76 relations: Abstract syntax, AGRIS, Artificial intelligence, Attribute (computing), Axiom, Basic formal ontology, Biodiversity Information Standards, Bottom type, Cardinality, Class (computer programming), Class hierarchy, Closed-world assumption, Common Logic, Complete theory, DAML+OIL, DARPA, DARPA Agent Markup Language, Decidability (logic), Description logic, Extensional and intensional definitions, First-order logic, FOAF (ontology), Frame language, Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, Geopolitical ontology, HTML, IDEAS Group, IPlant Collaborative, Is-a, James Hendler, Knowledge representation and reasoning, Logic, Logic programming, Meta-Object Facility, Metaclass, Metaclass (Semantic Web), Model theory, Multimedia Web Ontology Language, National Cancer Institute, National Center for Biomedical Ontology, Object Management Group, Object-oriented programming, Ontology (information science), Ontology Inference Layer, Open Biomedical Ontologies, Open-world assumption, Prolog, Protégé (software), RDF Schema, Relational database, ..., Resource Description Framework, Ronald J. Brachman, Semantic reasoner, Semantic Web, Semantics (computer science), Serialization, Simple HTML Ontology Extensions, Simple Knowledge Organization System, SQL, Sublanguage, Suggested Upper Merged Ontology, Swoogle, Taxonomy (general), Thesaurus, Tom Gruber, Top type, Tuple, Turtle (syntax), Unified Modeling Language, Uniform Resource Identifier, University of Manchester, Web standards, William A. Martin, Winnie-the-Pooh (book), World Wide Web Consortium, XML. Expand index (26 more) » « Shrink index
In computer science, the abstract syntax of data is its structure described as a data type (possibly, but not necessarily, an abstract data type), independent of any particular representation or encoding.
AGRIS (International System for Agricultural Science and Technology) is a global public domain database with more than 8 million structured bibliographical records on agricultural science and technology.
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Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
In computing, an attribute is a specification that defines a property of an object, element, or file.
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.
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Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) is a top level ontology developed by Barry Smith and his associates for the purposes of promoting interoperability among domain ontologies built in its terms through a process of downward population.
Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) is a non-profit scientific and educational association that works to develop open standards for the exchange of biodiversity data, facilitating biodiversity informatics.
In type theory, a theory within mathematical logic, the bottom type is the type that has no values.
In mathematics, the cardinality of a set is a measure of the "number of elements of the set".
In object-oriented programming, a class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods).
This article is about the computer science concept.
The closed-world assumption (CWA), in a formal system of logic used for knowledge representation, is the presumption that a statement that is true is also known to be true.
Common Logic (CL) is a framework for a family of logic languages, based on first-order logic, intended to facilitate the exchange and transmission of knowledge in computer-based systems.
In mathematical logic, a theory is complete if, for every formula in the theory's language, that formula or its negation is demonstrable.
DAML+OIL is a successor language to DAML and OIL that combines features of both.
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The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
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The DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) was the name of a US funding program at the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started in 1999 by then-Program Manager James Hendler, and later run by Murray Burke, Mark Greaves and Michael Pagels.
In logic, the term decidable refers to the decision problem, the question of the existence of an effective method for determining membership in a set of formulas, or, more precisely, an algorithm that can and will return a boolean true or false value that is correct (instead of looping indefinitely, crashing, returning "don't know" or returning a wrong answer).
Description logics (DL) are a family of formal knowledge representation languages.
Extensional and intensional definitions are two key ways in which the object(s) or concept(s) a term refers to can be defined.
First-order logic—also known as first-order predicate calculus and predicate logic—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.
FOAF (an acronym of friend of a friend) is a machine-readable ontology describing persons, their activities and their relations to other people and objects.
A frame language is a technology used for knowledge representation in artificial intelligence.
The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020", are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA).
The FAO geopolitical ontology is an Ontology developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to describe, manage and exchange data related to geopolitical entities such as countries, territories, regions and other similar areas.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
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The IDEAS Group is the International Defence Enterprise Architecture Specification for exchange Group.
The iPlant Collaborative is a virtual organization created by a cooperative agreement funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) to create cyberinfrastructure for the plant sciences (botany).
In knowledge representation, object-oriented programming and design (see object-oriented program architecture), is-a (is_a or is a) is a subsumption relationship between abstractions (e.g. types, classes), wherein one class A is a subclass of another class B (and so B is a superclass of A).
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James Alexander Hendler (born April 2, 1957) is an artificial intelligence researcher at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, United States, and one of the originators of the Semantic Web.
Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR, KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
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Logic programming is a type of programming paradigm which is largely based on formal logic.
The Meta-Object Facility (MOF) is an Object Management Group (OMG) standard for model-driven engineering.
In object-oriented programming, a metaclass is a class whose instances are classes.
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In the Semantic Web and in knowledge representation, a metaclass is a class whose instances are themselves classes.
In mathematics, model theory is the study of classes of mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) from the perspective of mathematical logic.
Machine interpretation of documents and services in Semantic Web environment is primarily enabled by (a) the capability to mark documents, document segments and services with semantic tags and (b) the ability to establish contextual relations between the tags with a domain model, which is formally represented as ontology.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) is one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing, and is funded by the NIH.
The Object Management Group (OMG) is an international, open membership, not-for-profit technology '''standards''' consortium.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
In computer science and information science, an ontology encompasses a representation, formal naming, and definition of the categories, properties, and relations of the concepts, data, and entities that substantiate one, many, or all domains.
OIL (Ontology Inference Layer or Ontology Interchange Language) can be regarded as an ontology infrastructure for the Semantic Web.
Open Biomedical Ontologies (abbreviated OBO; formerly Open Biological Ontologies) is an effort to create controlled vocabularies for shared use across different biological and medical domains.
In a formal system of logic used for knowledge representation, the open-world assumption is the assumption that the truth value of a statement may be true irrespective of whether or not it is known to be true.
Prolog is a general-purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics.
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Protégé is a free, open source ontology editor and a knowledge management system.
RDF Schema (Resource Description Framework Schema, variously abbreviated as RDFS, RDF(S), RDF-S, or RDF/S) is a set of classes with certain properties using the RDF extensible knowledge representation data model, providing basic elements for the description of ontologies, otherwise called RDF vocabularies, intended to structure RDF resources.
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A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model.
Ronald Jay "Ron" Brachman (born 1949) is the director of the Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute at Cornell Tech.
A semantic reasoner, reasoning engine, rules engine, or simply a reasoner, is a piece of software able to infer logical consequences from a set of asserted facts or axioms.
The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.
In computer science, in the context of data storage, serialization is the process of translating data structures or object state into a format that can be stored (for example, in a file or memory buffer) or transmitted (for example, across a network connection link) and reconstructed later (possibly in a different computer environment).
In the semantic web, Simple HTML Ontology Extensions are a small set of HTML extensions designed to give web pages semantic meaning by allowing information such as class, subclass and property relationships.
Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C recommendation designed for representation of thesauri, classification schemes, taxonomies, subject-heading systems, or any other type of structured controlled vocabulary.
SQL (S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).
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A sublanguage is a subset of a language.
The Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO) is an upper ontology intended as a foundation ontology for a variety of computer information processing systems.
Swoogle is a search engine for Semantic Web ontologies, documents, terms and data published on the Web.
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Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification.
In general usage, a thesaurus is a reference work that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in alphabetical order.
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Thomas Robert "Tom" Gruber (born 1959) is an American computer scientist, inventor, and entrepreneur with a focus on systems for knowledge sharing and collective intelligence.
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The top type in the type theory of mathematics, logic, and computer science, commonly abbreviated as top or by the down tack symbol (⊤), is the universal type, sometimes called the universal supertype as all other types in any given type system are subtypes of top.
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In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements.
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Terse RDF Triple Language (Turtle) is a syntax and file format for expressing data in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model.
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering, that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system.
A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters designed for unambiguous identification of resources and extensibility via the URI scheme.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
Web standards are the formal, non-proprietary standards and other technical specifications that define and describe aspects of the World Wide Web.
William A. Martin (1938-1981) was a computer scientist from Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Winnie-the-Pooh (1926) is the first volume of stories about Winnie-the-Pooh, written by A. A. Milne and illustrated by E. H. Shepard.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
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