218 relations: Acid, Acid mine drainage, Agricultural pollution, Agricultural wastewater treatment, Algal bloom, Ammonia, Anaerobic lagoon, Analytical chemistry, Anoxic waters, Antidepressant, Aquatic ecosystem, Aquatic toxicology, Aquifer, Atmosphere, Bay, Best management practice for water pollution, Bioassay, Biochemical oxygen demand, Biocoenosis, Biodiversity, Bioindicator, Biological pest control, Bioretention, Biosurvey, Body of water, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Cadmium, Calcium, Chemical compound, Chemical oxygen demand, Chemical substance, Chemical waste, Chloroform, Clean Water Act, Cogeneration, Coliform bacteria, Combined sewer, Combustion, Compost, Concentration, Constructed wetland, Contamination, Contour plowing, Convection, Coolant, Cooling pond, Cooling tower, Copepod, Cosmetics, Creosote, ..., Crop residue, Crop rotation, Crustacean, Cryptosporidium parvum, Dense non-aqueous phase liquid, Deposition (aerosol physics), Detergent, Developed country, Developing country, Diesel fuel, Discharge (hydrology), Disinfectant, Disinfection by-product, Ditch, Drinking water, Drug pollution, Ecosystem, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Environmental degradation, Environmental engineering, Erosion control, Estuary, Eutrophication, Evaporation, Factory, Fertilizer, Field (agriculture), Food chain, Food processing, Food waste, Fuel oil, Gasoline, Giardia lamblia, Gill, Green infrastructure, Green roof, Groundwater, Groundwater pollution, Halocarbon, Heat transfer, Heavy metals, Helminths, Herbicide, Human feces, Human impact on the environment, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydraulics, Hydrogeology, Hydrology, Hydroseeding, Hygiene, Improved sanitation, In situ, India, Indicator bacteria, Industrial wastewater treatment, Infiltration basin, Infrastructure, Inorganic compound, Insecticide, Intake fraction, Integrated pest management, Intensive animal farming, Irrigation, Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, Lake, Leachate, Low-impact development (U.S. and Canada), Manganese, Manure, Marine debris, Marine pollution, Medication, Mercury (element), Metabolite, Microorganism, Microplastics, Molecule, Motor vehicle, Mulch, Nature-based solutions, Nitrate, Nitrogen, Nonpoint source pollution, Norovirus, Nutrient, Nutrient management, Nutrient pollution, Ocean gyre, Open defecation, Oral contraceptive pill, Organic compound, Organochloride, Oxygen, Parking lot, Pathogen, Perchlorate, Perennial plant, Pesticide, Petroleum, PH, Phosphate, Phosphorus, Photosynthesis, Pit latrine, Plastic, Plastic pollution, Plumbing, Pollution, Pollution prevention, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Power station, Primary production, Public health, Radiation, Regulation, Retention basin, Riparian buffer, River, Salmonella, Sanitary sewer overflow, Sanitation, Schistosoma, Sediment, Sediment basin, Sediment control, Septic tank, Sewage, Sewage treatment, Shipwreck, Silt, Silt fence, Slash-and-burn, Slurry, Sodium, Soil, Solvent, Species, Storm drain, Stormwater, Straw, Sulfur dioxide, Surface runoff, Surface water, Thermal pollution, Thermophile, Total suspended solids, Toxicity, Trichloroethylene, Trophic state index, Turbidity, United States, United States regulation of point source water pollution, Urban runoff, Volatile organic compound, Volcano, Vortex, Waste, Waste heat, Wastewater, Wastewater treatment, Water quality, Water resource policy, Water resources of China, Waterborne diseases, Wetland, Wildlife, Zinc. Expand index (168 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines.
Agricultural pollution refers to biotic and abiotic byproducts of farming practices that result in contamination or degradation of the environment and surrounding ecosystems, and/or cause injury to humans and their economic interests.
Agricultural wastewater treatment is a farm management agenda for controlling pollution from surface runoff that may be contaminated by chemicals in fertiliser, pesticides, animal slurry, crop residues or irrigation water.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An anaerobic lagoon or manure lagoon is a man-made outdoor earthen basin filled with animal waste that undergoes anaerobic respiration as part of a system designed to manage and treat refuse created by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water.
Aquatic toxicology is the study of the effects of manufactured chemicals and other anthropogenic and natural materials and activities on aquatic organisms at various levels of organization, from subcellular through individual organisms to communities and ecosystems.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay.
Best management practices (BMP) is a term used in the United States and Canada to describe a type of water pollution control.
A bioassay is an analytical method to determine concentration or potency of a substance by its effect on living cells or tissues.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.
A biocenosis (UK English, biocoenosis, also biocenose, biocoenose, biotic community, biological community, ecological community, life assemblage) coined by Karl Möbius in 1877, describes the interacting organisms living together in a habitat (biotope).
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A bioindicator is any species (an indicator species) or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal the qualitative status of the environment.
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.
Bioretention is the process in which contaminants and sedimentation are removed from stormwater runoff.
A biosurvey, or biological survey, is a scientific study of organisms to assess the condition of an ecological resource, such as a water body.
A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.
Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
In environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an indicative measure of the amount of oxygen that can be consumed by reactions in a measured solution.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chemical waste is a waste that is made from harmful chemicals (mostly produced by large factories).
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative non-spore forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35–37°C.
A combined sewer is a sewage collection system of pipes and tunnels designed to also collect surface runoff.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed in a process called composting.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
A constructed wetland (CW) is an artificial wetland to treat municipal or industrial wastewater, greywater or stormwater runoff.
Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.
Contour plowing or contour farming or Contour ploughing is the farming practice of plowing and or planting across a slope following its elevation contour lines.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
A coolant is a substance, typically liquid or gas, that is used to reduce or regulate the temperature of a system.
A cooling pond is a man-made body of water primarily formed for the purpose of supplying cooling water to a nearby power plant or industrial facility such as a petroleum refinery, pulp and paper mill, chemical plant, steel mill or smelter.
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature.
Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Creosote is a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel.
There are two types of agricultural crop residues.
Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cryptosporidium parvum is one of several species that cause cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic disease of the mammalian intestinal tract.
A dense non-aqueous phase liquid or DNAPL is a denser-than-water NAPL, i.e. a liquid that is both denser than water and is immiscible in or does not dissolve in water.
In aerosol physics, deposition is the process by which aerosol particles collect or deposit themselves on solid surfaces, decreasing the concentration of the particles in the air.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
In hydrology, discharge is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given cross-sectional area.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Disinfection by-products (DBPs) result from chemical reactions between organic and inorganic matter in water with chemical treatment agents during the water disinfection process.
A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Drug pollution or pharmaceutical pollution is pollution of the environment with pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites, which reach the aquatic environment (groundwater, rivers, lakes, and oceans) through wastewater.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
Environmental engineering system is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factors; protection of environments, both local and global, from potentially deleterious effects of natural and human activities; and improvement of environmental quality.
Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
In agriculture, a field is an area of land, enclosed or otherwise, used for agricultural purposes such as cultivating crops or as a paddock or other enclosure for livestock.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
Food waste or food loss is food that is discarded or lost uneaten.
Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis, is a flagellated parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis.
A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.
Green Infrastructure or blue-green infrastructure is a network providing the “ingredients” for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature.
A green roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater.
Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine –) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Human feces (or faeces in British English; fæx) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Hydroseeding (or hydraulic mulch seeding, hydro-mulching, hydraseeding) is a planting process that uses a slurry of seed and mulch.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Improved sanitation is a term used to categorize types or levels of sanitation for monitoring purposes.
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indicator bacteria are types of bacteria used to detect and estimate the level of fecal contamination of water.
Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product.
An infiltration basin (also known as a recharge basin or in some areas, a sump or percolation pond), is a type of best management practice (BMP) that is used to manage stormwater runoff, prevent flooding and downstream erosion, and improve water quality in an adjacent river, stream, lake or bay.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Intake fraction is a measurement of pollution and it can be used in the determination of the environmental health impact of a pollutant source.
Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as integrated pest control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests.
Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also known as factory farming, is a production approach towards farm animals in order to maximize production output, while minimizing production costs.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 (SDG6) since 2016.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
A leachate is any liquid that, in the course of passing through matter, extracts soluble or suspended solids, or any other component of the material through which it has passed.
Low-impact development (LID) is a term used in Canada and the United States to describe a land planning and engineering design approach to manage stormwater runoff as part of green infrastructure.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.
Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally been released in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway.
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural, and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microplastics are small pieces of plastic that pollute the environment.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil.
Nature-based solutions (NBS or NbS) refers to the sustainable management and use of nature for tackling environmental and societal challenges.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is a term used to describe pollution resulting from many diffuse sources, in direct contrast to point source pollution which results from a single source.
Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Nutrient management is the science and practice directed to link soil, crop, weather, and hydrologic factors with cultural, irrigation, and soil and water conservation practices to achieve optimal nutrient use efficiency, crop yields, crop quality, and economic returns, while reducing off-site transport of nutrients (fertilizer) that may impact the environment.
Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, refers to contamination by excessive inputs of nutrients.
In oceanography, a gyre is any large system of circulating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements.
Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open environment) rather than into a toilet.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
A parking lot (American English) or car park (British English), also known as a car lot, is a cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
A perchlorate is the name for a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion,.
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A pit latrine or pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Plastic pollution is the accumulation of plastic products in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat and humans.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Pollution prevention (P2) reduces the amount of pollution generated by industries, agriculture, or consumers.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
A retention basin, sometimes called a wet pond, wet detention basin or stormwater management pond, is an artificial lake with vegetation around the perimeter, and includes a permanent pool of water in its design.
A riparian buffer or stream buffer is a vegetated area (a "buffer strip") near a stream, usually forested, which helps shade and partially protect the stream from the impact of adjacent land uses.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) is a condition in which untreated sewage is discharged from a sanitary sewer into the environment prior to reaching sewage treatment facilities.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Schistosoma is a genus of trematodes, commonly known as blood flukes.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
A sediment basin is a temporary pond built on a construction site to capture eroded or disturbed soil that is washed off during rain storms, and protect the water quality of a nearby stream, river, lake, or bay.
A sediment control is a practice or device designed to keep eroded soil on a construction site, so that it does not wash off and cause water pollution to a nearby stream, river, lake, or sea.
A septic tank is a chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, PVC or plastic, through which domestic wastewater (sewage) flows for primary treatment.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
A silt fence, sometimes (misleadingly) called a "filter fence," is a temporary sediment control device used on construction sites to protect water quality in nearby streams, rivers, lakes and seas from sediment (loose soil) in stormwater runoff.
Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.
A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement or, in extended use, any fluid mixture of a pulverized solid with a liquid (usually water), often used as a convenient way of handling solids in bulk.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
A storm drain, storm sewer (U.S. and Canada), surface water drain/sewer (United Kingdom), or stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from impervious surfaces such as paved streets, car parks, parking lots, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs.
Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates during precipitation events and snow/ice melt.
Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature.
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.
Total suspended solids (TSS) is the dry-weight of suspended particles, that are not dissolved, in a sample of water that can be trapped by a filter that is analyzed using a filtration apparatus.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent.
Trophic State Index (TSI) is a classification system designed to rate bodies of water based on the amount of biological activity they sustain.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water.
Urban runoff is surface runoff of rainwater created by urbanization.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.
Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.
Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater into an effluent (outflowing of water to a receiving body of water) that can be returned to the water cycle with minimal impact on the environment or directly reused.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
Water resource policy encompasses the policy-making processes that affect the collection, preparation, use and disposal of water to support human uses and protect environmental quality.
The water resources of China are affected by both severe water shortages and severe water pollution.
Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Clean water laws, Clean water legislation, Clean water regulation, Clean water regulations, Contaminated water, DWEL, Drinking Water Equivalent Level, Leper tanker, Maritime pollution, Pollution of water, River pollution, Stream pollution, Tips on reducing water pollution, Water Pollution, Water contamination, Water impurities, Water pollutant, Water pollutants, Water pollution law, Water pollution laws, Water pollution legislation, Water pollution regulation, Water pollution regulations, Water polution, Water problems, Watershed degradation, Waterway degradation.