199 relations: Acequia, Age of Enlightenment, Alexander Cumming, Andean civilizations, Aqueduct (water supply), Aquifer, Arizona v. California, Army Medical Department (United States), Army Medical School, Attic, Automatic meter reading, Bar (unit), Bathtub, Benchmarking, Bond (finance), Booster pump, Brazil, Brigadier general, Calcium hypochlorite, Camelford water pollution incident, Campylobacteriosis, Canada, Carl Rogers Darnall, Casablanca, Chelsea Waterworks Company, Chile, Cholera, City and Liberty of Westminster, City of Westminster, Colonel, Colorado River Water Conservation District v. United States, Concession (contract), Cost, Cryptosporidiosis, Desalination, Dishwasher, District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority, Drinking water, Drinking water supply and sanitation in the United States, Economies of scale, Emiratis, England, Epidemiology, Escherichia coli, Etiology, Europe, Feces, Flush toilet, France, Frankfurt, ..., Gabon, Gastroenteritis, Germany, Giardiasis, Grand Junction Waterworks Company, Haiti, Human right to water and sanitation, Human waste, Hydrostatics, Improved water source, Indian Medical Service, Institution, International Organization for Standardization, Irrigation, James Simpson (engineer), Jersey City, New Jersey, John Snow, Jordan, Kansas v. Colorado, Lake, Lambeth Waterworks Company, Landscaping, Lea Bridge, Leak, Lease, Limescale, Lincoln, England, List of desalination plants in Australia, List of water supply and sanitation by country, London, London water supply infrastructure, Major, Management contract, Maryland, Mean, Medellín, Metropolis Water Act 1852, Mexico, Morocco, Municipality, Natural monopoly, Nazca culture, Non-revenue water, Nonresidential water use in the U.S., Noria, OECD, Ofwat, Paisley, Renfrewshire, Pathogen, Persian people, Pipe (fluid conveyance), Plumbing, Pounds per square inch, Pressure regulator, Privatization, Public health, Public utilities commission, Public utility, Public–private partnership, Pump, Puquios, Qanat, Rainwater harvesting, Reservoir, Residential water use in the U.S. and Canada, River, Rockaway River, Roman aqueduct, Roman Empire, Rooftop water tower, Rotherham, Ryutaro Hashimoto, Sand filter, Sanitary sewer, Sanitation, Service quality, Sewage, Sewage treatment, Shower, Single-family detached home, Skyscraper, Slow sand filter, Spain, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Special district (United States), Spring supply, Standpipe (street), Stormwater harvesting, Subsidy, Suez (company), Supranational union, Surface water, Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, Tap (valve), Tap water, Thames Water, Thomas Crapper, Trap (plumbing), Tunisia, Ultraviolet, United Kingdom, United States, United States Army, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Uruguay, Value-added tax, Veolia, Wales, Walkerton E. coli outbreak, Walkerton, Ontario, Washing machine, Washington, D.C., Wastewater, Water, Water chlorination, Water conflict, Water efficiency, Water fluoridation, Water kiosk, Water metering, Water purification, Water quality, Water Research Foundation, Water scarcity, Water supply and sanitation in Bolivia, Water supply and sanitation in Colombia, Water supply and sanitation in Ecuador, Water supply and sanitation in Honduras, Water supply and sanitation in Iran, Water supply and sanitation in Latin America, Water supply and sanitation in Mexico, Water supply and sanitation in Panama, Water supply and sanitation in Uruguay, Water supply network, Water supply terrorism, Water tower, Water treatment, Water well, Water wheel, Waterborne diseases, Website, West Ham, West Middlesex Waterworks Company, Westminster, Wisconsin v. Illinois, World Bank, Wyoming v. Colorado, 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak, 1993 Milwaukee Cryptosporidiosis outbreak. Expand index (149 more) » « Shrink index
An acequia or séquia is a community-operated watercourse used in Spain and former Spanish colonies in the Americas for irrigation.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alexhander Cumming (sometimes referred to as Alexander Cummings) FRSE (1733 –8 March 1814)https://www.royalsoced.org.uk/cms/files/fellows/biographical_index/fells_indexp1.pdf was a Scottish watchmaker and instrument inventor, who was the first to patent a design of the flush toilet, which had been pioneered by Sir John Harrington, but without solving the problem of foul smells.
The Andean civilizations were a patchwork of different cultures and peoples that developed from the Andes of Colombia southward down the Andes to northern Argentina and Chile, plus the coastal deserts of Peru and northern Chile.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
Arizona v. California is a set of United States Supreme Court cases, all dealing with disputes over water distribution from the Colorado River between the states of Arizona and California.
The Army Medical Department of the U.S. Army (AMEDD), formerly the Army Medical Service (AMS), encompasses the Army's six medical Special Branches (or "Corps").
Founded by U.S. Army Brigadier General George Miller Sternberg, MD in 1893, the Army Medical School (AMS) was by some reckonings the world's first school of public health and preventive medicine.
An attic (sometimes referred to as a loft) is a space found directly below the pitched roof of a house or other building; an attic may also be called a sky parlor or a garret.
Automatic meter reading, or AMR, is the technology of automatically collecting consumption, diagnostic, and status data from water meter or energy metering devices (gas, electric) and transferring that data to a central database for billing, troubleshooting, and analyzing.
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).
A bathtub, bath, or tub (informal) is a large or small container for holding water in which a person or animal may bathe.
Benchmarking is comparing ones business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and best practices from other companies.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
A booster pump is a machine which will increase the pressure of a fluid.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) is a senior rank in the armed forces.
Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula2.
The Camelford water pollution incident involved the accidental contamination of the drinking water supply to the town of Camelford, Cornwall, in July 1988.
Campylobacteriosis is an infection by the Campylobacter bacterium, most commonly C. jejuni.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Brigadier General Carl Rogers Darnall (December 25, 1867 in Weston, Texas, USA – January 18, 1941 in Washington, D.C., USA) was a United States Army chemist and surgeon credited with originating the technique of liquid chlorination of drinking water.
Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.
The Chelsea Waterworks Company was a London waterworks company founded in 1723 which supplied water to many central London locations throughout the 18th and 19th centuries until its functions were taken over by the Metropolitan Water Board in 1902.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
The City and Liberty of Westminster was a unit of local government in the county of Middlesex, England.
The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough which also holds city status.
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
Colorado River Water Conservation District v. United States, 424 U.S. 800 (1976), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States created a new doctrine of abstention, to prevent duplicative litigation between state and federal courts.
A concession or concession agreement is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity.
In production, research, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something or deliver a service, and hence is not available for use anymore.
Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto, is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
A dishwasher is a mechanical device for cleaning dishware and cutlery.
The District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water) provides drinking water, sewage collection and sewage treatment in Washington, D.C..
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Issues that affect drinking water supply and sanitation in the United States include water scarcity, pollution, a backlog of investment, concerns about the affordability of water for the poorest, and a rapidly retiring workforce.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
The Emirati people (إماراتي) are the citizens of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
A flush toilet (also known as a flushing toilet, flush lavatory, or water closet (WC)) is a toilet that disposes of human excreta (urine and feces) by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location for disposal, thus maintaining a separation between humans and their excreta.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giardiasis, popularly known as beaver fever, is a parasitic disease caused by Giardia lamblia.
The Grand Junction Waterworks Company was a utility company supplying water to parts of west London in England.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Human Right to Water and Sanitation (HRWS) was recognised as a human right by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly on 28 July 2010.
Human waste (or human excreta) is a waste type usually used to refer to byproducts of digestion, such as feces and urine.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
An improved water source (or improved drinking-water source or improved water supply) is a term used to categorize certain types or levels of water supply for monitoring purposes.
The Indian Medical Service (IMS) was a military medical service in British India, which also had some civilian functions.
Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
James Simpson (1799–1869) was a British civil engineer.
Jersey City is the second-most-populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey, after Newark.
John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Kansas v. Colorado is a longstanding litigation before the Supreme Court of the United States between two states of the United States, Kansas and Colorado.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
The Lambeth Waterworks Company was a utility company supplying water to parts of south London in England.
Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including.
Lea Bridge is a neighbourhood and electoral ward in the Clapton area of the London Borough of Hackney.
A leak is a way (usually an opening) for fluid to escape a container or fluid-containing system, such as a tank or a ship's hull, through which the contents of the container can escape or outside matter can enter the container.
A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee (user) to pay the lessor (owner) for use of an asset.
Limescale is the hard, off-white, chalky deposit found in kettles, hot-water boilers and the inside of inadequately maintained hot-water central heating systems.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
As a result of the water supply crisis during the severe 1997–2009 drought State governments around Australia began building desalination plants that purify seawater using reverse osmosis technology.
This list of water supply and sanitation by country provides information on the status of water supply and sanitation at a national or, in some cases, also regional level.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
London's water supply infrastructure has developed over the centuries in line with the expansion of London.
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.
A management contract is an arrangement under which operational control of an enterprise is vested by contract in a separate enterprise that performs the necessary managerial functions in return for a fee.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context.
Medellín, officially the Municipality of Medellín (Municipio de Medellín), is the second-largest city in Colombia and the capital of the department of Antioquia.
The Metropolis Water Act 1852 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which introduced regulation of water supply companies in London ("the Metropolis"), including minimum standards of water quality for the first time.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors.
The Nazca culture (also Nasca) was the archaeological culture that flourished from beside the arid, southern coast of Peru in the river valleys of the Rio Grande de Nazca drainage and the Ica Valley.
Non revenue water (NRW) is water that has been produced and is "lost" before it reaches the customer.
Nonresidential water use refers to all uses (and users) of publicly-supplied (municipal) water other than residential use.
A noria (ناعورة, nā‘ūra, from ܢܥܘܪܐ, nā‘urā) is a machine activated by water power and used for lifting water into a small aqueduct, either for the purpose of irrigation or for the use in towns and villages.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Water Services Regulation Authority, or Ofwat, is the body responsible for economic regulation of the privatised water and sewerage industry in England and Wales.
Paisley (Pàislig, Paisley) is the largest town in the historic county of Renfrewshire in the west central Lowlands of Scotland and serves as the administrative centre for the Renfrewshire council area.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2; abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units.
A pressure regulator is a control valve that reduces the input pressure of a fluid to a desired value at its output.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
In the United States, a utilities commission, utility regulatory commission (URC), public utilities commission (PUC), or public service commission (PSC) is a governing body that regulates the rates and services of a public utility.
A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).
A public–private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature.
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.
The puquios are an old system of subterranean aqueducts near the city of Nazca, Peru.
A qanāt (قنات) is a gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking.
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and storage of rainwater for reuse on-site, rather than allowing it to run off.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
Residential water use (also called domestic use, household use, or tap water use) includes all indoor and outdoor uses of drinking quality water at single-family and multifamily dwellings.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
The Rockaway River is a tributary of the Passaic River, approximately 35 mi (56 km) long, in northern New Jersey in the United States.
The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A rooftop water tower is a variant of a water tower, consisting of a water container placed on the roof of a tall building.
Rotherham is a large town in South Yorkshire, England, which together with its conurbation and outlying settlements to the north, south and south-east forms the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham, with a recorded population of 257,280 in the 2011 census.
was a Japanese politician who served as the 82nd and 83rd Prime Minister of Japan from 11 January 1996 to 30 July 1998.
Sand filters are used as a step in the water treatment process of water purification.
A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Service quality (SQ), in its contemporary conceptualisation, is a comparison of perceived expectations (E) of a service with perceived performance (P), giving rise to the equation SQ.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
A shower is a place in which a person bathes under a spray of typically warm or hot water.
A stand-alone house (also called a single-detached dwelling, detached residence or detached house) is a free-standing residential building.
A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately.
Slow sand filters are used in water purification for treating raw water to produce a potable product.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
Special districts (also known as special service districts, special district governments, limited purpose entities, or special-purpose districts in the United States) are independent, special-purpose governmental units that exist separately from local governments such as county, municipal, and township governments, with substantial administrative and fiscal independence.
A spring supply is a provision of piped mains water to a number of consumers direct from a natural spring.
A standpipe is a freestanding pipe fitted with a tap which is installed outdoors to dispense water in areas which do not have a running water supply to the buildings.
Stormwater harvesting or stormwater reuse is the collection, accumulation, treatment or purification, and storing of stormwater for its eventual reuse.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
Suez S.A. was a leading French-based multinational corporation headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, with operations primarily in water, electricity and natural gas supply, and waste management.
A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council, Inc.
A tap (also spigot or faucet: see usage variations) is a valve controlling the release of a liquid or gas.
Tap water (running water, city water, town water, municipal water, etc.) is water supplied to a tap (valve).
Thames Water Utilities Ltd, known as Thames Water, is the monopoly private utility company responsible for the public water supply and waste water treatment in large parts of Greater London, Luton, the Thames Valley, Surrey, Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Kent, and some other areas of the United Kingdom.
Thomas Crapper (baptised 28 September 1836; died 27 January 1910) was a plumber who founded Thomas Crapper & Co in London.
In plumbing, a trap is a device which has a shape that uses a bending path to capture water to prevent sewer gases from entering buildings, while allowing waste to pass through.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
Veolia Environnement S.A., branded as Veolia, is a French transnational company with activities in four main service and utility areas traditionally managed by public authorities – water management, waste management, transport and energy services.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
The 2000 Walkerton outbreak of waterborne gastroenteritis was the result of a contamination of the water supply of Walkerton, Ontario, Canada with E. coli and Campylobacter jejuni bacteria.
Walkerton is a community in the Canadian province of Ontario, located within and governed by the municipality of Brockton.
A washing machine (laundry machine, clothes washer, or washer) is a device used to wash laundry.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Water chlorination is the process of adding chlorine or hypochlorite to water.
Water conflict is a term describing a conflict between countries, states, or groups over an access to water resources.
Water efficiency is reducing water wastage by measuring the amount of water required for a particular purpose and the amount of water used or delivered.
Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.
Water kiosks are booths for the sale of tap water.
Water metering is the process of measuring water use.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
The Water Research Foundation (WRF) conducts research related to drinking water quality, treatment and utility infrastructure to help water providers and public health agencies provide safe and affordable drinking water.
Water scarcity is the lack of fresh water resources to meet water demand.
Bolivia's drinking water and sanitation coverage has greatly improved since 1990 due to a considerable increase in sectoral investment.
This article was last updated on substance in August 2012.
This article has been written in 2007 with partial updates since then, including most recently concerning access in 2012.
Drinking water supply and sanitation coverage in Honduras has increased significantly in the last decades.
Water supply and sanitation in Iran has witnessed some important improvements, especially in terms of increased access to urban water supply, while important challenges remain, particularly concerning sanitation and service provision in rural areas.
Water supply and sanitation in Latin America is characterized by insufficient access and in many cases by poor service quality, with detrimental impacts on public health.
Water supply and sanitation in Mexico is characterized by achievements and challenges.
Water supply and sanitation in Panama is characterized by relatively high levels of access compared to other Latin American countries.
This article was last comprehensively updated in September 2007.
A water supply system or water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which provide water supply.
Water supply terrorism involves intentional sabotage to a water supply system, through chemical or biological warfare or infrastructural sabotage.
A water tower is an elevated structure supporting a water tank constructed at a height sufficient to pressurize a water supply system for the distribution of potable water, and to provide emergency storage for fire protection.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.
Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.
A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server.
West Ham is an area of East London, located east of Charing Cross.
The West Middlesex Waterworks Company was a utility company supplying water to parts of west London in England.
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames.
Wisconsin v. Illinois, 278 U.S. 367 (1929), also referred to as the Chicago Sanitary District Case, is an opinion of the Supreme Court of the United States which held that the equitable power of the United States can be used to impose positive action on one state in a situation in which nonaction would result in damage to the interests of other states.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Wyoming v. Colorado, 259 U.S. 419 (1922) is a set of court cases, all dealing with water distribution from the Laramie River.
The Broad Street cholera outbreak (or Golden Square outbreak) was a severe outbreak of cholera that occurred in 1854 near Broad Street (now Broadwick Street) in the Soho district of London, England.
The 1993 Milwaukee Cryptosporidiosis outbreak was a significant distribution of the Cryptosporidium protozoan in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and the largest waterborne disease outbreak in documented United States history.