166 relations: Accounting, Adam Smith, Adjudication, Agrarian society, Agricultural economics, Agricultural policy, Agriculture, Anthropology, Aqueduct (water supply), Archaeology, Aristocracy, Artisan, Asia-Pacific, Asset, Benjamin Franklin, Bill Gates, Billionaire, Biome, Bioregionalism, Bond (finance), Building, Business, Capital (economics), Castle, Cathedral, Cave painting, Charlie Munger, City-state, Classical economics, Clothing, David Lloyd George, David Ricardo, Defensive wall, Dennis C. Pirages, Developing country, Development economics, Distribution of wealth, Division of labour, Ecological economics, Economic growth, Economics, Economics (textbook), Education, Egypt, Elon Musk, Environmental stewardship, Ethics, European early modern humans, Fortification, Francis Bacon, ..., Free Press (publisher), Funeral, Generational accounting, Geolibertarianism, Georgism, Green accounting, Gross National Happiness, Grundrisse, Happiness economics, Hominidae, Human, Human capital, Income, Indo-European languages, Industrial society, Industrialisation, Inheritance, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Investment, Irrigation, Jeff Bezos, John Bates Clark, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, Journal of Political Economy, Knowledge, Labor theory of value, Land (economics), Land law, Leadership, Learning, Liability (financial accounting), Lockean proviso, M. E. Sharpe, Macroeconomics, Marxian economics, Marxist philosophy, Middle class, Millionaire, Monarchy, Monastery, Money, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academies Press, National accounts, National wealth, Natural capital, Natural environment, Neanderthal, Net worth, Normative, Ownership, Partha Dasgupta, Paul Samuelson, Pension, Personal finance, Personal property, Physical capital, Post-scarcity economy, Poverty, Power (social and political), Present value, Private property, Productivity improving technologies, Property, Public capital, Public good, Purchasing power parity, Reading (process), Real estate, Real property, Real versus nominal value (economics), Resource, Robert Barro, Robert Heilbroner, Russia, Science, Scientia potentia est, Scientific method, Sewerage, Silicon Valley, Social capital, Social class, Social contract, Social security, Social stratification, Socioeconomic status, Soil, State (polity), Stock and flow, Stocks, Sumer, Sungir, Tax haven, Temple, The Economist, The Journal of Legal Studies, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, The Wealth of Nations, Thomas Y. Crowell Co., Tim Harford, United Nations, Upper class, Urbanization, Utility, Value (economics), War, Warren Buffett, Wealth, Wealth effect, Wealth elasticity of demand, Wealth inequality in the United States, William Nordhaus, Working time, World energy resources. Expand index (116 more) » « Shrink index
Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbiter or judge reviews evidence and argumentation, including legal reasoning set forth by opposing parties or litigants to come to a decision which determines rights and obligations between the parties involved.
An agrarian society (or agricultural society) is any society whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland.
Agricultural economics is an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fibre—a discipline known as agricultural economics.
Agricultural policy describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
An artisan (from artisan, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker.
Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean.
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, humanitarian, and principal founder of Microsoft Corporation.
A billionaire, in countries that use the short scale number naming system, is a person with a net worth of at least one billion (1,000,000,000, i.e. a thousand million) units of a given currency, usually major currencies such as the United States dollar, the euro or the pound sterling.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Bioregionalism is a political, cultural, and ecological system or set of views based on naturally defined areas called bioregions, similar to ecoregions.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
Charles Thomas Munger (born January 1, 1924) is an American investor, businessman and philanthropist.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Classical economics or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
Dennis Clark Pirages (born July 30, 1942) is an American political scientist, environmentalist and former Harrison Professor of International Environmental Politics at the University of Maryland, College Park, known for his work on the environment and sustainability questions.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries.
--> The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Economics is an introductory textbook by American economists Paul Samuelson and William Nordhaus.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elon Reeve Musk (born June 28, 1971) is an American business magnate, investor and engineer.
Environmental stewardship refers to responsible use and protection of the natural environment through conservation and sustainable practices.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.
Generational accounting is a method of measuring the fiscal burdens facing today's and tomorrow's children.
Geolibertarianism is a political and economic ideology that integrates libertarianism with Georgism (alternatively geoism or geonomics).
Georgism, also called geoism and single tax (archaic), is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society.
Green accounting is a type of accounting that attempts to factor environmental costs into the financial results of operations.
Gross National Happiness (also known by the acronym: GNH) is a philosophy that guides the government of Bhutan.
The Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie (Fundamentals of Political Economy Criticism) is a lengthy, unfinished manuscript by the German philosopher Karl Marx.
The economics of happiness or happiness economics is the quantitative and theoretical study of happiness, positive and negative affect, well-being, quality of life, life satisfaction and related concepts, typically combining economics with other fields such as psychology, health and sociology.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer.
Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
In sociology, industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.
The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, originally edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, is a 26-volume work published by Elsevier.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Jeffrey Preston Bezos (born Jorgensen; January 12, 1964) is an American technology entrepreneur, investor, philanthropist, and the founder, chairman, and chief executive officer of Amazon, the world's largest online retailer.
John Bates Clark (January 26, 1847 – March 21, 1938) was an American neoclassical economist.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
The Journal of Political Economy is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).
In economics, land comprises all naturally occurring resources as well as geographic land.
Land law is the form of law that deals with the rights to use, alienate, or exclude others from land.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
In financial accounting, a liability is defined as the future sacrifices of economic benefits that the entity is obliged to make to other entities as a result of past transactions or other past events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services or other yielding of economic benefits in the future.
The Lockean proviso is a feature of John Locke's labour theory of property which states that whilst individuals have a right to homestead private property from nature by working on it, they can do so only "at least where there is enough, and as good, left in common for others.".
M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.
Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.
Marxian economics, or the Marxian school of economics, refers to a school of economic thought tracing its foundations to the critique of classical political economy first expounded upon by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
A millionaire is an individual whose net worth or wealth is equal to or exceeds one million units of currency.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Academies Press (NAP) was created to publish the reports issued by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Medicine, and the National Research Council.
National accounts or national account systems (NAS) are the implementation of complete and consistent accounting techniques for measuring the economic activity of a nation.
National net wealth, also known as national net worth, is the total sum of the value of a nation's assets minus its liabilities.
Natural capital is the world's stock of natural resources, which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
Net worth is the value of all the non-financial and financial assets owned by an institutional unit or sector minus the value of all its outstanding liabilities.
Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard.
Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over property, which may be an object, land/real estate or intellectual property.
Sir Partha Sarathi Dasgupta, FRS, FBA (born 17 November 1942), is the Frank Ramsey Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom; Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and Visiting Professor at the New College of the Humanities, London.
Paul Anthony Samuelson (15 May 1915 – 13 December 2009) was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments.
Personal finance is the financial management which an individual or a family unit performs to budget, save, and spend monetary resources over time, taking into account various financial risks and future life events.
Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.
In economics, physical capital or just capital is a factor of production (or input into the process of production), consisting of machinery, buildings, computers, and the like.
Post-scarcity is an economic theory in which most goods can be produced in great abundance with minimal human labor needed, so that they become available to all very cheaply or even freely.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
In economics and finance, present value (PV), also known as present discounted value, is the value of an expected income stream determined as of the date of valuation.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
This article is about the important technologies that have historically increased productivity and is intended to serve as the History section of Productivity from which it was moved.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Public capital is the aggregate body of government-owned assets that are used as a means for productivity.
In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Reading is a complex "cognitive process" of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension).
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things.
In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.
A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced.
Robert Joseph Barro (born September 28, 1944) is an American macroeconomist and the Paul M. Warburg Professor of Economics at Harvard University.
Robert L. Heilbroner (March 24, 1919 – January 4, 2005) was an American economist and historian of economic thought.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The phrase "scientia potentia est" (or "scientia est potentia" or also "scientia potestas est") is a Latin aphorism meaning "knowledge is power".
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Sewerage is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers.
Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.
Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central; transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation; and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Economics, business, accounting, and related fields often distinguish between quantities that are stocks and those that are flows.
Stocks are restraining devices that were used as a form of corporal punishment and public humiliation.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sungir (sometimes spelled Sunghir) is an Upper Paleolithic archaeological site in Russia and one of the earliest records of modern Homo sapiens in Eurasia.
A tax haven is defined as a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation ("headline" rates may be higher).
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Journal of Legal Studies is a law journal published by the University of Chicago Press focusing on interdisciplinary academic research in law and legal institutions.
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.
The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some are So Rich and Some So Poor, published in 1998 (with an epilogue added to the 1999 paperback edition), is a book by the late David Landes, formerly Emeritus Professor of Economics and former Coolidge Professor of History at Harvard University.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
Thomas Y. Crowell Co. was a publishing company founded by Thomas Y. Crowell.
Tim Harford (born 27 September 1973) is an English economist and journalist who lives in Oxford.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, and usuall are also the wealthiest members of society, and also wield the greatest political power.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
The wealth effect is the change in spending that accompanies a change in perceived wealth.
The wealth elasticity of demand, in microeconomics and macroeconomics, is the proportional change in the consumption of a good relative to a change in consumers' wealth (as distinct from changes in personal income).
Wealth inequality in the United States (also known as the wealth gap) is the unequal distribution of assets among residents of the United States.
William Dawbney "Bill" Nordhaus (born May 31, 1941) is an economist and Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University, best known for his work in economic modeling and climate change.
Working time is the period of time that a person spends at paid labor.
World energy resources are the estimated maximum capacity for energy production given all available resources on Earth.
Affluence, Affluency, Affluent, Analysis of wealth, Economic wealth, Global wealth, Material wealth, Personal wealth, Savings, The rich, Total global wealth, Wealth (economics), Wealth creation, Wealthiest, Wealthy, Whealthy, World wealth.