193 relations: Acid, Alkalinity, Analytical chemistry, Animal, Aquarium, Aquatic biomonitoring, Aquatic toxicology, Aquifer, Arsenic, Atmosphere of Earth, Average, Bacteria, Bacteriological water analysis, Benthic zone, Biochemical oxygen demand, Bioindicator, Biology, Body of water, Boiler, Bottled water, Caddisfly, Calcium, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate, Chemical element, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical oxygen demand, Chemical property, Chloride, Chlorine, Clean Water Act, Clearcutting, Coliform bacteria, Color of water, Colored dissolved organic matter, Commerce, Concentration, Conductivity (electrolytic), Construction, Contamination, Cryptosporidium, Department of Water and Sanitation, Diatomic molecule, Directive (European Union), Disease, Dissolved organic carbon, Drainage basin, Drinking water, Earth, Earthquake, ..., Ecology, Ecosystem, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Endangered species, Environment (systems), Environmental law, Environmental science, Escherichia coli, European Union, EWater, Farm, Fecal coliform, Filtration, Food and Drug Administration, Geology, Geosmin, Giardia lamblia, Government agency, Groundwater, Hard water, Heat sink, Heavy metals, Herbicide, Hormone, HVAC, Indian Council of Medical Research, Industry, Inorganic compound, International Organization for Standardization, International Water Management Institute, Invertebrate, Ion, Iowa, ISO/IEC 17025, Kilogram, Laboratory, Lake, Land development, Lead, Legislation, Litre, Magnesium, Manganese, Manufacturing, Material, Maxima and minima, Mayfly, Medication, Mercury (element), Metal, Microorganism, Mining, Mollusca, Mussel Watch Program, Natural disaster, Nitrate, Ocean, Odor, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Oxygen, Oxygen saturation, Pesticide, Petroleum, PH, Phase (matter), Phosphoric acids and phosphates, Physical property, Piping, Plant, Plecoptera, Policy, Pollution, Potassium, Precipitation, Precipitation (chemistry), Pressure, Probability, Protozoa, Public water system, Pump, Radiation, Radioactive decay, Radon, Reaction rate, Reactivity (chemistry), Reduction potential, River, Safe Drinking Water Act, Safety, Salinity, Salt (chemistry), Sample (material), Sanitation, Seawater, Secchi disk, Sewage, Soap, Sodium, Soil, Solubility, Solvation, Sorption, Statistics, Stiff diagram, Stormwater, Sulfate, Surface runoff, Surface water, Surfactant, Suspended solids, Tap water, Taste, Temperature, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Total dissolved solids, Total maximum daily load, Total suspended solids, Toxicity, Transport, Tsunami, Turbidity, Turbulence, Ultrapure water, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Urban runoff, Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive, Urbanization, Virus, Wastewater, Water, Water Framework Directive 2000, Water pollution, Water purification, Water quality modelling, Water resource management, Water resources, Water testing, Water treatment, World Health Organization, 2-Methylisoborneol, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Expand index (143 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Alkalinity is the capacity of water to resist changes in pH that would make the water more acidic.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.
Aquatic biomonitoring is the science of inferring the ecological condition of rivers, lakes, streams, and wetlands by examining the organisms that live there.
Aquatic toxicology is the study of the effects of manufactured chemicals and other anthropogenic and natural materials and activities on aquatic organisms at various levels of organization, from subcellular through individual organisms to communities and ecosystems.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
In colloquial language, an average is a middle or typical number of a list of numbers.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacteriological water analysis is a method of analysing water to estimate the numbers of bacteria present and, if needed, to find out what sort of bacteria they are.
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, also called Biological Oxygen Demand) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.
A bioindicator is any species (an indicator species) or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal the qualitative status of the environment.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.
A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated.
Bottled water is drinking water (e.g., well water, distilled water, mineral water, or spring water) packaged in PET Bottle or Glass Water Bottles.
The caddisflies, or order Trichoptera, are a group of insects with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
In environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an indicative measure of the amount of oxygen that can be consumed by reactions in a measured solution.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.
Clearcutting, clearfelling or clearcut logging is a forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down.
Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative non-spore forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35–37°C.
The color of water varies with the ambient conditions in which that water is present.
Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the optically measurable component of the dissolved organic matter in water.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Conductivity (or specific conductance) of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.
Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasitic alveolates that can cause a respiratory and gastrointestinal illness (cryptosporidiosis) that primarily involves watery diarrhea (intestinal cryptosporidiosis) with or without a persistent cough (respiratory cryptosporidiosis) in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient humans.
The Department of Water and Sanitation is one of the departments of the South African government.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
A directive is a legal act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sometimes known as dissolved organic material (DOM), is a broad classification for organic molecules of varied origin and composition within aquatic systems.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
In science and engineering, a system is the part of the universe that is being studied, while the environment is the remainder of the universe that lies outside the boundaries of the system.
Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
eWater is a non-profit organisation established by Australian Federal and State Governments.
A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production.
A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Geosmin is an organic compound with a distinct earthy flavor and aroma produced by certain bacteria, and is responsible for the earthy taste of beets and a contributor to the strong scent (petrichor) that occurs in the air when rain falls after a dry spell of weather or when soil is disturbed.
Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis, is a flagellated parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis.
A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an intelligence agency.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").
A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort.
The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research, is one of the oldest and largest medical research bodies in the world.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
ISO/IEC 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories is the main ISO standard used by testing and calibration laboratories.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Land development is altering the landscape in any number of ways such as.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Material is a broad term for a chemical substance or mixture of substances that constitute a thing.
In mathematical analysis, the maxima and minima (the respective plurals of maximum and minimum) of a function, known collectively as extrema (the plural of extremum), are the largest and smallest value of the function, either within a given range (the local or relative extrema) or on the entire domain of a function (the global or absolute extrema).
Mayflies (also known as Canadian soldiers in the United States, and as shadflies or fishflies in Canada and the upper Midwestern U.S.; also up-winged flies in the United Kingdom) are aquatic insects belonging to the order Ephemeroptera.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Status and Trends (NS&T) Mussel Watch Program is a water contaminant monitoring program that started in 1986.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
There are various kinds of phosphoric acids and phosphates.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one location to another.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
The Plecoptera are an order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies.
A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Public water system is a regulatory term used in the United States and Canada, referring to certain utilities and organizations providing drinking water.
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the principal federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public.
Safety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf), the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
In general, a sample is a limited quantity of something which is intended to be similar to and represent a larger amount of that thing(s).
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
The Secchi disk, as created in 1865 by Angelo Secchi, is a plain white, circular disk in diameter used to measure water transparency or turbidity in bodies of water.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
Sorption is a physical and chemical process by which one substance becomes attached to another.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
A Stiff diagram, or Stiff pattern, is a graphical representation of chemical analyses, first developed by H.A. Stiff in 1951.
Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates during precipitation events and snow/ice melt.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
Suspended solids refers to small solid particles which remain in suspension in water as a colloid or due to the motion of the water.
Tap water (running water, city water, town water, municipal water, etc.) is water supplied to a tap (valve).
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
Total dissolved solids (TDS) is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form.
A Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is a regulatory term in the U.S. Clean Water Act, describing a plan for restoring impaired waters that identifies the maximum amount of a pollutant that a body of water can receive while still meeting water quality standards.
Total suspended solids (TSS) is the dry-weight of suspended particles, that are not dissolved, in a sample of water that can be trapped by a filter that is analyzed using a filtration apparatus.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
Ultrapure water (also UPW or high-purity water) is water that has been purified to uncommonly stringent specifications.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Urban runoff is surface runoff of rainwater created by urbanization.
The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive is a 1991 European Union directive concerning urban waste water "collection, treatment and discharge of urban waste water and the treatment and discharge of waste water from certain industrial sectors".
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The Water Framework Directive is an EU directive which commits European Union member states to achieve good qualitative and quantitative status of all water bodies (including marine waters up to one nautical mile from shore) by 2015.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.
Water quality modeling involves the prediction of water pollution using mathematical simulation techniques.
Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.
Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.
Water testing is a broad description for various procedures used to analyze water quality.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
2-Methylisoborneol (MIB) is an organic chemical with a strong odor.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
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