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# Weak hypercharge

The weak hypercharge in particle physics is a quantum number relating the electric charge and the third component of weak isospin. [1]

## B − L

In high energy physics, B − L (pronounced "bee minus ell") is the difference between the baryon number (B) and the lepton number (L).

## Baryon number

In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.

## Bottom quark

The bottom quark or b quark, also known as the beauty quark, is a third-generation quark with a charge of − ''e''.

## Charge (physics)

In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.

## Circle group

In mathematics, the circle group, denoted by T, is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers with absolute value 1, i.e., the unit circle in the complex plane or simply the unit complex numbers The circle group forms a subgroup of C&times;, the multiplicative group of all nonzero complex numbers.

## Conservation law

In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.

## Down quark

The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

## Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

## Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negation (opposite) of the electric charge carried by a single electron.

## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under a continuous group of local transformations.

## Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula

The Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula (sometimes known as the NNG formula) relates the baryon number B, the strangeness S, the isospin I3 of hadrons to the charge Q. It was originally given by Kazuhiko Nishijima and Tadao Nakano in 1953, and led to the proposal of strangeness as a concept, which Nishijima originally called "eta-charge" after the eta meson.

## Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions or forces, are merged into one single force.

## Hypercharge

In particle physics, the hypercharge (from '''hyper'''onic + charge) Y of a particle is related to the strong interaction, and is distinct from the similarly named weak hypercharge, which has an analogous role in the electroweak interaction.

## Lepton number

In particle physics, the lepton number is the number of leptons minus the number of antileptons.

## Particle physics

Particle physics is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter (particles with mass) and radiation (massless particles).

No description.

## Proton decay

In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.

## Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

## Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

## Quantum number

Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of a quantum system.

## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known.

## Standard Model (mathematical formulation)

This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group.

## Strange quark

The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.

## Weak isospin

In particle physics, weak isospin is a quantum number relating to the weak interaction, and parallels the idea of isospin under the strong interaction.

## X (charge)

In particle physics, the X-charge (or simply X) is a conserved quantum number associated with the SO(10) grand unification theory.

## References

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