230 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Acid, Acid rain, Activated alumina, Activated carbon, Algae, Alkali, Allen Hazen, Aluminium sulfate, Ammonia, Analytical chemistry, Anthracite, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Aquifer, Army Medical Department (United States), Army Medical School, Arsenic, Arsenic contamination of groundwater, Artesian aquifer, Atmospheric water generator, Backwashing (water treatment), Bacteria, Bacteriological water analysis, Bank filtration, Bicarbonate, Bioremediation, Blood lead level, Boiling, Boiling point, Bone char, Bottled water, Bromate, Brownian motion, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium hypochlorite, Calcium oxide, Campylobacter, Canal, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate, Carcinogen, Carl Rogers Darnall, Chelsea Waterworks Company, Chloramine, Chloride, Chlorine, Chlorine dioxide, Chlorite, Cholera, ..., Clay, Clear well, Coagulation (water treatment), Common ion effect, Cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium, Dechloromonas agitata strain CKB, Degasification, Desalination, Diarrhea, Disinfectant, Distillation, Dot distribution map, Drainage basin, Drinking water, Drinking Water Inspectorate, Electrode, Electrodeionization, Electrolyte, England, Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutant, Europe, Filtration, Flocculation, Fluid balance, Fluoride, Fluoride toxicity, Fog collection, Food and Drug Administration, Francis Bacon, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, George W. Fuller, Germ theory of disease, Germany, Giardia, Giardia lamblia, Groundwater, Groundwater recharge, Haloacetic acids, Hamburg, Hard water, Heavy metals, Hexafluorosilicic acid, Humic acid, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrophobe, Igneous rock, Illinois, Illinois River, In situ chemical oxidation, Indian Medical Service, Ion, Ion exchange, Ion-exchange resin, Iron, Iron(III) chloride, James Simpson (engineer), Jersey City, New Jersey, John Snow, Kilogram, Lake, Lead, Lime (material), Lime softening, Lincoln, England, List of water supply and sanitation by country, Litre, London, Magnesium, Maidstone, Manganese, Membrane, Membrane technology, Mercury (element), Metropolis Water Act 1852, Metropolitan Commission of Sewers, Miasma theory, Microfiltration, Microorganism, Microscope, Microscopy, Mole (unit), Moritz Traube, Neurotoxin, Nice, Nitrate, Nitrification, Nitrite, Organic matter, Organisms involved in water purification, Oxidizing agent, Ozone, Paisley, Renfrewshire, Parasitism, Particle (ecology), Pathogen, PH, Phosphate, Plumbosolvency, PolyDADMAC, Polymer, Portable water purification, Potassium, Protozoa, Public health, Radioactive waste, Radium, Rainwater harvesting, Rapid sand filter, Reclaimed water, Reservoir, Reverse osmosis, River, River Thames, Robert Hooke, Rockaway River, Salmonella, Sand filter, Sanitation, Scattering, Schmutzdecke, Screen filter, Seawater, Sedimentation (water treatment), Semipermeable membrane, Serum (blood), Settling basin, Sewage, Shigella, Silt, Silver, Silver nanoparticle, Slow sand filter, Sludge, Sodium, Sodium carbonate, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium hypochlorite, Soho, Soil, Solder, Spencer, Massachusetts, Spring (hydrology), Sterilization (microbiology), Stratum, Sulfate, Sulfuric acid, Surface water, Suspension (chemistry), Synthetic membrane, Teddington Lock, Tooth decay, Toothpaste, Toxin, Trihalomethane, Turbidity, Typhoid fever, Ultrafiltration, Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, UNICEF, United Kingdom, United States, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vapor, Virus, Water chlorination, Water conservation, Water filter, Water fluoridation, Water pollution, Water quality, Water softening, Water supply, Water treatment, Waterborne diseases, World Health Organization, Zeolite, 1,000,000,000, 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak. Expand index (180 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Activated alumina is manufactured from aluminium hydroxide by dehydroxylating it in a way that produces a highly porous material; this material can have a surface area significantly over 200 m²/g.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Allen Hazen (August 28, 1869 – July 26, 1930) was an expert in hydraulics, flood control, water purification and sewage treatment.
Aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula Al2(SO4)3.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster.
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
The Army Medical Department of the U.S. Army (AMEDD), formerly the Army Medical Service (AMS), encompasses the Army's six medical Special Branches (or "Corps").
Founded by U.S. Army Brigadier General George Miller Sternberg, MD in 1893, the Army Medical School (AMS) was by some reckonings the world's first school of public health and preventive medicine.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a form of groundwater pollution which is often due to naturally occurring high concentrations of arsenic in deeper levels of groundwater.
An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing groundwater under positive pressure.
An atmospheric water generator (AWG) is a device that extracts water from humid ambient air.
In terms of water treatment, including water purification and sewage treatment, backwashing refers to pumping water backwards through the filters media, sometimes including intermittent use of compressed air during the process.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacteriological water analysis is a method of analysing water to estimate the numbers of bacteria present and, if needed, to find out what sort of bacteria they are.
River Bank filtration is a type of filtration that works by passing water to be purified for use as drinking water through the Banks of a river or lake.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Blood lead level (BLL), is a measure of the amount of lead in the blood.
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Bone char (carbo animalis.) is a porous, black, granular material produced by charring animal bones.
Bottled water is drinking water (e.g., well water, distilled water, mineral water, or spring water) packaged in PET Bottle or Glass Water Bottles.
The bromate anion, BrO, is a bromine-based oxoanion.
Brownian motion or pedesis (from πήδησις "leaping") is the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their collision with the fast-moving molecules in the fluid.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula2.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Campylobacter (meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Brigadier General Carl Rogers Darnall (December 25, 1867 in Weston, Texas, USA – January 18, 1941 in Washington, D.C., USA) was a United States Army chemist and surgeon credited with originating the technique of liquid chlorination of drinking water.
The Chelsea Waterworks Company was a London waterworks company founded in 1723 which supplied water to many central London locations throughout the 18th and 19th centuries until its functions were taken over by the Metropolitan Water Board in 1902.
Chloramines are derivatives of ammonia by substitution of one, two or three hydrogen atoms with chlorine atoms: monochloramine (chloroamine, NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3).
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2.
The chlorite ion, or chlorine dioxide anion, is.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
A clear well (sometimes spelled as "clearwell") is a component of a municipal drinking water purification system.
In water treatment, coagulation flocculation involves the addition of polymers that clump the small, destabilized particles together into larger aggregates so that they can be more easily separated from the water.
The common ion effect states that in a chemical solution, if the concentration of any one of the ions is increased, then, some of the ions in excess should be removed from solution, by combining with the oppositely charged ions.
Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto, is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa.
Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasitic alveolates that can cause a respiratory and gastrointestinal illness (cryptosporidiosis) that primarily involves watery diarrhea (intestinal cryptosporidiosis) with or without a persistent cough (respiratory cryptosporidiosis) in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient humans.
Dechloromonas agitata strain CKB is a dissimilatory perchlorate reducing bacterium (DRPB) that was isolated from paper mill waste.
Degasification is the removal of dissolved gases from liquids, especially water or aqueous solutions.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
A dot distribution map, or dot density map, is a map type that uses a dot symbol to show the presence of a feature or a phenomenon.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
The Drinking Water Inspectorate is a section of Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) set up to regulate the public water supply companies in England and Wales.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
Electrodeionization is a water treatment technology that utilizes electricity, ion exchange membranes and resin to deionize water and separate dissolved ions (impurities) from water.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The term Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (EPPP) was first suggested in the nomination in 2010 of pharmaceuticals and environment as an emerging issue in a Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) by the International Society of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
Fluid balance is an aspect of the homeostasis of organisms in which the amount of water in the organism needs to be controlled, via osmoregulation and behavior, such that the concentrations of electrolytes (salts in solution) in the various body fluids are kept within healthy ranges.
Fluoride toxicity is a condition in which there are elevated levels of the fluoride ion in the body.
"Atrapanieblas" or fog collection in Alto Patache, Atacama Desert, Chile. Fog collection refers to the collection of water from fog using large pieces of vertical canvas to make the fog-droplets flow down towards a trough below the canvas, known as a fog fence.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
George Warren Fuller (December 21, 1868 – June 15, 1934) was a sanitary engineer who was also trained in bacteriology and chemistry.
The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giardia is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis.
Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis, is a flagellated parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater.
Haloacetic acids are carboxylic acids in which a halogen atom takes the place of a hydrogen atom in acetic acid.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Hexafluorosilicic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written as). It is a colorless liquid rarely encountered undiluted.
Humic acids are the result of a severe chemical extraction from the soil organic matter, and recently their natural existence was jeopardized, since it is a product of the chemical procedure.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Illinois River (Miami-Illinois language: Inoka Siipiiwi) is a principal tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately long, in the U.S. state of Illinois.
In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels.
The Indian Medical Service (IMS) was a military medical service in British India, which also had some civilian functions.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer is a resin or polymer that acts as a medium for ion exchange.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.
James Simpson (1799–1869) was a British civil engineer.
Jersey City is the second-most-populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey, after Newark.
John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
Lime softening, also known as Clark's process, is a type of water treatment used for water softening which uses the addition of limewater (calcium hydroxide) to remove hardness (calcium and magnesium) ions by precipitation.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
This list of water supply and sanitation by country provides information on the status of water supply and sanitation at a national or, in some cases, also regional level.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Maidstone is a large, historically important town in Kent, England, of which it is the county town.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others.
Membrane technology covers all engineering approaches for the transport of substances between two fractions with the help of permeable membranes.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
The Metropolis Water Act 1852 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which introduced regulation of water supply companies in London ("the Metropolis"), including minimum standards of water quality for the first time.
The Metropolitan Commission of Sewers was one of London's first steps towards bringing its sewer and drainage infrastructure under the control of a single public body.
The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.
Microfiltration (commonly abbreviated to MF) is a type of physical filtration process where a contaminated fluid is passed through a special pore-sized membrane to separate microorganisms and suspended particles from process liquid.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Moritz Traube (12 February 1826 in Ratibor, Province of Silesia, Prussia (now Racibórz, Poland) – 28 June 1894 in Berlin, German Empire) was a German chemist (physiological chemistry) and universal private scholar.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Most organisms involved in water purification originate from the waste, wastewater or water stream itself or arrive as resting spore of some form from the atmosphere.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Paisley (Pàislig, Paisley) is the largest town in the historic county of Renfrewshire in the west central Lowlands of Scotland and serves as the administrative centre for the Renfrewshire council area.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
In marine and freshwater ecology, a particle is a small object.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Plumbosolvency is the ability of a solvent, notably water, to dissolve lead.
Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (shortened polyDADMAC or polyDDA), also commonly polyquaternium-6, is a homopolymer of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC).
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Portable water purification devices are self-contained, easily transported units used to purify water from untreated sources (such as rivers, lakes, and wells) for drinking purposes.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse on-site, rather than allowing it to run off.
The rapid sand filter or rapid gravity filter is a type of filter used in water purification and is commonly used in municipal drinking water facilities as part of a multiple-stage treatment system.
Reclaimed or recycled water (also called wastewater reuse or water reclamation) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
The Rockaway River is a tributary of the Passaic River, approximately 35 mi (56 km) long, in northern New Jersey in the United States.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Sand filters are used as a step in the water treatment process of water purification.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Schmutzdecke (German, “dirt cover” or dirty skin, sometimes wrongly spelled schmutzedecke) is a hypogeal biological layer formed on the surface of a slow sand filter.
A screen filter is a type of filter using a rigid or flexible screen to separate sand and other fine particles out of water for irrigation or industrial applications.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Sedimentation is a physical water treatment process using gravity to remove suspended solids from water.
A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion—or occasionally by more specialized processes of facilitated diffusion, passive transport or active transport.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
A settling basin, settling pond or decant pond is an earthen or concrete structure using sedimentation to remove settleable matter and turbidity from wastewater.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size.
Slow sand filters are used in water purification for treating raw water to produce a potable product.
Sludge is a semi-solid slurry and can be produced as sewage sludge from wastewater treatment processes or as a settled suspension obtained from conventional drinking water treatment and numerous other industrial processes.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Soho is an area of the City of Westminster, part of the West End of London.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
Spencer is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
An artificial membrane, or synthetic membrane, is a synthetically created membrane which is usually intended for separation purposes in laboratory or in industry.
Teddington Lock is a complex of three locks and a weir on the River Thames in England between Ham and Teddington in south-west London, first built in 1810.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Trihalomethanes (THMs) are chemical compounds in which three of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces like pressure or concentration gradients lead to a separation through a semipermeable membrane.
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Water chlorination is the process of adding chlorine or hypochlorite to water.
Water conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, to protect the hydrosphere, and to meet the current and future human demand.
A water filter removes impurities by lowering contamination of water using a fine physical barrier, a chemical process, or a biological process.
Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
The Broad Street cholera outbreak (or Golden Square outbreak) was a severe outbreak of cholera that occurred in 1854 near Broad Street (now Broadwick Street) in the Soho district of London, England.
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