168 relations: Acoustics, Airy wave theory, Alfvén wave, Amplitude, Amplitude modulation, Angular frequency, Atmospheric wave, Beat (acoustics), Bloch wave, Bridge (instrument), Capillary wave, Cathode ray tube, Cnoidal wave, Continuous wave, Coordinate system, Coriolis force, Creeping wave, Crest and trough, Cymatics, D'Alembert's formula, Density, Dirac equation, Dispersion (chemistry), Dispersion relation, Distance, Doppler effect, Duhamel's principle, Earth–ionosphere waveguide, Edge wave, Elasticity (physics), Electric field, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic wave equation, Electron, Energy, Envelope detector, Evanescent field, Faraday wave, Field (physics), Fir wave, Fluid, Fourier analysis, Fourier transform, Frequency, Fundamental frequency, Gamma ray, Gaussian function, General relativity, Gravitational field, Gravitational wave, ..., Gravity wave, Group velocity, Harmonic, Hertz, Index of wave articles, Inertia, Inertial wave, Infrared, Internal wave, Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Kramers–Kronig relations, Lamb waves, Light, Linear density, Linear polarization, Linear time-invariant theory, Linearity, List of waves named after people, Longitudinal wave, Louis de Broglie, Magnetic field, Mass, Matter, Matter wave, McGraw-Hill Education, Mechanical wave, Metachronal rhythm, Michael E. Wysession, Microwave, Momentum, Node (physics), Nonlinear system, Nut (string instrument), Opticks, Optics, Orthogonality, Oscillation, Overtone, Parallel (geometry), Partial differential equation, Periodic function, Periodic travelling wave, Perpendicular, Phase (waves), Phase velocity, Phenomenon, Physics, Pilot wave theory, Planck constant, Polarizer, Pp-wave spacetime, Pressure, Prism, Pulse (physics), Quantum mechanics, Radar, Radian, Radiation pressure, Radio wave, Ray (optics), Rayleigh wave, Reaction–diffusion system, Refractive index, Relativistic wave equations, Resonance, Restoring force, Ripple tank, Rogue wave, Schrödinger equation, Shallow water equations, Shock wave, Sine, Sine wave, Snell's law, Sound, Spacetime, Speed of light, Speed of sound, Spin density wave, Spin wave, Square wave, Standing wave, Standing wave ratio, String vibration, Superposition principle, Temperature, Tension (physics), Tollmien–Schlichting wave, Traffic wave, Transmission medium, Transverse wave, Trojan wave packet, Tsunami, Ultraviolet, Uncertainty principle, Vacuum, Vibration, Vibrations of a circular membrane, Violin, Vortex, Wave, Wave equation, Wave function, Wave interference, Wave Motion (journal), Wave packet, Wave propagation, Wave turbulence, Wave vector, Wave–particle duality, Waveform, Wavefront, Wavelength, Wavenumber, Waves in plasmas, Wind wave, X-ray. Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
In fluid dynamics, Airy wave theory (often referred to as linear wave theory) gives a linearised description of the propagation of gravity waves on the surface of a homogeneous fluid layer.
In plasma physics, an Alfvén wave, named after Hannes Alfvén, is a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave in which ions oscillate in response to a restoring force provided by an effective tension on the magnetic field lines.
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave.
In physics, angular frequency ω (also referred to by the terms angular speed, radial frequency, circular frequency, orbital frequency, radian frequency, and pulsatance) is a scalar measure of rotation rate.
An atmospheric wave is a periodic disturbance in the fields of atmospheric variables (like surface pressure or geopotential height, temperature, or wind velocity) which may either propagate (traveling wave) or not (standing wave).
In acoustics, a beat is an interference pattern between two sounds of slightly different frequencies, perceived as a periodic variation in volume whose rate is the difference of the two frequencies.
A Bloch wave (also called Bloch state or Bloch function or Bloch wavefunction), named after Swiss physicist Felix Bloch, is a type of wavefunction for a particle in a periodically-repeating environment, most commonly an electron in a crystal.
A bridge is a device that supports the strings on a stringed musical instrument and transmits the vibration of those strings to another structural component of the instrument—typically a soundboard, such as the top of a guitar or violin—which transfers the sound to the surrounding air.
A capillary wave is a wave traveling along the phase boundary of a fluid, whose dynamics and phase velocity are dominated by the effects of surface tension.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
In fluid dynamics, a cnoidal wave is a nonlinear and exact periodic wave solution of the Korteweg–de Vries equation.
A continuous wave or continuous waveform (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency, almost always a sine wave, that for mathematical analysis is considered to be of infinite duration.
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
According to the principle of diffraction, when a wave front passes an obstruction, it spreads out into the shadowed space.
A crest is the point on a wave with the maximum value of upward displacement within a cycle.
Cymatics, from κῦμα, meaning "wave", is a subset of modal vibrational phenomena.
In mathematics, and specifically partial differential equations (PDEs), d'Alembert's formula is the general solution to the one-dimensional wave equation: for -\infty 0.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.
A dispersion is a system in which particles are dispersed in a continuous phase of a different composition (or state).
In physical sciences and electrical engineering, dispersion relations describe the effect of dispersion in a medium on the properties of a wave traveling within that medium.
Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
In mathematics, and more specifically in partial differential equations, Duhamel's principle is a general method for obtaining solutions to inhomogeneous linear evolution equations like the heat equation, wave equation, and vibrating plate equation.
The Earth–ionosphere waveguide refers to the phenomenon in which certain radio waves can propagate in the space between the ground and the boundary of the ionosphere.
In fluid dynamics, an edge wave is a surface gravity wave fixed by refraction against a rigid boundary, often a shoaling beach.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
An envelope detector is an electronic circuit that takes a high-frequency signal as input and provides an output which is the envelope of the original signal.
In electromagnetics, an evanescent field, or evanescent wave, is an oscillating electric and/or magnetic field that does not propagate as an electromagnetic wave but whose energy is spatially concentrated in the vicinity of the source (oscillating charges and currents).
Faraday waves, also known as Faraday ripples, named after Michael Faraday, are nonlinear standing waves that appear on liquids enclosed by a vibrating receptacle.
In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.
A fir wave is a set of alternating bands of fir trees in sequential stages of development, observed in forests on exposed mountain slopes in several areas, including northeastern North America and Japan.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
In mathematics, Fourier analysis is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions.
The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
The fundamental frequency, often referred to simply as the fundamental, is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
In mathematics, a Gaussian function, often simply referred to as a Gaussian, is a function of the form: for arbitrary real constants, and.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.
Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.
In fluid dynamics, gravity waves are waves generated in a fluid medium or at the interface between two media when the force of gravity or buoyancy tries to restore equilibrium.
The group velocity of a wave is the velocity with which the overall shape of the wave's amplitudes—known as the modulation or envelope of the wave—propagates through space.
A harmonic is any member of the harmonic series, a divergent infinite series.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
This is a list of Wave topics.
Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.
Inertial waves, also known as inertial oscillations, are a type of mechanical wave possible in rotating fluids.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Internal waves are gravity waves that oscillate within a fluid medium, rather than on its surface.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
The Kramers–Kronig relations are bidirectional mathematical relations, connecting the real and imaginary parts of any complex function that is analytic in the upper half-plane.
Lamb waves propagate in solid plates.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Linear density is the measure of a quantity of any characteristic value per unit of length.
In electrodynamics, linear polarization or plane polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a confinement of the electric field vector or magnetic field vector to a given plane along the direction of propagation.
Linear time-invariant theory, commonly known as LTI system theory, comes from applied mathematics and has direct applications in NMR spectroscopy, seismology, circuits, signal processing, control theory, and other technical areas.
Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can be graphically represented as a straight line.
This is a list of waves named after people (eponymous waves).
Longitudinal waves are waves in which the displacement of the medium is in the same direction as, or the opposite direction to, the direction of propagation of the wave.
Louis Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie, duke de Broglie (or; 15 August 1892 – 19 March 1987) was a French physicist who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
A mechanical wave is a wave that is an oscillation of matter, and therefore transfers energy through a medium.
A metachronal rhythm or metachronal wave refers to wavy movements produced by the sequential action (as opposed to synchronized) of structures such as cilia, segments of worms or legs.
Michael E. Wysession (born December 6, 1961) is a Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, and author of numerous science textbooks published by Pearson Education and Prentice Hall.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
A node is a point along a standing wave where the wave has minimum amplitude.
In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.
A nut, on a stringed musical instrument, is a small piece of hard material that supports the strings at the end closest to the headstock or scroll.
Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
An overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.
In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
In mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods.
In mathematics a periodic travelling wave (or wavetrain) is a periodic function of one-dimensional space that moves with constant speed.
In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees).
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
The phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
In theoretical physics, the pilot wave theory, also known as Bohmian mechanics, was the first known example of a hidden variable theory, presented by Louis de Broglie in 1927.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations.
In general relativity, the pp-wave spacetimes, or pp-waves for short, are an important family of exact solutions of Einstein's field equation.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.
In physics, a pulse is a generic term describing a single disturbance that moves through a transmission medium.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
The radian (SI symbol rad) is the SI unit for measuring angles, and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics.
Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface due to the exchange of momentum between the object and the electromagnetic field.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
In optics a ray is an idealized model of light, obtained by choosing a line that is perpendicular to the wavefronts of the actual light, and that points in the direction of energy flow.
Rayleigh waves are a type of surface acoustic wave that travel along the surface of solids.
Reaction–diffusion systems are mathematical models which correspond to several physical phenomena: the most common is the change in space and time of the concentration of one or more chemical substances: local chemical reactions in which the substances are transformed into each other, and diffusion which causes the substances to spread out over a surface in space.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
In physics, specifically relativistic quantum mechanics (RQM) and its applications to particle physics, relativistic wave equations predict the behavior of particles at high energies and velocities comparable to the speed of light.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
Restoring force, in a physics context, is a force that gives rise to an equilibrium in a physical system.
In physics and engineering, a ripple tank is a shallow glass tank of water used in schools and colleges to demonstrate the basic properties of waves.
Rogue waves (also known as freak waves, monster waves, episodic waves, killer waves, extreme waves, and abnormal waves) are large, unexpected and suddenly appearing surface waves that can be extremely dangerous, even to large ships such as ocean liners.
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
The shallow water equations are a set of hyperbolic partial differential equations (or parabolic if viscous shear is considered) that describe the flow below a pressure surface in a fluid (sometimes, but not necessarily, a free surface).
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.
A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.
Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
Spin-density wave (SDW) and charge-density wave (CDW) are names for two similar low-energy ordered states of solids.
Spin waves are propagating disturbances in the ordering of magnetic materials.
A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values, with the same duration at minimum and maximum.
In physics, a standing wave – also known as a stationary wave – is a wave which oscillates in time but whose peak amplitude profile does not move in space.
In radio engineering and telecommunications, standing wave ratio (SWR) is a measure of impedance matching of loads to the characteristic impedance of a transmission line or waveguide.
A vibration in a string is a wave.
In physics and systems theory, the superposition principle, also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.
In fluid dynamics, a Tollmien–Schlichting wave (often abbreviated T-S wave) is a streamwise unstable wave which arises in a bounded shear flow (such as boundary layer and channel flow).
Traffic waves, also called stop waves, ghost jams, or traffic shocks, are traveling disturbances in the distribution of cars on a highway.
A transmission medium is a material substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) that can propagate energy waves.
A transverse wave is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular (right angled) to the direction of energy transfer (or the propagation of the wave).
A trojan wave packet is a wave packet that is nonstationary and nonspreading.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.
A two-dimensional elastic membrane under tension can support transverse vibrations.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
The wave equation is an important second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves—as they occur in classical physics—such as mechanical waves (e.g. water waves, sound waves and seismic waves) or light waves.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
Wave Motion is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on the physics of waves – with emphasis on the areas of acoustics, optics, geophysics, seismology, electromagnetic theory, solid and fluid mechanics.
In physics, a wave packet (or wave train) is a short "burst" or "envelope" of localized wave action that travels as a unit.
Wave propagation is any of the ways in which waves travel.
In continuum mechanics, wave turbulence is a set of nonlinear waves deviated far from thermal equilibrium.
In physics, a wave vector (also spelled wavevector) is a vector which helps describe a wave.
Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.
A waveform is the shape and form of a signal such as a wave moving in a physical medium or an abstract representation.
In physics, a wavefront is the locus of points characterized by propagation of positions of identical phase: propagation of a point in 1D, a curve in 2D or a surface in 3D.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number or repetency) is the spatial frequency of a wave, measured in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit distance.
In plasma physics, waves in plasmas are an interconnected set of particles and fields which propagates in a periodically repeating fashion.
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
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