122 relations: Abdus Salam, Andrei Sakharov, Anthropic principle, Antimatter, Baryogenesis, Beta decay, Betavoltaic device, Binding energy, Boson, Bottom quark, Bound state, Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, Cambridge University Press, Carbon-14, Charged current, Charm quark, Chen-Ning Yang, Chien-Shiung Wu, Color charge, Conservation law, Cosmic distance ladder, Coupling constant, CP violation, Down quark, E. C. George Sudarshan, Electric charge, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron capture, Electron neutrino, Electroweak interaction, Elementary charge, Enrico Fermi, Euclidean vector, Fermi's interaction, Fermion, Feynman diagram, Field strength, Fine-structure constant, Flavour (particle physics), Force carrier, Fundamental interaction, Gauge boson, Gauge theory, Goldstone boson, Gravity, Half-integer, Higgs boson, Higgs mechanism, Isotopes of nitrogen, ..., James Cronin, John Wiley & Sons, Johns Hopkins University Press, Journal of Physics G, Kaon, Lagrangian (field theory), Large Hadron Collider, Lepton, Makoto Kobayashi (physicist), Meson, Muon, Muon neutrino, Murray Gell-Mann, Neutral current, Neutrino, Neutron, Nobel Prize in Physics, Non-contact force, Nuclear fission, Nuclear force, Nucleon, Parity (physics), Particle Data Group, Particle physics, Perseus Books Group, Photon, Physical law, Physics Letters, Pion, Plume (publisher), Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Proton, Pseudovector, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum number, Quantum superposition, Quark, Quark epoch, Radioactive decay, Radiocarbon dating, Radioluminescence, Reflection (physics), Renormalization, Richard Feynman, River Edge, New Jersey, Robert Marshak, Sheldon Lee Glashow, Spin (physics), Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Model, Steven Weinberg, Strange quark, Strong interaction, Tau (particle), Tau neutrino, Top quark, Toshihide Maskawa, Tritium radioluminescence, Tsung-Dao Lee, Up quark, Vacuum expectation value, Val Logsdon Fitch, Virtual particle, W and Z bosons, Walter Greiner, Weak hypercharge, Weak isospin, Weakless Universe, Yukawa potential, Zeitschrift für Physik. Expand index (72 more) »

## Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.

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## Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; 21 May 192114 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.

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## Anthropic principle

The anthropic principle is a philosophical consideration that observations of the universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it.

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## Antimatter

In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.

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## Baryogenesis

In physical cosmology, baryogenesis is the hypothetical physical process that took place during the early universe that produced baryonic asymmetry, i.e. the imbalance of matter (baryons) and antimatter (antibaryons) in the observed universe.

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## Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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## Betavoltaic device

Betavoltaic devices, also known as betavoltaic cells, are generators of electric current, in effect a form of battery, which use energy from a radioactive source emitting beta particles (electrons).

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## Binding energy

Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.

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## Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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## Bottom quark

The bottom quark or b quark, also known as the beauty quark, is a third-generation quark with a charge of − ''e''.

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## Bound state

In quantum physics, a bound state is a special quantum state of a particle subject to a potential such that the particle has a tendency to remain localised in one or more regions of space.

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## Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, CKM matrix, quark mixing matrix, or KM matrix is a unitary matrix which contains information on the strength of flavour-changing weak decays.

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## Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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## Carbon-14

Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.

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## Charged current

The charged current interaction is one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak force.

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## Charm quark

The charm quark, charmed quark or c quark (from its symbol, c) is the third most massive of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.

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## Chen-Ning Yang

Chen-Ning Yang or Yang Zhenning (born October 1, 1922) is a Chinese physicist who works on statistical mechanics and particle physics.

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## Chien-Shiung Wu

Chien-Shiung Wu (May 31, 1912 – February 16, 1997) was a Chinese-American experimental physicist who made significant contributions in the field of nuclear physics.

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## Color charge

Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

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## Conservation law

In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.

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## Cosmic distance ladder

The cosmic distance ladder (also known as the extragalactic distance scale) is the succession of methods by which astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects.

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## Coupling constant

In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.

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## CP violation

In particle physics, CP violation is a violation of CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry).

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## Down quark

The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

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## E. C. George Sudarshan

Ennackal Chandy George Sudarshan (also known as E. C. G. Sudarshan; 16 September 1931 – 14 May 2018) was an Indian theoretical physicist and a professor at the University of Texas.

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## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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## Electron capture

Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.

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## Electron neutrino

The electron neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge.

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## Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

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## Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.

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## Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

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## Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

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## Fermi's interaction

In particle physics, Fermi's interaction (also the Fermi theory of beta decay) is an explanation of the beta decay, proposed by Enrico Fermi in 1933.

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## Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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## Feynman diagram

In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.

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## Field strength

In physics, field strength means the magnitude of a vector-valued field (e.g., in volts per meter, V/m, for an electric field E).

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## Fine-structure constant

In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted (the Greek letter ''alpha''), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.

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## Flavour (particle physics)

In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to the species of an elementary particle.

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## Force carrier

In particle physics, force carriers or messenger particles or intermediate particles are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.

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## Fundamental interaction

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

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## Gauge boson

In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.

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## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

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## Goldstone boson

In particle and condensed matter physics, Goldstone bosons or Nambu–Goldstone bosons (NGBs) are bosons that appear necessarily in models exhibiting spontaneous breakdown of continuous symmetries.

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## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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## Half-integer

In mathematics, a half-integer is a number of the form where n is an integer.

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## Higgs boson

The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.

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## Higgs mechanism

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.

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## Isotopes of nitrogen

Natural nitrogen (7N) consists of two stable isotopes, nitrogen-14, which makes up the vast majority of naturally occurring nitrogen, and nitrogen-15, which is less common.

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## James Cronin

James Watson Cronin (September 29, 1931 – August 25, 2016) was an American particle physicist.

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## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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## Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.

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## Journal of Physics G

Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes theoretical and experimental research into nuclear physics, particle physics and particle astrophysics, including all interface areas between these fields.

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## Kaon

In particle physics, a kaon, also called a K meson and denoted,The positively charged kaon used to be called τ+ and θ+, as it was supposed to be two different particles until the 1960s.

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## Lagrangian (field theory)

Lagrangian field theory is a formalism in classical field theory.

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## Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.

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## Lepton

In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.

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## Makoto Kobayashi (physicist)

(born April 7, 1944 in Nagoya, Japan) is a Japanese physicist known for his work on CP-violation who was awarded one fourth of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.".

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## Meson

In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions.

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## Muon

The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.

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## Muon neutrino

The muon neutrino is a lepton, an elementary subatomic particle which has the symbol and no net electric charge.

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## Murray Gell-Mann

Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles.

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## Neutral current

Weak neutral current interactions are one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak force.

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## Neutrino

A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.

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## Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

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## Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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## Non-contact force

A non-contact force is a force which acts on an object without coming physically in contact with it.

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## Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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## Nuclear force

The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.

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## Nucleon

In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.

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## Parity (physics)

In quantum mechanics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the flip in the sign of one spatial coordinate.

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## Particle Data Group

The Particle Data Group (or PDG) is an international collaboration of particle physicists that compiles and reanalyzes published results related to the properties of particles and fundamental interactions.

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## Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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## Perseus Books Group

Perseus Books Group was an American publishing company founded in 1996 by investor Frank Pearl.

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## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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## Physical law

A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.

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## Physics Letters

Physics Letters was a scientific journal published from 1962 to 1966, when it split in two series now published by Elsevier.

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## Pion

In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.

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## Plume (publisher)

Plume is a publishing company in the United States, founded in 1970 as the trade paperback imprint of New American Library.

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## Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics

Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Physical Society of Japan.

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## Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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## Pseudovector

In physics and mathematics, a pseudovector (or axial vector) is a quantity that transforms like a vector under a proper rotation, but in three dimensions gains an additional sign flip under an improper rotation such as a reflection.

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## Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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## Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

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## Quantum number

Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of a quantum system.

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## Quantum superposition

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.

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## Quark

A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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## Quark epoch

In physical cosmology the Quark epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when the fundamental interactions of gravitation, electromagnetism, the strong interaction and the weak interaction had taken their present forms, but the temperature of the universe was still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons.

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## Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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## Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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## Radioluminescence

Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which light is produced in a material by bombardment with ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays.

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## Reflection (physics)

Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.

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## Renormalization

Renormalization is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions.

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## Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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## River Edge, New Jersey

River Edge is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.

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## Robert Marshak

Robert Eugene Marshak (October 11, 1916 – December 23, 1992) was an American physicist dedicated to learning, research, and education.

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## Sheldon Lee Glashow

Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.

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## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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## Spontaneous symmetry breaking

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.

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## Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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## Steven Weinberg

Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.

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## Strange quark

The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.

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## Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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## Tau (particle)

The tau (τ), also called the tau lepton, tau particle, or tauon, is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a 2.

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## Tau neutrino

The tau neutrino or tauon neutrino is a subatomic elementary particle which has the symbol and no net electric charge.

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## Top quark

The top quark, also known as the t quark (symbol: t) or truth quark, is the most massive of all observed elementary particles.

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## Toshihide Maskawa

is a Japanese theoretical physicist known for his work on CP-violation who was awarded one quarter of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.".

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## Tritium radioluminescence

Tritium lumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light.

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## Tsung-Dao Lee

Tsung-Dao Lee (T. D. Lee;; born November 24, 1926) is a Chinese-American physicist, known for his work on parity violation, the Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion (RHIC) physics, nontopological solitons and soliton stars.

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## Up quark

The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

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## Vacuum expectation value

In quantum field theory the vacuum expectation value (also called condensate or simply VEV) of an operator is its average, expected value in the vacuum.

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## Val Logsdon Fitch

Val Logsdon Fitch (March 10, 1923 – February 5, 2015) was an American nuclear physicist who, with co-researcher James Cronin, was awarded the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics for a 1964 experiment using the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory that proved that certain subatomic reactions do not adhere to fundamental symmetry principles.

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## Virtual particle

In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.

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## W and Z bosons

The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.

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## Walter Greiner

Walter Greiner (29 October 1935 – 6 October 2016) was a German theoretical physicist.

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## Weak hypercharge

In the Standard Model of electroweak interactions of particle physics, the weak hypercharge is a quantum number relating the electric charge and the third component of weak isospin.

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## Weak isospin

In particle physics, weak isospin is a quantum number relating to the weak interaction, and parallels the idea of isospin under the strong interaction.

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## Weakless Universe

A weakless universe is a hypothetical universe that contains no weak interactions, but is otherwise very similar to our own universe.

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## Yukawa potential

In particle and atomic physics, a Yukawa potential (also called a screened Coulomb potential) is a potential of the form where g is a magnitude scaling constant, i.e. is the amplitude of potential, m is the mass of the particle, r is the radial distance to the particle, and k is another scaling constant, so that 1/km is the range.

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## Zeitschrift für Physik

Zeitschrift für Physik (English: Journal for physics) is a defunct series of German peer-reviewed German scientific journal of physics established in 1920 by Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

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## Redirects here:

Flavodynamics, Flavordynamics, Nuclear weak force, Quantum flavordynamics, V-A theory, V–A theory, V−A theory, W boson exchange, Weak Force, Weak Interaction, Weak Law of Action and Reaction, Weak Nuclear Force, Weak Nuclear Forces, Weak decay, Weak force, Weak interactions, Weak nuclear force, Weak nuclear interaction, Weak nuclear interactions, Weak-Nuclear Force, Wesak force.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weak_interaction