miasta stołecznego Warszawy), in order of date of presentation.
The Mayor of Warsaw, or more literally the President of Warsaw (the customary title in Polish is "Prezydent Miasta Stołecznego Warszawy", literal translation "President of Warsaw Capital City") is the head of the capital of Poland.
These are lists of the world's most expensive cities for expatriate employees (not residents), according to the Mercer, ECA International and Xpatulator.com cost-of-living surveys.
This is a list of necropoleis sorted by country.
This is a list of tallest existing buildings in Warsaw, Poland, each with the height of over 100 meters.
The categorization of the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time is called periodization.
The following are lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Loughborough University (abbreviated as Lough for post-nominals) is a public research university in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands of England.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Mały Powstaniec (the "Little Insurrectionist") is a statue in commemoration of the child soldiers who fought and died during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520 and lasted until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
The Maria Skłodowska-Curie Museum (Muzeum Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie) is a museum in Warsaw, Poland, devoted to the life and work of Polish two-time Nobel laureate Maria Skłodowska-Curie (1867–1934).
The Mariavite Church was an independent Christian church that emerged from the Catholic Church of Poland at the turn of the 20th century.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Mariensztat is a neighbourhood in Warsaw's borough of Śródmieście (city centre).
Marszałkowska (lit. Marshal Street) is one of the main thoroughfares of Warsaw's city center.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Mazovian Voivodeship or Mazovia Province (województwo mazowieckie) is the largest and most populous of the 16 Polish provinces, or voivodeships, created in 1999.
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
The Mazovian Lowland (Nizina Mazowiecka), also known as the Masovian Plain, is the largest geographical region in central Poland, roughly covering the historical region of Masovia.
A meadow is a field habitat vegetated by grass and other non-woody plants (grassland).
The Medical University of Warsaw (Polish name: Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny) was founded in January 1950, building on the University of Warsaw's former Faculty of Medicine, which had been established in the early nineteenth century.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
Merkuriusz Polski Ordynaryjny (The Polish Mercury Ordinary; original 17th-century Polish spelling: Merkuryusz Polski Ordynaryiny; full title: Merkuriusz Polski dzieje wszystkiego świata w sobie zamykający, dla informacji pospolitej: The Polish Mercury, Encompassing All the World's Affairs, for the Common Knowledge) was the first Polish newspaper (actually, a weekly), published from 1661, first in Kraków, then in Warsaw.
Metro AG, otherwise known as Metro Group, is a German global diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in Düsseldorf. It was established in 1964 by Ernst Schmidt and Wilhelm Schmidt-Ruthenbeck., it was the fourth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues (after Wal-Mart, Carrefour and Tesco).
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military University of Technology in Warsaw - WAT) is the civil-military technical academic institution in Poland, located at Bemowo, Warsaw. It was established in 1951.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Republic of Poland (Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi) was formed on October 1999 from the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Economy of Poland; the ministry can trace its history to 1944.
Ministry of Health of the Republic of Poland (Ministerstwo Zdrowia Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is one of the Ministries of the Republic of Poland.
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
Mokotów is a dzielnica (borough, district) of Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
The Ghetto Heroes Monument (pomnik Bohaterów Getta) is a monument in Warsaw, Poland, commemorating the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 during the Second World War.
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.
Moshe Wilensky (משה וילנסקי, also, "Vilensky"; April 17, 1910 – January 2, 1997) was a Polish-Israeli composer, lyricist, and pianist.
The world's most liveable cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on an annual survey of living conditions.
Mostowski Palace (Pałac Mostowskich) is an 18th-century palace in Warsaw, Poland, located at ul.
MTV Polska is the Polish version of the international music channel MTV.
Multikino is the second largest multiplex chain in Poland, and has the distinction of having opened the nation's first multiplex, which was located in Poznań.
Museum of Caricature (Muzeum Karykatury) is a museum in Warsaw, Poland.
The Museum of Communism is a museum focusing on the communist period of Polish history, located in the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw.
The Museum of Independence (Muzeum Niepodległości) is a museum in Warsaw, Poland.
The Museum of John Paul II and Primate Wyszyński (Muzeum Jana Pawła II i Prymasa Wyszyńskiego) is a Roman Catholic cultural and educational institution affiliated with the Archdiocese of Warsaw, honoring two prominent Polish Catholic leaders: Saint John Paul II, the first Polish Pope, and Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, the Archbishop of Warsaw and Gniezno and Primate of Poland.
The Museum of John Paul II Collection (Muzeum Kolekcji im.) in Warsaw, also known as the Porczyński Gallery or Carroll-Porczyński Collection, is a museum dedicated to its painting collection, which is housed in the building of the former stock exchange and National Bank.
Muzeum Sztuki Nowoczesnej w Warszawie is a museum in Warsaw, Poland.
The Museum of Polish History or Polish History Museum (Polish: Muzeum Historii Polski) is a museum and national cultural institute in Warsaw, Poland.
Muzeum Sportu i Turystyki w Warszawie is a museum in Warsaw, Poland.
Museum of Warsaw (Muzeum Warszawy) (in 1948–2014 Historical Museum of Warsaw, Muzeum Historyczne m.st.) is a museum in the Old Town Market Place in Warsaw, Poland.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nathan Alterman (נתן אלתרמן, August 14, 1910 – March 28, 1970) was an Israeli poet, playwright, journalist, and translator.
The National Defence University of Warsaw (- AON) was the civil-military highest defence academic institution in Poland, located in Warszawa-Rembertów.
The National Library of Poland (Biblioteka Narodowa) is the central Polish library, subject directly to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland.
The National Museum in Warsaw (Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie), popularly abbreviated as MNW, is a national museum in Warsaw, one of the largest museums in Poland and the largest in the capital.
National Philharmonic in Warsaw (Polish: Filharmonia Narodowa w Warszawie) is a Polish cultural institution, located at 5 Jasna Street in Warsaw.
The PGE Narodowy (official name since 2015) or National Stadium (Stadion Narodowy) is a retractable roof football stadium located in Warsaw, Poland.
The National Theatre (Teatr Narodowy) in Warsaw, Poland, was founded in 1765, during the Polish Enlightenment, by that country's last monarch, Stanisław August Poniatowski.
Natolin is a historic park and nature reserve (1.2 km²) on the southern edge of Warsaw, Poland.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
NC+ (formerly Cyfra+ (Canal+ Cyfrowy) is a Polish digital satellite platform, owned and operated by French media company Canal+ Group.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
New Town Market Place (Rynek Nowego Miasta) is the main square of the Warsaw New Town of Warsaw, Poland.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
The Nicolaus Copernicus Monument in Warsaw is one of the Polish capital's notable landmarks.
The Nożyk Synagogue (Synagoga Nożyków) is the only surviving prewar Jewish house of prayer in Warsaw, Poland.
Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, (born 1 June 1935) is a British architect whose company, Foster + Partners, maintains an international design practice famous for high-tech architecture.
The November Uprising (1830–31), also known as the Polish–Russian War 1830–31 or the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire.
Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą (which translates to New City by Pilica) is a town in Grójec County, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,022 inhabitants (2012).
Nowy Świat-Uniwersytet is the fourth station of the central part of Line M2 of the Warsaw Metro.
Ochota is a district of Warsaw, Poland, located in the central part of the Polish capital city's urban agglomeration.
The Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) is the principal institution of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) dealing with the "human dimension" of security.
Warsaw's Old Town Market Place (Rynek Starego Miasta) is the center and oldest part of the Old Town of Warsaw, capital of Poland.
An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, or late seral forest— is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Otrębusy is a village in Poland, in Masovian Voivodship, to the west of Warsaw in the Gmina Brwinów.
An overpass (called a flyover in the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries) is a bridge, road, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway.
An oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water.
The Oxford Tower is a skyscraper located in Warsaw (formerly known as Twardej or Elektrim) on 8 Chałubiński Street next to the Centrum LIM skyscraper.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
Palace of Culture and Science (Pałac Kultury i Nauki; abbreviated PKiN) is a notable high-rise building in Warsaw, Poland.
The Palace of the Four Winds (Pałac Pod Czterema Wiatrami), also known as the Tepper Palace, is a rococo palace in Warsaw located at ulica Długa (Long Street) 38/40.
The Palais Garnier (French) is a 1,979-seat opera house, which was built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera.
A palm house is a greenhouse that is specialised for the growing of palms and other tropical and subtropical plants.
A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model.
Paris Bordon (or Paris Paschalinus Bordone; 5 July 1500 – 19 January 1571) was an Italian painter of the Venetian Renaissance who, despite training with Titian, maintained a strand of Mannerist complexity and provincial vigor.
The parliament of Poland has an upper house, the Senate, and a lower house, the Sejm.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
PAST (Polska Akcyjna Spółka Telefoniczna, Polish Telephone Joint-stock Company) was a Polish telephone operator in the period between World War I and World War II.
Pawiak was a prison built in 1835 in Warsaw, Poland.
Płock (pronounced) is a city on the Vistula river in central Poland.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Peterborough is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, with a population of 183,631 in 2011.
Piłsudski Square (plac marsz.), previously Victory Square (plac Zwycięstwa, 1946), is the largest square of Poland's capital, located in the Warsaw city centre.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.
The planned destruction of Warsaw refers to the largely-realized plans by Nazi Germany to raze the city that were put into motion after the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews (Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich) is a museum on the site of the former Warsaw Ghetto.
The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) is a Polish state-sponsored institution of higher learning.
Museum of the Polish Army (Muzeum Wojska Polskiego) is a museum in Warsaw documenting the military aspects of the history of Poland.
Marshal Józef Piłsudski Legia Warsaw Municipal Stadium (Stadion Miejski Legii Warszawa im.), traditionally also referred to as the Polish Army Stadium (Stadion Wojska Polskiego) in Warsaw, Poland, is an all-seater, highest fourth category football-specific stadium.
Polska Liga Koszykówki (PLK) (English: Polish Basketball League) is a professional men's club basketball league in Poland.
The Polish Cup in football (Puchar Polski w piłce nożnej) is an elimination tournament for Polish football clubs, held continuously from 1950, and is the second most important national title in Polish football after the Ekstraklasa title.
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile (Rząd Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na uchodźstwie), was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, and the subsequent occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic.
The Polish National Government 1863–64 was an underground Polish supreme authority during the January Uprising, a large scale insurrection during the Russian partition of the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN (Polish Scientific Publishers PWN; until 1991 Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe - National Scientific Publishers PWN, PWN) is a Polish book publisher, founded in 1951.
Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA (PKP SA, Polish State Railways, Inc.) is the dominant railway operator in Poland.
The Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR) was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
Polonia Warsaw (Polonia Warszawa), founded in 1911, is the oldest existing Warsaw sports club, with football, basketball, track and field and swimming teams.
Polsat is one of Poland's biggest television channels, founded on 5 December 1992 and owned by Zygmunt Solorz-Żak.
Polskie Radio Spółka Akcyjna (PR S.A.; English: Polish Radio) is Poland's state-owned national publicly funded radio broadcasting organization.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface.
Powązki Cemetery (Cmentarz Powązkowski), also known as the Stare Powązki (Old Powązki) is a historic cemetery located in the Wola district, western part of Warsaw, Poland.
A powiat (pronounced; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Soldiers of the Polish First Army Park otherwise known as Praga Park is a park in Warsaw, Poland.
Praga-North (Praga-Północ) is a district in Warsaw located in the central part of the city.
Praga-South (Praga-Południe) is a district of Warsaw located on the east bank of the Vistula River.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located.
The President of the Republic of Poland (Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, shorter form: Prezydent RP) is the head of state of Poland.
The Presidential Palace (in Polish, Pałac Prezydencki; also known as Pałac Koniecpolskich, Lubomirskich, Radziwiłłów, and Pałac Namiestnikowski) in Warsaw, Poland, is the elegant classicist latest version of a building that has stood on the Krakowskie Przedmieście site since 1643.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Pterocarya fraxinifolia is a species of tree in the Juglandaceae family.
Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Q22 is a neomodern office skyscraper in Warsaw by the Polish real estate developer Echo Investment and designed by APA Kuryłowicz & Associates with collaboration from Buro Happold Polska.
The Queen's Royal Hussars (The Queen's Own and Royal Irish) (QRH) is the senior United Kingdom armoured regiment.
Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience.
Reaktion Books is an independent book publisher based in Islington, London, England.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Regional rail, also known as local trains and stopping trains, are passenger rail services that operate between towns and cities.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Rembertów is a district of the city of Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
Riga City Council (Rīgas Dome) is the government of Riga City, the capital of Latvia.
A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
Rajmund Roman Thierry Polański (born 18 August 1933) is a French-Polish film director, producer, writer, and actor.
Rondo 1 is an office skyscraper with a total height of 192 m located in Warsaw, Poland at Rondo ONZ.
The Royal Castle in Warsaw (Zamek Królewski w Warszawie) is a castle residency that formerly served throughout the centuries as the official residence of the Polish monarchs.
The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (Dutch: Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut or KNMI) is the Dutch national weather forecasting service, which has its headquarters in De Bilt, in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands.
The Royal Route (Trakt Królewski) in Warsaw, Poland, is a former communication route that led southward from the city's Old Town.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Rzeczpospolita is a nationwide daily economic and legal newspaper and the only conservative-liberal newspaper in Poland.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saint-Étienne (Sant-Etiève; Saint Stephen) is a city in eastern central France, in the Massif Central, southwest of Lyon in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, on the trunk road that connects Toulouse with Lyon.
Samuel Goldwyn (born Szmuel Gelbfisz; שמואל געלבפֿיש; c. August 27, 1879 – January 31, 1974), also known as Samuel Goldfish, was a Polish American film producer of Jewish descent.
The Saxon Garden (Ogród Saski) is a 15.5–hectare public garden in central (Śródmieście) Warsaw, Poland, facing Piłsudski Square.
The Saxon Palace (pałac Saski w Warszawie) was one of the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw, Poland.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Sea monsters are beings from folklore believed to dwell in the sea and often imagined to be of immense size.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the 'Sejm'.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
The Siege of Warsaw in 1939 was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the invading German Army.
Sigismund III Vasa (also known as Sigismund III of Poland, Zygmunt III Waza, Sigismund, Žygimantas Vaza, English exonym: Sigmund; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he is known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599.
Sigismund's Column (Kolumna Zygmunta), originally erected in 1644, is located in Castle Square, Warsaw, Poland and is one of Warsaw's most famous landmarks.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) is an American architectural, urban planning, and engineering firm.
Given names originating from the Slavic languages are most common in Slavic countries.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
Sokrates Starynkiewicz (1820–1902; Сократ Иванович Старынкевич) was a Russian general and the 19th President of Warsaw between 1875 and 1892.
Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
South Prussia (Südpreußen; Prusy Południowe) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.
The Spektrum Tower (formerly TP S.A. Tower) is a highrise office tower in Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
Stanisław II Augustus (also Stanisław August Poniatowski; born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski; 17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798), who reigned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1764 to 1795, was the last monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Stanisław Moniuszko (May 5, 1819, Ubiel, Minsk Governorate – June 4, 1872, Warsaw, Congress Poland) was a Polish composer, conductor and teacher.
Staszic Palace (Pałac Staszica) is an edifice at ulica Nowy Świat 72, Warsaw, Poland.
A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel.
Stefan Bronisław Starzyński (August 19, 1893, Warsaw – between December 21 and 23, 1939) was a Polish statesman, economist, military officer and Mayor of Warsaw before and during the Siege of 1939.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
Warsaw is the capital of Poland.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Supreme Administrative Court of the Republic of Poland (Naczelny Sąd Administracyjny) is the court of last resort in administrative cases e.g. those betweens private citizens (or corporations) and administrative bodies.
The Supreme Court (Sąd Najwyższy) of the Republic of Poland supervises the adjudication in.
SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities or simply SWPS University (SWPS Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny) is a private university in Poland affiliated with the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology and the Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Sciences.
Szybka Kolej Miejska (Fast City Rail) is a rail operator providing services in the Warsaw metropolitan area using the national rail network while constituting a part of the city's integrated public transport system organized by the Warsaw Transport Authority.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Tamara Łempicka (born: Maria Górska; 16 May 1898 – 18 March 1980; colloquial: Tamara de Lempicka) was a Polish painter active in the 1920s and 1930s, who spent her working life in France and the United States.
Targówek is a district in Warsaw, Poland located in the northern part of the city.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
Telewizja Polska S.A. (TVP S.A., or Polish Television) is a public broadcasting corporation, the only public TV broadcaster in the territory of the Republic of Poland.
Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.
A tenement is a multi-occupancy building of any sort.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times.
The Pianist is a 2002 biographical drama film co-produced and directed by Roman Polanski, scripted by Ronald Harwood, and starring Adrien Brody.
Theatre Square (plac Teatralny) is a major square in the Śródmieście district of Warsaw, Poland.
Thomas Cook Group plc is a British global travel company listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.
Three Crosses Square (Plac Trzech Krzyży,, also "Square of Three Crosses", "Three Cross Square", and "Triple Cross Square") is an important square in the central district of Warsaw, Poland.
The Three-Year Plan of Reconstructing the Economy (Trzyletni Plan Odbudowy Gospodarki) was a centralized plan created by the Polish communist government to rebuild Poland after the devastation of the Second World War.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Grób Nieznanego Żołnierza) is a monument in Warsaw, Poland, dedicated to the unknown soldiers who have given their lives for Poland.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Torwar Hall is an indoor arena in Warsaw, Poland.
Poland is a part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors.
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.
A townhouse, or town house as used in North America, Asia, Australia, South Africa and parts of Europe, is a type of terraced housing.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
Trams in Warsaw are a (of single track) tram system serving a third of Warsaw, Poland, and serving half the city's population. It operates over 750 cars, and is the second-largest system in the country (after the Silesian system) and one of the biggest in Europe. There are about 27 regular lines, forming a part of the city's integrated public transport system organized by the Warsaw Transport Authority. Since 1994 the system is operated by the municipally-owned company Tramwaje Warszawskie sp. z.o.o.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
Triton (Τρίτων Tritōn) is a mythological Greek god, the messenger of the sea.
TV Puls is a Polish commercial television channel, which was based on Telewizja Niepokalanów with the support of companies such as PKN Orlen, KGHM Polska Miedź, PZU Życie, Prokom and which started broadcasting in March 2001.
TV 4 is a private Polish TV station.
TVN is a Polish commercial television station.
The 2012 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2012 or simply Euro 2012, was the 14th European Championship for men's national football teams organised by UEFA.
Ujazdów Castle (Zamek Ujazdowski) is a castle in the historic Ujazdów district, between Ujazdów Park (Park Ujazdowski) and the Royal Baths Park (Łazienki Królewskie), in Warsaw, Poland.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian minority in Poland (Українці, Ukrayintsi, Ukraińcy), according to the Polish census of 2011 used to be composed of approximately 51,000 people (including 11,451 without Polish citizenship).
The Umschlagplatz (collection point or reloading point) was a holding area set up by Nazi Germany adjacent to a railway station in occupied Poland, where the ghettoised Jews were assembled for deportation to death camps during the ghetto liquidation.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The University of Warsaw (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Universitas Varsoviensis), established in 1816, is the largest university in Poland.
Ursus is a district (dzielnica) of Warsaw, one of the 18 such units into which the city is divided.
Ursynów is the southernmost district of Warsaw.
Veturilo is a public bicycle sharing system in Warsaw, Poland, launched on 1 August 2012 with 55 stations and 1000 bicycles in 3 districts - Śródmieście (city centre), Bielany and Ursynów, 2 other stations started operating in the middle of August in Wilanów.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
The War Order of Virtuti Militari (Latin: "For Military Virtue", Polish: Order Wojenny Virtuti Militari) is Poland's highest military decoration for heroism and courage in the face of the enemy at war.
Church of St.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II in January 1945.
A Vogt (from the Old High German, also Voigt or Fauth; plural Vögte; Dutch (land-) voogd; Danish foged; Norwegian fogd; Swedish fogde; wójt; Finnish vouti; Romanian voit; ultimately from Latin vocatus) in the Holy Roman Empire was a title of a reeve or advocate, an overlord (mostly of nobility) exerting guardianship or military protection as well as secular justice (Blutgericht) over a certain territory (Landgericht).
A województwo (plural: województwa) is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries.
The Vršovci (Vrshovici) were a Czech noble family in the Duchy of Bohemia.
Warsaw Autumn (Warszawska Jesień) is the largest international Polish festival of contemporary music.
The Warsaw Barbican (barbakan warszawski) is a barbican (semicircular fortified outpost) in Warsaw, Poland, and one of few remaining relics of the complex network of historic fortifications that once encircled Warsaw.
Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport (Lotnisko Chopina w Warszawie), more commonly referred to as Chopin Airport or Warsaw-Chopin Airport, is an international airport located in the Włochy district of Warsaw, Poland.
Warsaw Chopin Airport railway station (Warszawa Lotnisko Chopina) is the railway station of the Warsaw Chopin Airport in Warsaw, Poland.
Warsaw Citadel (Polish: Cytadela Warszawska) is a 19th-century fortress in Warsaw, Poland.
Warsaw City Council (Rada Miasta Warszawy) is a unicameral governing body of the city of Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
Warsaw Commuter Railway (Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa, WKD) is a commuter rail line in Poland's capital city of Warsaw.
The Warsaw concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Warschau, short KL or KZ Warschau) was an associated group of the German Nazi concentration camps, including an extermination camp, located in German-occupied Warsaw, capital city of Poland.
The Warsaw Confederation, signed on 28 January 1573 by the Polish national assembly (sejm konwokacyjny) in Warsaw, was the first European act granting religious freedoms.
The Warsaw dialect (called Gwara warszawska in standard Polish, pronounced), or Masovian, is a regional dialect of the Polish language centered on Warsaw.
Warsaw Fire Guard (Warszawska Straż Ogniowa) was a fire fighting unit in the city of Warsaw.
The Warsaw Fotoplastikon is a stereoscopic theatre based on the Kaiserpanorama system of rotating stereoscopic images located in Warsaw, Poland.
The Warsaw Ghetto (Warschauer Ghetto, officially Jüdischer Wohnbezirk in Warschau Jewish Residential District in Warsaw; getto warszawskie) was the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ; powstanie w getcie warszawskim; Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka.
The Warsaw Metro (Polish: Metro Warszawskie) is a rapid transit system serving the city of Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
The Warsaw metropolitan area (known in Polish as: Aglomeracja warszawska) is the metropolitan area of Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
Warsaw Modlin Airport is an international airport, formerly a disused military airfield, which opened in July 2012.
The Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra (Orkiestra Filharmonii Narodowej w Warszawie) is a Polish orchestra based in Warsaw.
The Warsaw New Town is a neighbourhood dating from the 15th century in Warsaw, Poland.
The Warsaw Old Town (italic and collectively with the New Town, known colloquially as: Starówka) is the oldest part of Warsaw, the capital city of Poland.
The Warsaw School of Economics (Szkoła Główna Handlowa, SGH Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie.) is the oldest business school in Poland.
The Warsaw Spire is a complex of Neomodern office buildings in Warsaw, Poland constructed by the Belgian real estate developer Ghelamco.
The Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE), Giełda Papierów Wartościowych w Warszawie, is a stock exchange in Warsaw, Poland.
The Warsaw University of Life Sciences (Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, SGGW) is the largest agricultural university in Poland, established in 1816 in Warsaw.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
The Warsaw Uprising Museum (named Warsaw Rising Museum, Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego), in the Wola district of Warsaw, Poland, is dedicated to the Warsaw Uprising of 1944.
Warszawa Voivodeship (województwo warszawskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975–1998, superseded by Masovian Voivodeship.
The Warsaw Zoological Garden, known simply as the Warsaw Zoo (Warszawskie Zoo), is a scientific zoo located alongside the Vistula River in Warsaw, Poland.
Warszawa Centralna is the primary railway station in Warsaw, Poland.
Warsaw Main Railway Station (Warszawa Główna) was the name of two different railway stations in Warsaw, Poland, both now defunct.
Wawer is one of the districts of Warsaw, located in the south-eastern part of the city.
Władysław Szpilman (5 December 19116 July 2000) was a Polish pianist and classical composer of Jewish descent.
Włochy is one of the districts of Warsaw, located in the south-western part of city.
Wesoła is one of the districts of Warsaw, and has been since October 27, 2002.
Wianki (Wreaths, in English) is a cyclical cultural event, taking place annually in Kraków at the bend of Wisła river, near the Wawel hill.
Wilanów is a district of the city of Warsaw, Poland.
Wilanów Palace or Wilanowski Palace (pałac w Wilanowie) is a royal palace located in the Wilanów district, Warsaw.
Sir William Heerlein Lindley (30 January 1853, in Hamburg – 30 December 1917, in London) was a British civil engineer.
William Lindley (7 September 1808 in London – 22 May 1900 in Blackheath, London), was an English engineer who together with his sons designed water and sewerage systems for over 30 cities across Europe.
William-Adolphe Bouguereau (30 November 1825 – 19 August 1905) was a French academic painter.
Wojciech Bogusławski (9 April 1757 – 23 July 1829) was a Polish actor, theater director and playwright of the Polish Enlightenment.
Wola is a district in western Warsaw, Poland, formerly the village of Wielka Wola, incorporated into Warsaw in 1916.
Wolfgang Schuster (born 5 September 1949 in Ulm) was the Lord Mayor of Stuttgart, Germany, from January 1997 until January 2013.
The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A wreath is an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs, or various materials that is constructed to resemble a ring.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
The Załuski Library (Biblioteka Załuskich, Bibliotheca Zalusciana) was built in Warsaw in 1747–1795 by Józef Andrzej Załuski and his brother, Andrzej Stanisław Załuski, both Roman Catholic bishops.
The Zachęta National Gallery of Art (Polish: Narodowa Galeria Sztuki), is a contemporary art museum in the centre of Warsaw, Poland.
Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego w Warszawie (lit. Municipal Transport Authority in Warsaw, translated as Warsaw Transport Authority; ZTM Warszawa) is a local authority controlled body managing all means of public transport in Warsaw.
Złota 44 is a residential skyscraper (192 meters high, 52 story) in central Warsaw, Poland.
The Złote Tarasy (Golden Terraces) is a commercial, office, and entertainment complex in the center of Warsaw, Poland, located next to the Warszawa Centralna railway station between the Jana Pawła II and Emilii Plater streets.
A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.
10th-Anniversary Stadium (Stadion Dziesięciolecia), opened in 1955, was for decades the largest stadium in Warsaw, and one of the largest in Poland.
The United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP19 or CMP9 was held in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 23 November 2013.
The 2016 Warsaw Summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was the 27th formal meeting of the heads of state and heads of government of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, held at the National Stadium in Warsaw, Poland, on 8 and 9 July 2016.
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