109 relations: Airy disk, Aliasing, Amplitude, Angular frequency, Angular resolution, Aperture, Bessel function, Boundary value problem, Brillouin zone, Cathode ray tube, Cnoidal wave, Conservation of energy, Differential equation, Diffraction, Dispersion (optics), Dispersion relation, Dispersive prism, Double-slit experiment, Electric field, Electrical conductor, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron, Electronic band structure, Emission spectrum, Entrance pupil, Envelope (mathematics), Envelope (waves), Extraordinary optical transmission, Fourier analysis, Fraunhofer diffraction, Fraunhofer lines, Frequency, Fresnel diffraction, Greek alphabet, Harmonic series (music), Hertz, Index of wave articles, Interferometry, Jacobi elliptic functions, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Lambda, Length measurement, Light, Linearity, Louis de Broglie, Magnetic field, Matter wave, Metre, Microscope, ..., Millimetre, Modulation, Molecular vibration, Momentum, Multiplicative inverse, Nanometre, Node (physics), Numerical aperture, Objective (optics), Optical fiber, Periodic function, Phase (waves), Phase velocity, Phonon, Photonics, Physics, Planck constant, Plane wave, Quantum mechanics, Radio telescope, Rayleigh scattering, Red, Refraction, Refractive index, Sampling (signal processing), Sinc function, Sine, Small-angle approximation, Snell's law, Sound, Sound pressure, Spatial frequency, Spectral line, Spectroscopy, Spectrum, Speed of light, Speed of sound, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Standing wave, Subwavelength-diameter optical fibre, Superlens, Superposition principle, Telescope, Thomas Young (scientist), Three-dimensional space, Trigonometric functions, Uncertainty principle, Vacuum, Violet (color), Visible spectrum, Wave function, Wave interference, Wave packet, Wave vector, Wavenumber, Wind wave, WKB approximation, Zero crossing, Zero-mode waveguide. Expand index (59 more) » « Shrink index
In optics, the Airy disk (or Airy disc) and Airy pattern are descriptions of the best focused spot of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make, limited by the diffraction of light.
In signal processing and related disciplines, aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled.
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
In physics, angular frequency ω (also referred to by the terms angular speed, radial frequency, circular frequency, orbital frequency, radian frequency, and pulsatance) is a scalar measure of rotation rate.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.
Bessel functions, first defined by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli and then generalized by Friedrich Bessel, are the canonical solutions of Bessel's differential equation for an arbitrary complex number, the order of the Bessel function.
In mathematics, in the field of differential equations, a boundary value problem is a differential equation together with a set of additional constraints, called the boundary conditions.
In mathematics and solid state physics, the first Brillouin zone is a uniquely defined primitive cell in reciprocal space.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
In fluid dynamics, a cnoidal wave is a nonlinear and exact periodic wave solution of the Korteweg–de Vries equation.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.
In physical sciences and electrical engineering, dispersion relations describe the effect of dispersion in a medium on the properties of a wave traveling within that medium.
In optics, a dispersive prism is an optical prism, usually having the shape of a geometrical triangular prism, used as a spectroscopic component.
In modern physics, the double-slit experiment is a demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
In an optical system, the entrance pupil is the optical image of the physical aperture stop, as 'seen' through the front of the lens system.
In geometry, an envelope of a family of curves in the plane is a curve that is tangent to each member of the family at some point, and these points of tangency together form the whole envelope.
In physics and engineering, the envelope of an oscillating signal is a smooth curve outlining its extremes.
Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) is the phenomenon of greatly enhanced transmission of light through a subwavelength aperture in an otherwise opaque metallic film which has been patterned with a regularly repeating periodic structure.
In mathematics, Fourier analysis is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions.
In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the diffracting object, and also when it is viewed at the focal plane of an imaging lens.
In physics and optics, the Fraunhofer lines are a set of spectral lines named after the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787–1826).
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
In optics, the Fresnel diffraction equation for near-field diffraction is an approximation of the Kirchhoff–Fresnel diffraction that can be applied to the propagation of waves in the near field.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
A harmonic series is the sequence of sounds—pure tones, represented by sinusoidal waves—in which the frequency of each sound is an integer multiple of the fundamental, the lowest frequency.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
This is a list of Wave topics.
Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.
In mathematics, the Jacobi elliptic functions are a set of basic elliptic functions, and auxiliary theta functions, that are of historical importance.
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.
Lambda, Λ, λ (uppercase Λ, lowercase λ; λάμ(β)δα lám(b)da) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Length measurement is implemented in practice in many ways.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can be graphically represented as a straight line.
Louis Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie, duke de Broglie (or; 15 August 1892 – 19 March 1987) was a French physicist who made groundbreaking contributions to quantum theory.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
The millimetre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
A molecular vibration occurs when atoms in a molecule are in periodic motion while the molecule as a whole has constant translational and rotational motion.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
A node is a point along a standing wave where the wave has minimum amplitude.
In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept or emit light.
In optical engineering, the objective is the optical element that gathers light from the object being observed and focuses the light rays to produce a real image.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
In mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods.
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
The phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space.
In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.
Photonics is the physical science of light (photon) generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and detection/sensing.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
In the physics of wave propagation, a plane wave (also spelled planewave) is a wave whose wavefronts (surfaces of constant phase) are infinite parallel planes.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.
In mathematics, physics and engineering, the cardinal sine function or sinc function, denoted by, has two slightly different definitions.
In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.
The small-angle approximation is a useful simplification of the basic trigonometric functions which is approximately true in the limit where the angle approaches zero.
Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Sound pressure or acoustic pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient (average or equilibrium) atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, spatial frequency is a characteristic of any structure that is periodic across position in space.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
In physics, a standing wave – also known as a stationary wave – is a wave which oscillates in time but whose peak amplitude profile does not move in space.
A subwavelength-diameter optical fibre (SDF or SDOF) is an optical fibre whose diameter is less than the wavelength of the light being propagated through it.
A superlens, or super lens, is a lens which uses metamaterials to go beyond the diffraction limit.
In physics and systems theory, the superposition principle, also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
In physics, a wave packet (or wave train) is a short "burst" or "envelope" of localized wave action that travels as a unit.
In physics, a wave vector (also spelled wavevector) is a vector which helps describe a wave.
In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number or repetency) is the spatial frequency of a wave, measured in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit distance.
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
In mathematical physics, the WKB approximation or WKB method is a method for finding approximate solutions to linear differential equations with spatially varying coefficients.
A zero-crossing is a point where the sign of a mathematical function changes (e.g. from positive to negative), represented by a intercept of the axis (zero value) in the graph of the function.
A zero-mode waveguide is an optical waveguide that guides light energy into a volume that is small in all dimensions compared to the wavelength of the light.