100 relations: Adaptation, Agriculture, Agrostemma, Agrostemma githago, Ailanthus altissima, Allelopathy, Alluvium, Amaranth, Arctium, Bank (geography), Beneficial insects, Beneficial weed, Berberis, Bible, Bindweed, Bramble, Brown rat, Brown-headed cowbird, Bur, Burn, Chenopodium album, Christopher Lloyd (gardener), Chrysolina, Coyote, Crop, Crop weed, Cultivator, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus esculentus, Daucus carota, Dune, East Asia, Environmentalism, Euphorbia esula, Fallopia japonica, Feral pigeon, Garden, Glechoma hederacea, Glyphosate, Goldenrod, Golf course, Grain, Hardpan, Herbalism, Herbicide, Hoe (tool), Horticulture, Human, Hypericum perforatum, Introduced species, ..., Invasive species, Israel, Kudzu, Landscape architecture, Lawn, List of beneficial weeds, Livestock, Loganberry, Mulch, Native plant, Neolithic Revolution, Nerium, Noxious weed, Ohalo, Oxalis, Park, Pathogen, Pest (organism), Pioneer species, Pitch (sports field), Plant, Plantago major, PLOS One, Raccoon, Ragweed, Reproduction, River delta, Ruderal species, Rumex, Silybum marianum, Soil, Soil seed bank, Sonnet, Stem rust, Striga, Sumac, Taraxacum, Taxonomy (biology), Tephritidae, Thorns, spines, and prickles, Toxicodendron radicans, Trifolium repens, Vavilovian mimicry, Vermin, Volunteer (botany), Weed control, Weed of cultivation, White-tailed deer, William Shakespeare, Wilting. Expand index (50 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agrostemma is a genus of annual plants in the Caryophyllaceae family, containing the species known as corncockles.
Agrostemma githago, the common corn-cockle (also written "corncockle").
Ailanthus altissima, commonly known as tree of heaven, ailanthus, or in Standard Chinese as chouchun, is a deciduous tree in the Simaroubaceae family.
Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon by which an organism produces one or more biochemicals that influence the germination, growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms.
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants.
Arctium is a genus of biennial plants commonly known as burdock, family Asteraceae.
In geography, the word bank generally refers to the land alongside a body of water.
Beneficial insects (sometimes called beneficial bugs) are any of a number of species of insects that perform valued services like pollination and pest control.
A beneficial weed is a invasive plant not generally considered domesticated (however, some plants, such as dandelions, in addition to growing wild, are commercially cultivated) that has some companion plant effect, is edible, contributes to soil health, adds ornamental value, or is otherwise beneficial.
Berberis, commonly known as barberry, is a large genus of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from tall, found throughout temperate and subtropical regions of the world (apart from Australia).
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bindweed may refer to.
In British English, a "bramble" is any rough (usually wild) tangled prickly shrub—specifically the blackberry bush (Rubus fruticosus)—or any hybrid of similar appearance, with thorny stems.
The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), also known as the common rat, street rat, sewer rat, Hanover rat, Norway rat, Norwegian rat, Parisian rat or wharf rat, is one of the best known and most common rats.
The brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a small obligate brood parasitic icterid of temperate to subtropical North America.
A bur (also spelled burr) is a seed or dry fruit or infructescence that has hooks or teeth.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Chenopodium album is a fast-growing weedy annual plant in the genus Chenopodium.
Christopher Hamilton Lloyd, OBE (2 March 1921 – 27 January 2006) was a British gardener and author.
Chrysolina is a large genus of leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
Crop weeds are weeds that grow amongst crops.
A cultivator is any of several types of farm implement used for secondary tillage.
Cynodon dactylon, also known as Vilfa stellata, Bermuda grass, Dhoob, dūrvā grass, dubo, dog's tooth grass, Bahama grass, devil's grass, couch grass, Indian doab, arugampul, grama, wiregrass and scutch grass, is a grass that originated in Africa.
Cyperus esculentus (also called chufa sedge, nut grass, yellow nutsedge, tiger nut sedge, or earth almond) is a crop of the sedge family widespread across much of the world.
Daucus carota, whose common names include wild carrot, bird's nest, bishop's lace, and Queen Anne's lace (North America), is a white, flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate regions of Europe and southwest Asia, and naturalized to North America and Australia.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
Euphorbia esula, commonly known as green spurge or leafy spurge, is a species of spurge native to central and southern Europe (north to England, the Netherlands, and Germany), and eastward through most of Asia north of the Himalaya to Korea and eastern Siberia.
Fallopia japonica, synonyms Reynoutria japonica and Polygonum cuspidatum, commonly known as Asian knotweed or Japanese knotweed, is a large, herbaceous perennial plant of the knotweed and buckwheat family Polygonaceae.
Feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica), also called city doves, city pigeons, or street pigeons' Nagy, Kelsi, and Johnson, Phillip David.
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature.
Glechoma hederacea (syn. Nepeta glechoma Benth., Nepeta hederacea (L.) Trevir.) is an aromatic, perennial, evergreen creeper of the mint family Lamiaceae.
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.
Solidago, commonly called goldenrods, is a genus of about 100 to 120 Flora of China.
A golf course is the grounds where the game of golf is played.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
In soil science, agriculture and gardening, Hardpan or Ouklip is a dense layer of soil, usually found below the uppermost topsoil layer.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
A hoe is an ancient and versatile agricultural and horticultural hand tool used to shape soil, remove weeds, clear soil, and harvest root crops.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Kudzu (also called Japanese arrowroot) is a group of plants in the genus Pueraria, in the pea family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.
A lawn is an area of soil-covered land planted with grasses and other durable plants such as clover which are maintained at a short height with a lawnmower and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes.
This is a list of undomesticated or feral plants, generally considered weeds, yet having some positive effects or uses, often being ideal as companion plants in gardens.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
The loganberry (Rubus × loganobaccus) is a hybrid of blackberry (Rubus ursinus) and raspberry (''Rubus idaeus''). The plant and the fruit resemble the blackberry more than the raspberry, but the fruit color is a dark red, rather than black as in blackberries.
A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil.
Native plants are plants indigenous to a given area in geologic time.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
Nerium oleander is a shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocynaceae, toxic in all its parts.
A noxious weed, harmful weed or injurious weed is a weed that has been designated by an agricultural authority as one that is injurious to agricultural or horticultural crops, natural habitats or ecosystems, or humans or livestock.
Ohalo is the common designation for the archaeological site Ohalo II in the vicinity of the Sea of Galilee, and one of the best preserved hunter-gatherer archaeological sites of the Last Glacial Maximum, having been radiocarbon dated to around 19,400 BP.
Oxalis is a large genus of flowering plants in the wood-sorrel family Oxalidaceae comprising about 570 species.
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
Pioneer species are hardy species which are the first to colonize previously biodiverse steady-state ecosystems.
A pitch or a sports ground is an outdoor playing area for various sports.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plantago major (broadleaf plantain, white man's foot, or greater plantain) is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family Plantaginaceae.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
The raccoon (or, Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, or northern raccoon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America.
Ragweeds are flowering plants in the genus Ambrosia in the aster family, Asteraceae.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
A ruderal species is a plant species that is first to colonize disturbed lands.
The docks and sorrels, genus Rumex L., are a genus of about 200 species of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs in the buckwheat family Polygonaceae.
Silybum marianum has other common names include cardus marianus, milk thistle, blessed milkthistle, Marian thistle, Mary thistle, Saint Mary's thistle, Mediterranean milk thistle, variegated thistle and Scotch thistle.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
The soil seed bank is the natural storage of seeds, often dormant, within the soil of most ecosystems.
A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy; Giacomo da Lentini is credited with its invention.
The stem, black, and cereal rusts are caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis and are a significant disease affecting cereal crops.
Striga, commonly known as witchweed, is a genus of parasitic plants that occur naturally in parts of Africa, Asia, and Australia.
Sumac (also spelled sumach, sumaq) (translation, translit), (Mishnaic Hebrew אוֹג.
Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
The Tephritidae are one of two fly families referred to as fruit flies, the other family being the Drosophilidae.
In plant morphology, thorns, spines, and prickles, and in general spinose structures (sometimes called spinose teeth or spinose apical processes), are hard, rigid extensions or modifications of leaves, roots, stems or buds with sharp, stiff ends, and generally serve the same function: physically deterring animals from eating the plant material.
Toxicodendron radicans, commonly known as eastern poison ivy or poison ivy, is a poisonous Asian and Eastern North American flowering plant that is well-known for causing urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, an itchy, irritating, and sometimes painful rash, in most people who touch it.
Trifolium repens, the white clover (also known as Dutch clover, Ladino clover, or Ladino), is a herbaceous perennial plant in the bean family Fabaceae (previously referred to as Leguminosae).
Vavilovian mimicry (also crop mimicry or weed mimicry) is a form of mimicry in plants where a weed comes to share one or more characteristics with a domesticated plant through generations of artificial selection.
Vermin (colloquially varmint or varmit) are pests or nuisance animals, that spread diseases or destroy crops or livestock.
In gardening and agronomic terminology, a volunteer is a plant that grows on its own, rather than being deliberately planted by a farmer or gardener.
Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with desired flora and fauna, this includes domesticated plants and livestock, and in natural settings, it includes stopping non local species competing with native, local, species, especially so in reserves and heritage areas.
A weed of cultivation is any plant that is well-adapted to environments in which land is cultivated for growing some other plant.
The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Wilting is the loss of rigidity of non-woody parts of plants.