506 relations: AA Tauri, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Acid, Adsorption, Affusion, Aid effectiveness, Air (classical element), Albedo, Algae, Alkane, Ammonia, Amphibian, Amphoterism, Amrit Sanchar, Anabolism, Antares, APM 08279+5255, April Fools' Day, Aquaphobia, Aquarium, Aquatic plant, Aqueduct (water supply), Aquifer, Aral Sea, Arcturus, Arid, Aspersion, Atmosphere, Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Earth, Atmosphere of Jupiter, Atmosphere of Mars, Atmosphere of Mercury, Atmosphere of the Moon, Atmosphere of Uranus, Atmosphere of Venus, Atmospheric pressure, Atmospheric water generator, Atom, Baltic Sea, Baptism, Base (chemistry), Bathymetry, Bay of Fundy, Benzene, Betelgeuse, Bioaccumulation, Biodegradation, Biology, Blackwater (waste), ..., Blessing in the Catholic Church, Boat racing, Boating, Body of water, Boiling, Boiling point, Boring (earth), Bottled water, Breastfeeding, Buenos Aires, Caesium, Caffeine, Calcium, Cambridge University Press, Canal, Capillary action, Carbon dioxide, Carbon disulfide, Carbonation, Carcinus, Catabolism, Catalysis, Central Intelligence Agency, Ceres (dwarf planet), Cetacea, Charcoal, Charon (moon), Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chemical nomenclature, Chemical polarity, Chemical substance, Chernobyl disaster, Chinese philosophy, Chlorine, Circumstellar disc, Circumstellar habitable zone, Cistern, Classical element, Climate, Coke (fuel), Color of water, Comet, Commodity, Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, Condensation, Cooling, Cooling tower, Coriolis force, Cotton, Covalent bond, CW Leonis, Dead Sea, Decibel, Dehydration, Density, Deposition (geology), Der Spiegel, Desalination, Deuterium, Dew, Diarrhea, Diels–Alder reaction, Dihydrogen monoxide hoax, Dione (moon), Dishwashing, Distillation, Diving, DNA, Drainage basin, Drift ice, Drinking water, Durand, Michigan, Dutch language, Earth (classical element), Ecohydrology, Economic water scarcity, Egyptians, Electric dipole moment, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electricity generation, Electrolysis of water, Electrolyte, Electromagnetic absorption by water, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electronegativity, Empedocles, Emulsion, Enceladus, Enthalpy of fusion, Enthalpy of vaporization, Erosion, Estuary, Ethanol, Euphrates, Europa (moon), Evaporation, Evapotranspiration, Exoplanet, Exosphere, Externality, Fault (geology), Feces, Fire (classical element), Fluid, Fog, Food chain, Food energy, Food science, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Freeze-drying, Fresh water, Gaia hypothesis, Galaxy, Ganymede (moon), Geologic record, Geologic time scale, Georgia State University, German language, Geyser, Ghusl, Gill, Glacier, Glaciology, Gliese 1214 b, Gliese 436 b, Glycerol, Gothic language, Gravity, Greenhouse effect, Greywater, Groundwater, Guanzi (text), Hail, Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, HAT-P-11b, HD 189733 b, HD 209458 b, Heat capacity, Heat exchanger, Heavy water, Hertz, Hinduism, History of Earth, Hoax, Holy water, Hot spring, Human, Human body, Humidity, Humorism, Hydrodemolition, Hydroelectricity, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen chalcogenide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrogeology, Hydrography, Hydrological transport model, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hydropower, Hydrosphere, Hydrothermal vent, Hydroxide, Hygiene, Ice, Ice hockey, Ice sheet, Ice skating, Iceberg, Icosahedron, Inorganic compound, International System of Units, International Water Association, International Water Management Institute, Interstellar cloud, Intertidal zone, Ion, Irrigation, Islam, Johns Hopkins University, Joule, Judaism, Kelp, Kelvin, Kuiper belt, Lake Baikal, Lake Vostok, Laundry, Limnology, Lipid, List of largest hydroelectric power stations, Lithium, Lung, Lungfish, Mantle (geology), Marine biology, Marine mammal, MARPOL 73/78, Mars, Medication, Melting point, Mercury (planet), Mesopotamia, Metabolism, Metal (Wu Xing), Metropolis, Microorganism, Mikveh, Milky Way, Millennium Development Goals, Mineral hydration, Mining, Mirage, Misogi, Mole (unit), Molecule, Monism, Mount Everest, Mpemba effect, Mu Cephei, NASA, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Nature (journal), Neptune, Neutron moderator, Nile, Non-renewable resource, Nuclear power, Nuclear reactor, Nucleophile, Nutrient, Oceanography, Odor, Old English, Old Frisian, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Saxon, Oort cloud, Oral rehydration therapy, Organic compound, Organism, Otter, Oxide, Oxygen, Ozone, Paper chemicals, Paper mill, Peak water, Pearson Education, Perspiration, PH, Phlegm, Photosynthesis, Physical water scarcity, Pinniped, Planetary system, Plankton, Pleasure craft, Plumbing, Pluto, Poise (unit), Polar ice cap, Polysaccharide, Potassium, Practical joke, Precipitation, Pressure cooking, Properties of water, Protein, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Puddle, Putrefaction, Quasar, Rainbow, Rainwater harvesting, Ramsar Convention, Rastafari, Reagent, Recreational fishing, Red Sea, Redox, Refraction, Refractive index, Reverse osmosis, Rings of Saturn, Ripple effect, Ritual purification, River delta, Rock (geology), Room temperature, Rotterdam, S Persei, Sacrament, Salt (chemistry), Salt lake, Sanitation, Saturn, Science (journal), Scientific literacy, Seawater, Second, Sediment transport, Sedimentary rock, Self-replication, Sewage, Sewage treatment, Shinto, Shower, Sikhism, Silicate, Simmering, Sink, Siphon (insect anatomy), Siphon (mollusc), Skiing, Sledding, Slurry, Snowboarding, Snowmobile, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Soil, Solar Cookers International, Solar irradiance, Solar System, Solubility, Solution, Solvation, Solvent, Sonar, Space.com, Sparkling wine, Speed of sound, Spring (hydrology), Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Standard enthalpy of formation, Star formation, Steam, Steam engine, Steam explosion, Steam turbine, Steaming, Stellar atmosphere, Subduction, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfide, Sun, Sunlight, Supercritical fluid, Superionic water, Surface runoff, Surface tension, Surface water, Surfing, T Tauri star, Taoism, Taste, Tau Boötis b, Tayammum, Tethys (moon), Thales of Miletus, Thermal conductivity, Thermal pollution, Thermal power station, Thermodynamic temperature, Thirst, Three Gorges Dam, Tiber, Tidal force, Tide, Tigris, Time (magazine), Titan (moon), Tonne, Transparency and translucency, Transpiration, Triple point, TW Hydrae, Ultraviolet, UN World Water Development Report, UNESCO, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, United Nations Environment Programme, United States Geological Survey, Uranus, Urine, Valley, Vapor, Vaporization, Vascular plant, Vibrio, Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, Viscosity, Void coefficient, Volatiles, Volcano, VY Canis Majoris, Washing, WASP-12b, WASP-17b, WASP-19b, Wastewater, Wastewater treatment, Water (classical element), Water (data page), Water 1st International, Water chlorination, Water conservation, Water cycle, Water filter, Water gas, Water industry, Water intoxication, Water jet cutter, Water on Mars, Water park, Water pinch analysis, Water politics, Water pollution, Water purification, Water quality, Water resources, Water skiing, Water supply, Water supply network, Water tank, Water tower, Water treatment, Water vapor, Water well, WaterAid, Waterborne diseases, Weathering, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Wicca, Wood (Wu Xing), World economy, World Health Organization, World Oceans Day, World population, World Water Assessment Programme, World Water Day, Wu Xing, Wudu, XO-1b, Ylem, Zirconium, 29th G8 summit. 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AA Tauri is a young star in the constellation of Taurus, located in the young Taurus-Auriga Star Forming Region, roughly at 460 light years away from the Sun.
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Affusion (la. affusio) is a method of baptism where water is poured on the head of the person being baptized.
Aid effectiveness is the effectiveness of development aid in achieving economic or human development (or development targets).
Air is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and in Western alchemy.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
Amrit Sanchar (also called Khande di Pahul) is the Sikh ceremony of initiation or baptism.
Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.
Antares, also designated Alpha Scorpii (α Scorpii, abbreviated Alpha Sco, α Sco), is on average the fifteenth-brightest star in the night sky, and the brightest star in the constellation of Scorpius.
APM 08279+5255 is a very distant, broad absorption line quasar located in the constellation Lynx.
April Fools' Day is an annual celebration in some European and Western countries commemorated on April 1 by playing practical jokes and spreading hoaxes.
Aquaphobia or waterfright is a persistent and abnormal fear of water.
An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.
Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
Aspersion (la. aspergere/aspersio), in a religious context, is the act of sprinkling with water, especially holy water.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atmosphere of Jupiter is the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System.
The atmosphere of the planet Mars is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.
Mercury has a very tenuous and highly variable atmosphere (surface-bound exosphere) containing hydrogen, helium, oxygen, sodium, calcium, potassium and water vapor, with a combined pressure level of about 10−14 bar (1 nPa).
The atmosphere of the Moon is a very scant presence of gases surrounding the Moon.
The atmosphere of Uranus is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium.
The atmosphere of Venus is the layer of gases surrounding Venus.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
An atmospheric water generator (AWG) is a device that extracts water from humid ambient air.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors.
The Bay of Fundy (or Fundy Bay; Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Betelgeuse, also designated Alpha Orionis (α Orionis, abbreviated Alpha Ori, α Ori), is the ninth-brightest star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of Orion.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Blackwater is used to describe wastewater from toilets, which likely contains pathogens.
Blessing in Roman Catholicism, in the narrow liturgical sense, is a rite consisting of a ceremony and prayers performed in the name and with the authority of the Church by a duly qualified minister by which persons or things are sanctified as dedicated to Divine service or by which certain marks of Divine favour are invoked upon them.
Boat racing is a sport in which boats, or other types of watercraft, race on water.
Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat, or the recreational use of a boat whether powerboats, sailboats, or man-powered vessels (such as rowing and paddle boats), focused on the travel itself, as well as sports activities, such as fishing or waterskiing.
A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Boring is drilling a hole, tunnel, or well in the earth.
Bottled water is drinking water (e.g., well water, distilled water, mineral water, or spring water) packaged in PET Bottle or Glass Water Bottles.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
Carbonation refers to reactions of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.
Carcinus (Karkinos) is a genus of crabs, which includes Carcinus maenas, an important invasive species, and C. aestuarii, a species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Charon, also known as (134340) Pluto I, is the largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
A circumstellar disc (or circumstellar disk) is a torus, pancake or ring-shaped accumulation of matter composed of gas, dust, planetesimals, asteroids or collision fragments in orbit around a star.
In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone, is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure.
A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, "box", from Greek κίστη, "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
The color of water varies with the ambient conditions in which that water is present.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
The report A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture was published in 2007 by International Water Management Institute and Earthscan in an attempt to answer the question: how can water in agriculture be developed and managed to help end poverty and hunger, ensure environmentally sustainable practices, and find the right balance between food and environmental security?.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
Cooling is the transfer of thermal energy via thermal radiation, heat conduction or convection.
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
IRC +10216 or CW Leonis is a well-studied carbon star that is embedded in a thick dust envelope. It was first discovered in 1969 by a group of astronomers led by Eric Becklin, based upon infrared observations made with the Caltech Infrared Telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory. Its energy is emitted mostly at infrared wavelengths. At a wavelength of 5 μm, it was found to have the highest flux of any object outside the Solar System.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening due to condensation.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
The Diels–Alder reaction is an organic chemical reaction (specifically, a cycloaddition) between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene derivative.
The dihydrogen monoxide hoax involves calling water by the unfamiliar chemical name "dihydrogen monoxide" (DHMO), and listing some of water's effects in a particularly alarming manner, such as accelerating corrosion and causing suffocation.
Dione (Διώνη) is a moon of Saturn.
Dishwashing or dish washing (British English: washing up) is the process of cleaning cooking utensils, dishes, cutlery and other items to prevent foodborne illness.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, usually while performing acrobatics.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Durand is a city in Shiawassee County of the U.S. state of Michigan.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Earth is one of the classical elements, in some systems numbering four along with air, fire, and water.
Ecohydrology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; ὕδωρ, hydōr, "water"; and -λογία, -logia) is an interdisciplinary field studying the interactions between water and ecosystems.
Economic water scarcity is caused by a lack of investment in water infrastructure or insufficient human capacity to satisfy the demand of water in areas where the population cannot afford to use an adequate source of water.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
Electrolysis of water is the decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen gas due to an electric current passed through the water.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by water depends on the state of the water.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.
The enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as (latent) heat of fusion, is the change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat, to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid, at constant pressure.
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
The exosphere (ἔξω éxō "outside, external, beyond", σφαῖρα sphaĩra "sphere") is a thin, atmosphere-like volume surrounding a planet or natural satellite where molecules are gravitationally bound to that body, but where the density is too low for them to behave as a gas by colliding with each other.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.
Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
Freeze drying, also known as lyophilisation or cryodessication, is a low temperature dehydration process which involves freezing the product, lowering pressure, then removing the ice by sublimation.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.
The geologic record in stratigraphy, paleontology and other natural sciences refers to the entirety of the layers of rock strata — deposits laid down by volcanism or by deposition of sediment derived from weathering detritus (clays, sands etc.) including all its fossil content and the information it yields about the history of the Earth: its past climate, geography, geology and the evolution of life on its surface.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Georgia State University (commonly referred to as Georgia State, State, or GSU) is a public research university in downtown Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.
(غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full-body ritual purification mandatory before the performance of various rituals and prayers, for any adult Muslim after having sexual intercourse, ejaculation or completion of the menstrual cycle.
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
Gliese 1214 b (often shortened to GJ 1214 b) is an exoplanet that orbits the star Gliese 1214, and was discovered in December 2009.
Gliese 436 b (sometimes called GJ 436 b) is a Neptune-sized exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 436.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
Greywater (also spelled graywater, grey water and gray water) or sullage is all wastewater generated in households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination, i.e. all streams except for the wastewater from toilets.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
The Guanzi is an ancient Chinese political and philosophical text that is named for and traditionally attributed to the 7th century BCE statesman Guan Zhong, who served as Prime Minister to Duke Huan of Qi.
Hail is a form of solid precipitation.
The Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a research institute which carries out a broad program of research in astronomy, astrophysics, earth and space sciences, and science education.
HAT-P-11b (or Kepler-3b) is an extrasolar planet.
HD 189733 b is an extrasolar planet approximately 63 light-years away from the Solar System in the constellation of Vulpecula.
HD 209458 b, also given the nickname Osiris,http://exoplanets.co/exoplanets-tutorial/extrasolar-planet-hd-209458-b.html is an exoplanet that orbits the solar analog HD 209458 in the constellation Pegasus, some 159 light-years from the Solar System.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
A hoax is a falsehood deliberately fabricated to masquerade as the truth.
Holy water is water that has been blessed by a member of the clergy or a religious figure.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Hydrodemolition (also known as hydro demolition, hydroblasting, hydro blasting, hydromilling, waterblasting, and waterjetting) is a concrete removal technique which utilizes high-pressure water to remove deteriorated and sound concrete as well as asphalt and grout.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen chalcogenides (also chalcogen hydrides or hydrogen chalcides) are binary compounds of hydrogen with chalcogen atoms (elements of group 16: oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium).
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.
An hydrological transport model is a mathematical model used to simulate river or stream flow and calculate water quality parameters.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
Ice skating is the act of motion by wearer of the ice skates to propel the participant across a sheet of ice.
An iceberg or ice mountain is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water.
In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The International Water Association (IWA) is a non-profit organization and knowledge hub for the water sector, with over 60 years experience connecting water professionals worldwide to find solutions to the world's water challenges.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia.
An interstellar cloud is generally an accumulation of gas, plasma, and dust in our and other galaxies.
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide (in other words, the area between tide marks).
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
Lake Vostok (Озеро Восток, Ozero Vostok, lit. "Lake East") is the largest of Antarctica's almost 400 known subglacial lakes.
Laundry refers to the washing of clothing and other textiles.
Limnology (from Greek λίμνη, limne, "lake" and λόγος, logos, "knowledge"), is the study of inland aquatic ecosystems.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
This article provides a list of the largest hydroelectric power stations by generating capacity.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78, MARPOL is short for marine pollution and 73/78 short for the years 1973 and 1978) is one of the most important international marine environmental conventions.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metal, the fourth phase of the Chinese philosophy of Wu Xing, is the decline of the matter, or the matter's decline stage.
A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Mikveh or mikvah (mikva'ot, mikvoth, mikvot, or (Yiddish) mikves, "a collection") is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism to achieve ritual purity.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Mineral hydration is an inorganic chemical reaction where water is added to the crystal structure of a mineral, usually creating a new mineral, usually called a hydrate.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
A mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays bend to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky.
is a Japanese Shinto practice of ritual purification by washing the entire body.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.
The Mpemba effect is a process in which hot water can freeze faster than cold water.
Mu Cephei (μ Cep, μ Cephei), also known as Herschel's Garnet Star, is a red supergiant star in the constellation Cepheus.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
A non-renewable resource (also called a finite resource) is a resource that does not renew itself at a sufficient rate for sustainable economic extraction in meaningful human time-frames.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).
The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.
Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Paper chemicals designate a group of chemicals that modify the properties of paper.
A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp, old rags and other ingredients.
Peak water is a concept that underlines the growing constraints on the availability, quality, and use of freshwater resources.
Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phlegm (φλέγμα "inflammation, humour caused by heat") is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammals.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Physical water scarcity occurs when and where there is not enough water to meet both human demands and those of ecosystems to function effectively.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
A pleasure craft (or pleasure boat) is a boat used for personal, family, and sometimes sportsmanlike recreation.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
The poise (symbol P) is the unit of dynamic viscosity (absolute viscosity) in the centimetre–gram–second system of units.
A polar ice cap or polar cap is a high-latitude region of a planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite that is covered in ice.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
A practical joke, or prank, is a mischievous trick played on someone, generally causing the victim to experience embarrassment, perplexity, confusion, or discomfort.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Pressure cooking is the process of cooking food, using water or other cooking liquid, in a sealed vessel known as a pressure cooker.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
A puddle is a small accumulation of liquid, usually water, on a surface.
Putrefaction is the fifth stage of death, following pallor mortis, algor mortis, rigor mortis, and livor mortis.
A quasar (also known as a QSO or quasi-stellar object) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN).
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky.
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse on-site, rather than allowing it to run off.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.
Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Recreational fishing, also called sport fishing, is fishing for pleasure or competition.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
The rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System.
A ripple effect is a situation in which, like ripples expanding across the water when an object is dropped into it, an effect from an initial state can be followed outwards incrementally.
Ritual purification is the purification ritual prescribed by a religion by which a person about to perform some ritual is considered to be free of uncleanliness, especially prior to the worship of a deity, and ritual purity is a state of ritual cleanliness.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
S Persei is a red supergiant located near the Double Cluster in Perseus, north of the cluster NGC 869.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts (typically sodium chloride) and other dissolved minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least three grams of salt per litre).
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific literacy or Science literacy encompasses written, numerical, and digital literacy as they pertain to understanding science, its methodology, observations, and theories.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
Sediment transport is the movement of solid particles (sediment), typically due to a combination of gravity acting on the sediment, and/or the movement of the fluid in which the sediment is entrained.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
A shower is a place in which a person bathes under a spray of typically warm or hot water.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Simmering is a food preparation technique in which foods are cooked in hot liquids kept just below the boiling point of water (which is 100 °C or 212 °F at average sea level air pressure), but higher than poaching temperature.
A sink — also known by other names including sinker, washbowl, hand basin and wash basin—is a bowl-shaped plumbing fixture used for washing hands, dishwashing, and other purposes.
A siphon is a tubular organ of the respiratory system of some insects that spend a significant amount of their time underwater, that serves as a breathing tube.
A siphon is an anatomical structure which is part of the body of aquatic molluscs in three classes: Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Cephalopoda (members of these classes include saltwater and freshwater snails, clams, octopus, squid and relatives).
Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
Sledding, sledging or sleighing is a worldwide winter activity, generally carried out in a prone or seated position on a vehicle generically known as a sled (North American), a sledge (British), or a sleigh.
A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement or, in extended use, any fluid mixture of a pulverized solid with a liquid (usually water), often used as a convenient way of handling solids in bulk.
Snowboarding is a recreational activity and Olympic and Paralympic sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet.
A snowmobile, also known as a motor sled, motor sledge, or snowmachine, is a motorized vehicle designed for winter travel and recreation on snow.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Solar Cookers International (SCI) is a U.S.-based non-profit advocacy group in Sacramento, California, founded by a group of people in 1987 and incorporated on January 6, 1988.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the substance from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states.
Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
A steam explosion is an explosion caused by violent boiling or flashing of water into steam, occurring when water is either superheated, rapidly heated by fine hot debris produced within it, or heated by the interaction of molten metals (as in a fuel–coolant interaction, or FCI, of molten nuclear-reactor fuel rods with water in a nuclear reactor core following a core-meltdown).
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
Steaming is a method of cooking using steam.
The stellar atmosphere is the outer region of the volume of a star, lying above the stellar core, radiation zone and convection zone.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.
Superionic water is a phase of water under extreme heat and pressure which has properties of both a solid and a liquid, which is supported by some experimental evidence.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore.
T Tauri stars (TTS) are a class of variable stars associated with youth.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
Tayammum (تيمم) is the Islamic act of dry ablution using a purified sand or dust, which may be performed in place of ritual washing (wudu or ghusl) if no clean water is readily available or if one is suffering from moisture-induced skin inflammation or scaling.
Tethys (or Saturn III) is a mid-sized moon of Saturn about across.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature.
A thermal power station is a power station in which heat energy is converted to electric power.
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink.
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China.
The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
TW Hydrae is a T Tauri star approximately 194 light-years away in the constellation of Hydra (the Sea Serpent).
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United Nations World Water Development Report (WWDR) is a global report that provides an authoritative, comprehensive assessment of the world’s freshwater resources.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.
The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa (UNCCD) is a Convention to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs that incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains often with a river running through it.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
Vaporization (or vapourisation) of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) is a water standard defining the isotopic composition of fresh water.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
In nuclear engineering, the void coefficient (more properly called “void coefficient of reactivity”) is a number that can be used to estimate how much the reactivity of a nuclear reactor changes as voids (typically steam bubbles) form in the reactor moderator or coolant.
In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) is an extreme pulsating red hypergiant (or supergiant) star located in the constellation Canis Major.
Washing is a method of cleaning, usually with water and often some kind of soap or detergent.
WASP-12b is an extrasolar planet orbiting the star WASP-12, discovered by the SuperWASP planetary transit survey.
WASP-17b is an exoplanet in the constellation Scorpius that is orbiting the star WASP-17.
WASP-19b is an extrasolar planet, notable for possessing one of the shortest orbital periods of any known planetary body: days or approximately 18.932 hours.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater into an effluent (outflowing of water to a receiving body of water) that can be returned to the water cycle with minimal impact on the environment or directly reused.
Water is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy, in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta, and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing.
This page provides supplementary data to the article properties of water.
Water 1st International is a non-profit organization whose stated goal is helping people in poor countries implement water, sanitation and hygiene education projects.
Water chlorination is the process of adding chlorine or hypochlorite to water.
Water conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, to protect the hydrosphere, and to meet the current and future human demand.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
A water filter removes impurities by lowering contamination of water using a fine physical barrier, a chemical process, or a biological process.
Water gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced from synthesis gas.
The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors of the economy.
Water intoxication, also known as water poisoning, hyperhydration, or water toxemia is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain functions that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside safe limits by overhydration (excessive water intake).
A water jet cutter, also known as a water jet or waterjet, is an industrial tool capable of cutting a wide variety of materials using a very high-pressure jet of water, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance.
Almost all water on Mars today exists as ice, though it also exists in small quantities as vapor in the atmosphere and occasionally as low-volume liquid brines in shallow Martian soil.
A water park or waterpark is an amusement park that features water play areas such as swimming pools, water slides, splash pads, water playgrounds, and lazy rivers, as well as areas for bathing, swimming, and other barefoot environments.
Water pinch analysis (WPA) originates from the concept of heat pinch analysis.
Water politics, sometimes called hydropolitics, is politics affected by the availability of water and water resources, a necessity for all life forms and human development.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.
Water skiing (also waterskiing or water-skiing) is a surface water sport in which an individual is pulled behind a boat or a cable ski installation over a body of water, skimming the surface on two skis or one ski.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
A water supply system or water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which provide water supply.
A water tank is a container for storing water.
A water tower is an elevated structure supporting a water tank constructed at a height sufficient to pressurize a water supply system for the distribution of potable water, and to provide emergency storage for fire protection.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
WaterAid is an international non-profit organization that was set up in 1981 as a response to the UN International Drinking Water & Sanitation decade (1981–1990).
Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
In Chinese philosophy, wood, sometimes translated as Tree, is the growing of the matter, or the matter's growing stage.
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World Oceans Day takes place every 8 June.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
The United Nations World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) hosted and led by UNESCO, is a Programme Office on Global Water Assessment.
World Water Day is an annual UN observance day (always on 22 March) that highlights the importance of freshwater.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
Wuḍūʾ (الوضوء) is the Islamic procedure for washing parts of the body, a type of ritual purification.
Ylem is a term that was used by George Gamow, his student Ralph Alpher, and their associates in the late 1940s for a hypothetical original substance or condensed state of matter, which became subatomic particles and elements as we understand them today.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
The 29th G8 summit was held in Évian-les-Bains, France, on June 1–3, 2003.