202 relations: Air filter, American Broadcasting Company, American Dialect Society, American Society of International Law, Archbishop of Canterbury, Arms control, Asymmetric warfare, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, BBC News, Begin Doctrine, Belarus, Bernard Baruch, Bharatiya Janata Party, Bill Clinton, Biological agent, Biological hazard, Biological warfare, Biological Weapons Convention, Biosphere, Bomb, Bombing of Guernica, Boston Marathon, Boston Marathon bombing, Brookings Institution, Bruce Schneier, Butler Review, Buzzword, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, CBS, Central Intelligence Agency, Chemical warfare, Chemical weapon, Chemical weapon proliferation, Chemical Weapons Convention, China and weapons of mass destruction, Civil defense, Clement Attlee, CNN, Coalition of the willing, Cold War, Colombia, Commission on the Prevention of WMD proliferation and terrorism, Complaint, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Conventional weapon, Cosmo Gordon Lang, Criminal law, Cuban Missile Crisis, Culture of fear, Daisy (advertisement), ..., Dirty bomb, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, Ethnic bioweapon, Explosive material, Fallout shelter, False memory, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration, Fox News, France and weapons of mass destruction, George H. W. Bush, Germany and weapons of mass destruction, Government Accountability Office, Grenade, Guernica, Gulf War, Gustavo Bell, Harry S. Truman, Herbert Bayard Swope, Hiroshima, Incendiary device, India and weapons of mass destruction, Intercontinental ballistic missile, International Atomic Energy Agency, International law, Invasion of Kuwait, Inverted pyramid (journalism), Iraq and weapons of mass destruction, Iraq disarmament crisis, Iraq Intelligence Commission, Iraq Survey Group, Israel and weapons of mass destruction, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Jacob M. Appel, John F. Kennedy, Joseph Rotblat, Journalism, Kofi Annan, Lake Superior State University, Land mine, Lyndon B. Johnson, Magenta, Media bias, Memory, Menachem Begin, Mike Evans (journalist), Miscellaneous Symbols, Missile, MSNBC, Multi-National Force – Iraq, Mutual assured destruction, Nagasaki, National Ground Intelligence Center, NBC, NBC suit, Netherlands and weapons of mass destruction, New physical principles weapons, Niger uranium forgeries, Nobel Peace Prize, North Korea and weapons of mass destruction, NPR, NSC 68, Nuclear disarmament, Nuclear program of Iran, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear sharing, Nuclear terrorism, Nuclear warfare, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapons of the United States, Nuclear weapons testing, Operation Opera, Outer Space Treaty, Pakistan, Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction, Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Paul Wolfowitz, PBS, Pershing II, Pipe bomb, Popular culture, Presidency of George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, Pressure cooker bomb, Pressure cooking, Program on International Policy Attitudes, Propellant, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radiological warfare, Reykjavík Summit, Rice University, Rick Santorum, Rocket, Ronald Reagan, Russia and weapons of mass destruction, Sarin, Scud, Seabed Arms Control Treaty, Second Sino-Japanese War, Secretary-General of the United Nations, September 11 attacks, Skull and crossbones (symbol), Small arms, Small arms trade, South Africa and weapons of mass destruction, Soviet Union, Spanish Civil War, Strategic bombing, Sulfur mustard, Tamerlan Tsarnaev, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, The Bomb (film), The New York Times Magazine, The Times, The Washington Post, Total war, Treaty, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Trefoil, Turkey, Ukraine, Unit 731, United Kingdom and weapons of mass destruction, United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, United States, United States and weapons of mass destruction, United States Armed Forces, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of State, United States Deputy Secretary of Defense, United States Foreign Service, United States presidential election, 1964, University of California, Berkeley, University of New Mexico, Vannevar Bush, Vehicle armour, War on Terror, Weapon, Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, William Lyon Mackenzie King, William Safire, Word of the year, World War I, World War II, Zacarias Moussaoui, 2001 anthrax attacks, 2003 invasion of Iraq. Expand index (152 more) » « Shrink index
A particulate air filter is a device composed of fibrous or porous materials which removes solid particulates such as dust, pollen, mold, and bacteria from the air.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
The American Dialect Society (ADS), founded in 1889, is a learned society "dedicated to the study of the English language in North America, and of other languages, or dialects of other languages, influencing it or influenced by it." The Society publishes the academic journal, American Speech.
The American Society of International Law (ASIL), founded in 1906, was chartered by the United States Congress in 1950 to foster the study of international law, and to promote the establishment and maintenance of international relations on the basis of law and justice.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
Arms control is a term for international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms, conventional weapons, and weapons of mass destruction.
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Begin doctrine is the common term for the Israeli government's preventive strike, counter-proliferation policy regarding their potential enemies' capability to possess weapons of mass destruction (WMD), particularly nuclear weapons.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Bernard Mannes Baruch (August 19, 1870 – June 20, 1965) was an American financier, stock investor, philanthropist, statesman, and political consultant.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).
Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to as the Biological Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BWC, or Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, abbreviation: BTWC) was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning the production of an entire category of weapons.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.
The bombing of Guernica (26 April 1937) was an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon hosted by several cities in greater Boston in eastern Massachusetts, United States.
During the annual Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, two homemade bombs detonated 12 seconds and apart at 2:49 p.m., near the finish line of the race, killing three people and injuring several hundred others, including 16 who lost limbs.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963, is an American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. He is the author of several books on general security topics, computer security and cryptography. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute. He has been working for IBM since they acquired Resilient Systems where Schneier was CTO. He is also a contributing writer for The Guardian news organization.
The Review of Intelligence on Weapons of Mass Destruction, widely known as the Butler Review after its chairman Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, was announced on 3 February 2004 by the British Government and published on 4 July 2004.
A buzzword is a word or phrase, new or already existing, that becomes very popular for a period of time.
The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) is an organisation that advocates unilateral nuclear disarmament by the United Kingdom, international nuclear disarmament and tighter international arms regulation through agreements such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.
Many nations continue to research and/or stockpile chemical weapon agents despite numerous efforts to reduce or eliminate them.
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.
The People's Republic of China has developed and possesses weapons of mass destruction, including chemical and nuclear weapons.
Civil defense or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attacks and natural disasters.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
The term coalition of the willing generally refers to the US-led Multi-National Force – Iraq.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism (commonly known as the Graham/Talent WMD Commission) of the United States Congress was set up "to assess, within 180 days, any and all of the nation's activities, initiatives, and programs to prevent weapons of mass destruction proliferation and terrorism." The Graham/Talent WMD Commission was also asked to provide concrete recommendations- a roadmap- to address these threats.
In legal terminology, a complaint is any formal legal document that sets out the facts and legal reasons (see: cause of action) that the filing party or parties (the plaintiff(s)) believes are sufficient to support a claim against the party or parties against whom the claim is brought (the defendant(s)) that entitles the plaintiff(s) to a remedy (either money damages or injunctive relief).
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments.
The terms conventional weapons or conventional arms generally refer to weapons that are in relatively wide use that are not weapons of mass destruction (e.g. nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons).
William Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth, (31 October 1864 – 5 December 1945), known as Cosmo Gordon Lang, was a Scottish Anglican prelate who served as Archbishop of York (1908–1928) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1928–1942).
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
Popularized by the American sociologist Barry Glassner, culture of fear (or climate of fear) is the concept that people may incite fear in the general public to achieve political or workplace goals through emotional bias.
"Daisy", sometimes known as "Daisy Girl" or "Peace, Little Girl", was a controversial political advertisement aired on television during the 1964 United States presidential election by incumbent president Lyndon B. Johnson's campaign.
A dirty bomb or radiological dispersal device (RDD) is a speculative radiological weapon that combines radioactive material with conventional explosives.
Dzhokhar Anzorovich "Jahar" Tsarnaev (Kyrgyz: Джохар Царнаев) (born July 22, 1993)Джоха́р Анзо́рович Царна́ев; Царнаев Анзор-кIант ДжовхӀар or ЖовхӀар Carnayev Anzor-khant Dƶovhar is a Kyrgyzstani-American convicted terrorist of Chechen descent May 23, 2013 (New York Times) who was convicted of planting bombs at the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, along with his brother Tamerlan Tsarnaev.
An ethnic bioweapon (biogenetic weapon) is a type of theoretical bioweapon that aims to harm only or primarily people of specific ethnicities or genotypes.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
A fallout shelter is an enclosed space specially designed to protect occupants from radioactive debris or fallout resulting from a nuclear explosion.
A false memory is a psychological phenomenon where a person recalls something that did not happen.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
During his campaign for election as President of the United States, George W. Bush's foreign policy platform included support for a stronger economic and political relationship with Latin America, especially Mexico, and a reduction of involvement in "nation building" and other small-scale military engagements.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
France is one of the five "Nuclear Weapons States" under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, but is not known to possess or develop any chemical or biological weapons.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
Although Germany is one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world, since World War II it has generally refrained from using this technology to outfit its own armed forces with weapons of mass destruction (WMD), although it participates in the NATO nuclear weapons sharing arrangements and trains for delivering nuclear weapons.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
Guernica, official and Basque name Gernika, is a town in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, Spain.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Gustavo Adolfo Bell Lemus (born February 1, 1957) is the current Ambassador of Colombia to Cuba.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Herbert Bayard Swope Sr. (January 5, 1882 – June 20, 1958) was a U.S. editor, journalist and intimate of the Algonquin Round Table.
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
The Republic of India has developed and possesses weapons of mass destruction in the form of nuclear weapons.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a 2-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring state of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country.
The inverted pyramid is a metaphor used by journalists and other writers to illustrate how information should be prioritized and structured in a text (e.g., a news report).
Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs.
The Iraq disarmament crisis was claimed as one of primary issues that led to the multinational invasion of Iraq on 20 March 2003.
The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction is a panel created by Executive Order 13328, signed by U.S. President George W. Bush in February 2004.
The Iraq Survey Group (ISG) was a fact-finding mission sent by the multinational force in Iraq after the 2003 invasion of Iraq to find the weapons of mass destruction alleged to be possessed by Iraq that had been the main ostensible reason for the invasion.
Israel is widely believed to possess weapons of mass destruction, and to be one of four nuclear-armed countries not recognized as a Nuclear Weapons State by the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jacob M. Appel (born February 21, 1973) is an American author, poet, bioethicist, physician, lawyer and social critic.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
Sir Joseph Rotblat (4 November 1908 – 31 August 2005) was a Polish physicist, a self-described "Pole with a British passport".
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.
Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Magenta is a color that is variously defined as purplish-red, reddish-purple, purplish, or mauvish-crimson.
Media bias is the bias or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in the selection of events and stories that are reported and how they are covered.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Menachem Begin (Menaḥem Begin,; Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.
Michael David Evans (born June 30, 1947) is an author, journalist, commentator and the head of several international non-profit organizations in the U.S. and Netherlands.
Miscellaneous Symbols is a Unicode block (U+2600–U+26FF) containing glyphs representing concepts from a variety of categories: astrological, astronomical, chess, dice, musical notation, political symbols, recycling, religious symbols, trigrams, warning signs, and weather, among others.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see pre-emptive nuclear strike and second strike).
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
The National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC) is part of the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
An NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) suit, also called a chemsuit or chem suit or chemical suit is a type of military personal protective equipment.
Although the Netherlands does not have weapons of mass destruction made by itself, the country participates in the NATO nuclear weapons sharing arrangements and trains for delivering United States nuclear weapons.
New physical principles weapons are a wide range of weapons or systems created using emerging technologies, like wave, psychophysical, and genetic weapons.
The Niger uranium forgeries were forged documents initially released by SISMI (Italian military intelligence), which seem to depict an attempt made by Saddam Hussein in Iraq to purchase yellowcake uranium powder from Niger during the Iraq disarmament crisis.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
North Korea has a military nuclear weapons program and also has a significant quantity of chemical and biological weapons.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
United States Objectives and Programs for National Security, better known as NSC68, was a 66-page top secret National Security Council (NSC) policy paper drafted by the Department of State and Department of Defense and presented to President Harry S. Truman on 7 April 1950.
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.
The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
Nuclear sharing is a concept in NATO's policy of nuclear deterrence, which involves member countries without nuclear weapons of their own in the planning for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO.
Nuclear terrorism refers to an act of terrorism in which a person or people belonging to a terrorist organization detonates a nuclear device.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The United States was the first country to manufacture nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in combat, with the separate bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
Operation Opera (מבצע אופרה.), also known as Operation Babylon, was a surprise Israeli air strike carried out on 7 June 1981, which destroyed an Iraqi nuclear reactor under construction 17 kilometers (10.5 miles) southeast of Baghdad.
The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pakistan is one of nine states to possess nuclear weapons. Pakistan began development of nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to having the bomb ready by the end of 1976. Since PAEC, consisting of over twenty laboratories and projects under nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan, was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan was brought from Europe by Bhutto at the end of 1974. As pointed out by Houston Wood, Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, in his article on gas centrifuges, "The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material"; as such, this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb by the end of 1984.Levy, Adrian and Catherine Scott-Clark, Deception: Pakistan, the United States, and the Secret Trade in Nuclear Weapons. New York. Walker Publishing Company. 1977: page 112. Print. The Kahuta Project started under the supervision of a coordination board that oversaw the activities of KRL and PAEC. The Board consisted of A G N Kazi (secretary general, finance), Ghulam Ishaq Khan (secretary general, defence), and Agha Shahi (secretary general, foreign affairs), and reported directly to Bhutto. Ghulam Ishaq Khan and General Tikka Khan appointed military engineer Major General Ali Nawab to the program. Eventually, the supervision passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Administration. Moderate uranium enrichment for the production of fissile material was achieved at KRL by April 1978. Pakistan's nuclear weapons development was in response to the loss of East Pakistan in 1971's Bangladesh Liberation War. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to known as "Multan meeting". Bhutto was the main architect of this programme, and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan's academic scientists to build the atomic bomb in three years for national survival. At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of PAEC, who, until then, had been working as director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability. Following India's surprise nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus. Finally, on 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India's second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai district, Balochistan. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the underground iron-steel tunnel having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator General Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s. The last test of Pakistan was conducted at the sandy Kharan Desert under the codename Chagai-II, also in Balochistan, on 30 May 1998. Pakistan's fissile material production takes place at Nilore, Kahuta, and Khushab Nuclear Complex, where weapons-grade plutonium is refined. Pakistan thus became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons. Although, according to a letter sent by A.Q. Khan to General Zia, the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb using highly enriched uranium as fissile material produced at KRL had been achieved by KRL in 1984.
The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground.
Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is an American political scientist and diplomat who served as the 10th President of the World Bank, United States Ambassador to Indonesia, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, and former dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Pershing II Weapon System was a solid-fueled two-stage ballistic missile designed and built by Martin Marietta to replace the Pershing 1a Field Artillery Missile System as the United States Army's primary nuclear-capable theater-level weapon.
A pipe bomb is an improvised explosive device, which uses a tightly sealed section of pipe filled with an explosive material.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
The presidency of George H. W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 1989, when George H. W. Bush was inaugurated as 41st President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1993.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
A pressure cooker bomb is an improvised explosive device (IED) created by inserting explosive material into a pressure cooker and attaching a blasting cap into the cover of the cooker.
Pressure cooking is the process of cooking food, using water or other cooking liquid, in a sealed vessel known as a pressure cooker.
The Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) is an institution devoted to research on the public opinion of international politics.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning or contamination of an area with radiological sources.
The Reykjavík Summit was a summit meeting between U.S. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, held in Höfði in Reykjavík, on 11–12 October 1986.
William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.
Richard John Santorum (born May 10, 1958) is an American attorney, author, politician, and political commentator.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
According to the Federation of American Scientists, an organization that assesses nuclear weapon stockpiles, as of 2017, the Russian Federation possesses 7,300 total nuclear warheads, of which 4,500 are strategically operational.
Sarin, or NATO designation GB (G-series, 'B'), is a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.
Scud is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The Seabed Arms Control Treaty (or Seabed Treaty, formally the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil thereof) is a multilateral agreement between the United States, Soviet Union (now Russia), United Kingdom, and 91 other countries banning the emplacement of nuclear weapons or "weapons of mass destruction" on the ocean floor beyond a 12-mile (22.2 km) coastal zone.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
A skull and crossbones is a symbol consisting of a human skull and two long bones crossed together under or behind the skull.
Small arms include handguns (revolvers and pistols) and long guns, such as rifles, carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns.
Small arms trade or the small arms market refer to both authorized and illicit markets for small arms and light weapons (SALW), and their parts, accessories, and ammunition.
From the 1960s to the 1980s, South Africa pursued research into weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying its morale or its economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
Tamerlan Anzorovich Tsarnaev (October 21, 1986 – April 19, 2013)Тамерла́н Анзо́рович Царна́ев; Царнаев Анзор-кIант Тамерлан Carnayev Anzor-khant Tamerlan was a Russian-Kyrgyz terrorist of Chechen descent who, with his brother Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, planted bombs at the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Bomb is a 2015 American documentary film about the history of nuclear weapons, from theoretical scientific considerations at the very beginning, to their first use on August 6, 1945,(re William L. Laurence, Pulitzer prize-winning science journalist for the New York Times) to their global political implications in the present day.
The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Trefoil (from Latin trifolium, "three-leaved plant") is a graphic form composed of the outline of three overlapping rings used in architecture and Christian symbolism.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II.
The United Kingdom possesses, or has possessed, a variety of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons.
The United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) was founded on 24 January 1946 by Resolution 1 of the United Nations General Assembly resolution "to deal with the problems raised by the discovery of atomic energy." The General Assembly asked the Commission to "make specific proposals: (a) for extending between all nations the exchange of basic scientific information for peaceful ends; (b) for control of atomic energy to the extent necessary to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes; (c) for the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other major weapons adaptable to mass destruction; (d) for effective safeguards by way of inspection and other means to protect complying States against the hazards of violations and evasions." On 14 December 1946, the General Assembly passed a follow-up resolution urging an expeditious completion of the report by the Commission as well as its consideration by the United Nations Security Council.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1540 was adopted unanimously on 28 April 2004 regarding the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, adopted on 3 April 1991, after reaffirming resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674, 677, 678 (all 1990) and 686 (1991), the Council set the terms, in a comprehensive resolution, with which Iraq was to comply after losing the Gulf War.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States is known to have possessed three types of weapons of mass destruction: nuclear weapons, chemical weapons, and biological weapons.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Deputy Secretary of Defense (acronym: DEPSECDEF) is a statutory office and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The United States Foreign Service is the primary personnel system used by the diplomatic service of the United States federal government, under the aegis of the United States Department of State.
The United States presidential election of 1964, the 45th quadrennial American presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1964.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of New Mexico (also referred to as UNM) is a public research university in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.
Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
The Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission (WMDC) is established on an initiative by the late Foreign Minister of Sweden, Anna Lindh, acting on a proposal by then United Nations Under-Secretary-General Jayantha Dhanapala.
William Lyon Mackenzie King (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950), also commonly known as Mackenzie King, was the dominant Canadian political leader from the 1920s through the 1940s.
William Lewis Safir (December 17, 1929 – September 27, 2009), better known as William SafireSafire, William (1986).
The word(s) of the year, sometimes capitalized as "Word(s) of the Year" and abbreviated "WOTY" (or "WotY"), refers to any of various assessments as to the most important word(s) or expression(s) in the public sphere during a specific year.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zacarias Moussaoui (Arabic: زكريا موسوي,; born May 30, 1968) is a French citizen who pleaded guilty in U.S. federal court to conspiring to kill citizens of the United States as part of the September 11 attacks.
The 2001 anthrax attacks, also known as Amerithrax from its Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case name, occurred within the United States over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001, one week after the September 11 attacks.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
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