244 relations: Adolf Hitler, Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Aircraft carrier, Albert Battel, Albert Speer, Alfred Jodl, Alfred von Tirpitz, Allied Control Council, Anschluss, Anti-partisan operations in World War II, Anton Schmid, Area of operations, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Armoured warfare, Army Group Centre, Army Group North, Army Group South, Artillery, Aryan race, Axis powers, Balkan Campaign (World War II), Balkenkreuz, Battle of annihilation, Battle of Britain, Battle of France, Battle of Kursk, Battle of Moscow, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of the Barents Sea, Battle of the Bulge, Battle of the Caucasus, Battle of the Mediterranean, Battle of the Netherlands, Battleship, Bicycle infantry, Blitzkrieg, Blomberg–Fritsch affair, Bribery of senior Wehrmacht officers, Bundeswehr, Chancellor of Germany, Channel Dash, Claus von Stauffenberg, Clean Wehrmacht, Cold War, Collaborationism, Combined arms, Combined Bomber Offensive, Commander-in-chief, Commissar Order, ..., Communism, Conscription, Cossacks, Coup d'état, Crimes against humanity, Cruiser, Crusades, Czechoslovakia, Death squad, Defence of the Reich, Destroyer, East Germany, Eastern Front (World War II), Einsatzgruppen, Encirclement, Enigma machine, Erich Hoepner, Erich Raeder, Erich von Manstein, Erwin Rommel, Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory, Führer, Führerbunker, Feldgrau, Ferdinand Schörner, Final Solution, Fleet in being, Frankfurt Constitution, Franz Halder, Friedrich Olbricht, Generalfeldmarschall, Geoffrey P. Megargee, Georg von Küchler, Georg-Hans Reinhardt, Gerd von Rundstedt, German Army (Wehrmacht), German General Staff, German Instrument of Surrender, German invasion of Denmark (1940), German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, German occupation of Czechoslovakia, German re-armament, German Reich, German resistance to Nazism, German war crimes, Glossary of German military terms, Glossary of Nazi Germany, Gornji Milanovac, Hannes Heer, Hans Krebs (Wehrmacht general), Hans von Seeckt, Hans-Georg von Friedeburg, Harald Welzer, Harvard University Press, Heinz Guderian, Helmut Krausnick, Henning von Tresckow, Hermann Göring, Hermann Hoth, High Command Trial, Hitler oath, Hitler's Generals on Trial, Horses in World War II, Hugh M. Cole, Hungary, Ian Kershaw, Internment, Interservice rivalry, Invasion of Poland, Iron Cross, Italian Campaign (World War II), Jürgen Förster, Jeffrey Herf, Jewish Bolshevism, Jews, Joachim Fest, John Wheeler-Bennett, Jonathan House, Junkers Ju 87, Karl Dönitz, Karl von Roques, Kaukasisch-Mohammedanische Legion, Killed in action, Klaus Naumann, Klaus Naumann (historian), Kragujevac, Kriegsmarine, Kurt Zeitzler, List of events named massacres, List of German divisions in World War II, List of military decorations of Nazi Germany, Ludwig Beck, Luftwaffe, Machine gun, Manfred Messerschmidt, Mark 24 mine, Mass grave, Mass murder, Master race, Max Hastings, Messerschmitt Bf 109, Michael Marrus, Military, Military campaign, Military discharge, Military operation, Ministry of Aviation (Nazi Germany), Missing in action, Mission-type tactics, National People's Army, Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, Nazi salute, Nazi symbolism, Norman J.W. Goda, North African Campaign, Norway, Norwegian Campaign, Nuremberg trials, Oberkommando der Luftwaffe, Oberkommando der Marine, Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Oberkommando des Heeres, Omer Bartov, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Dragoon, Operation Overlord, Operation Weserübung, Panzer division, Paul von Hindenburg, Phoney War, Polish Corridor, President of Germany (1919–1945), Radar, Reichsmarschall, Reichswehr, Reprisal, Richard J. Evans, Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics, Robert M. Citino, Robert Ritter von Greim, Romania, Ronald Smelser, Royal Italian Army, Sönke Neitzel, Schutzstaffel, Serbs, Siege of Leningrad, Sonar, Soviet partisans, Soviet Union, Spanish Civil War, SS-Totenkopfverbände, Starvation, Submarine, Svalbard, Tank, Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia, The Agenda, The Myth of the Eastern Front, The Wages of Destruction, The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality, Theater (warfare), Three-star rank, Treaty of Rapallo (1922), Treaty of Versailles, Tunisian Campaign, Turkestan Legion, TVOntario, U-boat, U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center, Unconditional surrender, United States Army Command and General Staff College, University Press of Kansas, Vilna Ghetto, Waffen-SS, Walter Warlimont, Walther von Brauchitsch, Walther von Reichenau, Władysław Szpilman, Wehrmacht Propaganda Troops, Weimar Constitution, Werner von Blomberg, Werner von Fritsch, West Germany, White émigré, Wilhelm Keitel, Wilm Hosenfeld, Wolfram Wette, World War I, World War II, Wounded in action, 1940 Field Marshal Ceremony, 20 July plot. Expand index (194 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
Albert Battel (21 January 1891 – 1952) was a German Army lieutenant and lawyer recognized for his resistance during World War II to the Nazi plans for the 1942 liquidation of the Przemyśl Jewish ghetto.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl (10 May 1890 – 16 October 1946) was a German general during World War II, who served as the Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht).
Alfred Peter Friedrich von Tirpitz (19 March 1849 – 6 March 1930) was a German Grand Admiral, Secretary of State of the German Imperial Naval Office, the powerful administrative branch of the German Imperial Navy from 1897 until 1916.
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Anti-partisan operations during World War II were counter-insurgency operations against the various partisan resistance movements.
Anton Schmid (January 9, 1900 in Vienna, Austria – April 13, 1942 in Vilnius, Lithuania) was an Austrian conscript to the Wehrmacht in World War II who, as a sergeant in Vilnius, Lithuania, was executed by his superiors for helping 250 Jewish men, women, and children escape from extermination by the Nazi SS during the European Jewish Holocaust.
In U.S. armed forces parlance, an area of operations (AO) is an operational area defined by the force commander for land, air, and naval forces conduct of combat and non-combat activities.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.
Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II.
Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord) was a German strategic echelon formation, commanding a grouping of field armies during World War II.
Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd) was the name of two German Army Groups during World War II.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The Aryan race was a racial grouping used in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of European and Western Asian heritage.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Balkan Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940.
The Balkenkreuz is a straight-armed cross that was the emblem of the Wehrmacht (German Armed Forces) and its branches from 1935 until the end of World War II.
A battle of annihilation is a military strategy in which an attacking army seeks to destroy the military capacity of the opposing army in a single planned pivotal battle.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of Moscow (translit) was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The Battle of the Barents Sea was a naval engagement on 31 December 1942 between warships of the Nazi German Kriegsmarine and British ships escorting convoy JW 51B to Kola Inlet in the USSR.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II.
The Battle of the Mediterranean was the name given to the naval campaign fought in the Mediterranean Sea during World War II, from 10 June 1940 to 2 May 1945.
The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was a military campaign part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.
Bicycle infantry are infantry soldiers who maneuver on (or, more often, between) battlefields using military bicycles.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
The Blomberg–Fritsch affair, also known as the Blomberg–Fritsch crisis (German: Blomberg–Fritsch–Krise), was two related scandals in early 1938 that resulted in the subjugation of the German Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) to dictator Adolf Hitler.
From 1933 to the end of the Second World War, high-ranking officers of the Armed Forces of Nazi Germany accepted vast bribes in the form of cash, estates, and tax exemptions in exchange for their loyalty to Nazism.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
The Channel Dash or Unternehmen Zerberus (Operation Cerberus) was a German naval operation during World War II.
Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and member of the Bavarian noble family von Stauffenberg, who was one of the leading members of the failed 20 July plot of 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler and remove the Nazi Party from power.
The myth of the Clean Wehrmacht (Saubere Wehrmacht), Clean Wehrmacht legend (Legende von der sauberen Wehrmacht), or Wehrmacht's "clean hands" is the belief that the Wehrmacht was an apolitical organization along the lines of its predecessor, the Reichswehr, and was largely innocent of Nazi Germany's crimes, comporting themselves as honorably as the armed forces of the Western Allies.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).
The Combined Bomber Offensive (CBO) was an Anglo-American offensive of strategic bombing during World War II in Europe.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commissar Order (Kommissarbefehl) was an order issued by the German High Command (OKW) on 6 June 1941 before Operation Barbarossa.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
A cruiser is a type of warship.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror.
The Defence of the Reich (Reichsverteidigung) is the name given to the strategic defensive aerial campaign fought by the Luftwaffe over German-occupied Europe and Nazi Germany during World War II.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
Encirclement is a military term for the situation when a force or target is isolated and surrounded by enemy forces.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
Erich Hoepner (14 September 1886 – 8 August 1944) was a German general during World War II.
Erich Johann Albert Raeder (24 April 1876 – 6 November 1960) was a German grand admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
Erich von Manstein (24 November 1887 – 9 June 1973) was a German commander of the Wehrmacht, Nazi Germany's armed forces during the Second World War.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory is a history book about World War II in Europe, written by the English historian Norman Davies.
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
The Führerbunker was an air raid shelter located near the Reich Chancellery in Berlin, Germany.
Feldgrau (field-grey) has been the official basic color of military uniforms of the German armed forces from the early 20th century until 1945 or 1989 respectively.
Ferdinand Schörner (12 June 1892 – 2 July 1973) was a general and later Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
In naval warfare, a "fleet in being" is a naval force that extends a controlling influence without ever leaving port.
The Frankfurt Constitution (Frankfurter Reichsverfassung, FRV) or Constitution of St.
Franz Halder (30 June 1884 – 2 April 1972) was a German general and the chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres staff (OKH, Army High Command) from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler.
Friedrich Olbricht (4 October 1888 – 21 July 1944) was a German general during World War II and one of the plotters involved in the 20 July Plot, an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1944.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
Geoffrey P. Megargee (born 1959) is an American historian and author who specialises in the World War II military history and the history of the Holocaust.
Georg Karl Friedrich Wilhelm von Küchler (30 May 1881 – 25 May 1968) was a German Field Marshal and war criminal during World War II.
Georg-Hans Reinhardt (1 March 1887 – 23 November 1963) was a German general and war criminal during World War II.
Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (12 December 1875 – 24 February 1953) was a Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The German General Staff, originally the Prussian General Staff and officially Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab), was a full-time body at the head of the Prussian Army and later, the German Army, responsible for the continuous study of all aspects of war, and for drawing up and reviewing plans for mobilization or campaign.
The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.
The German invasion of Denmark was the fighting that followed the German army crossing the Danish border on 9 April 1940 by land, sea and air.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
The German rearmament (Aufrüstung) was an era of rearmament in Germany during the interwar period (1918–1939), in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1945 in the German language.
German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945.
The governments of the German Empire and Nazi Germany ordered, organized and condoned a substantial number of war crimes in World War I and World War II respectively.
This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that have been or are used by the German military.
This is a list of words, terms, concepts and slogans of Nazi Germany used in the historiography covering the Nazi regime.
Gornji Milanovac (Гoрњи Милановац) is a town and municipality located in the Moravica District of central Serbia.
Hans Georg Heer (known as Hannes) (born 16 March 1941 in Wissen, Rhine Province) is a German historian, chiefly known for the "Wehrmachtsausstellung" (German Army Exhibition) in the 1990s.
Hans Krebs (4 March 1898 – 2 May 1945) was a German Army general of infantry who served during World War II.
Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt (22 April 1866 – 27 December 1936) was a German military officer who served as Chief of Staff to August von Mackensen, and was a central figure in planning the victories Mackensen achieved for Germany in the east during the First World War.
Hans-Georg von Friedeburg (15 July 1895 – 23 May 1945) was a German admiral, the deputy commander of the U-boat Forces of Nazi Germany and the last Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine.
Harald Welzer (born 27 July 1958, Hannover) is a German social psychologist.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a German general during the Nazi era.
Helmut Krausnick (1905–1990) was a German historian and author.
Hermann Henning Karl Robert von Tresckow (10 January 1901 – 21 July 1944) was an officer in the German Army who helped organize German resistance against Adolf Hitler.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Hermann Hoth (12 April 1885 – 25 January 1971) was a German army commander and war criminal during World War II.
The High Command Trial (officially, The United States of America vs. Wilhelm von Leeb, et al.), also known initially as Case No.
The term Hitler oath (German: Führereid or Eid auf den Führer, "Oath to the Leader") — also often referred to in English as simply the Soldier's Oath or Soldiers' Oath — refers to the oaths of allegiance, sworn by the officers and soldiers of the German Armed Forces and civil servants of Nazi Germany between the years 1934 and 1945.
Hitler's Generals on Trial: The Last War Crimes Tribunal at Nuremberg is a 2010 book by Canadian historian Valerie Hébert dealing with the High Command Trial of 19471948.
Horses in World War II were used by the belligerent nations for transportation of troops, artillery, materiel, and, to a lesser extent, in mobile cavalry troops.
Hugh Marshall Cole (July 14, 1910 – June 5, 2005) was an American historian and army officer, best known as the author of The Lorraine Campaign and The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge, two volumes of the U.S. Army official history of World War II.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Sir Ian Kershaw, FBA (born 29 April 1943) is an English historian and author whose work has chiefly focused on the social history of 20th-century Germany.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
Interservice rivalry is the rivalry between different branches of a country's armed forces, in other words the competition for limited resources among a nation's land, naval, and air forces.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The Iron Cross (abbreviated EK) is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Jürgen Förster (born 1940) is a German historian who specialises in the history of Nazi Germany and World War II.
Jeffrey C. Herf (born April 24, 1947) is an American historian.
Jewish Bolshevism, also Judeo–Bolshevism, is an anti-communist and antisemitic canard, which alleges that the Jews were the originators of the Russian Revolution in 1917 and that they held the primary power among the Bolsheviks.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joachim Clemens Fest (8 December 1926 – 11 September 2006) was a German historian, journalist, critic, and editor best known for his writings and public commentary on Nazi Germany, including an important biography of Adolf Hitler and books about Albert Speer and the German Resistance to Nazism.
Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett (13 October 1902 in Keston, Kent – 9 December 1975 in London) was a conservative English historian of German and diplomatic history, and the official biographer of King George VI.
Jonathan M. House (June 22, 1950) is an American military historian and author.
The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") is a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft.
Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
Karl von Roques (7 May 1880 – 24 December 1949) was a German general and war criminal during the Second World War, who commanded the Army Group Rear Area behind Army Group South.
The Caucasian Muslim Legion (German: Kaukasische Mohammedaner- Legion/Kaukasische Moslem-Legion) was a volunteer unit of the German Army.
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
Klaus Naumann (born 25 May 1939 in Munich) is a retired German General, who served as Chief of Staff of the Bundeswehr, the German armed forces, from 1991 to 1996, and as Chairman of the NATO Military Committee from 1996 to 1999, succeeding the British general Richard Frederick Vincent, Baron Vincent of Coleshill.
Klaus Naumann (born 1949) is a German historian and author who specialises in modern European history.
Kragujevac (Крагујевац) is the fourth largest city of Serbia and the administrative center of the Šumadija District in central Serbia.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
Kurt Zeitzler (June 9, 1895 – September 25, 1963) was a Chief of the Army General Staff in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The following is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "massacre." Massacre is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "the indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people or (less commonly) animals; carnage, butchery, slaughter in numbers".
This article lists divisions of the Wehrmacht (German Armed Forces), including the Army, Luftwaffe, and Kriegsmarine, active during World War II.
The military decorations of Nazi Germany were awards and medals bestowed by the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS between 1935 and 1945, during the rule of the Nazi Party in Germany and the years of World War II.
Ludwig August Theodor Beck (29 June 1880 – 21 July 1944) was a German general and Chief of the German General Staff during the early years of the Nazi regime in Germany before World War II.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Manfred Messerschmidt (born 1926) is a German historian who specialises in the history of Nazi Germany and World War II.
The Mark 24 mine (also known as FIDO or Fido) was a United States air-dropped passive acoustic homing anti-submarine torpedo used during the Second World War against German and Japanese submarines.
A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial.
Mass murder is the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity.
The master race (die Herrenrasse) is a concept in Nazi and Neo-Nazi ideology in which the Nordic or Aryan races, predominant among Germans and other northern European peoples, are deemed the highest in racial hierarchy.
Sir Max Hugh Macdonald Hastings (born 28 December 1945) is a British journalist, who has worked as a foreign correspondent for the BBC, editor-in-chief of The Daily Telegraph, and editor of the Evening Standard.
The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force.
Michael Robert Marrus, (born February 3, 1941) is a Canadian historian of the Holocaust, modern European and Jewish history and International Humanitarian Law.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
The term military campaign applies to large scale, long duration, significant military strategy plans incorporating a series of inter-related military operations or battles forming a distinct part of a larger conflict often called a war.
A military discharge is given when a member of the armed forces is released from his or her obligation to serve.
A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
The Ministry of Aviation, December 1938 The Ministry of Aviation (Reichsluftfahrtministerium), abbreviated RLM, was a government department during the period of Nazi Germany (1933–45).
Missing in action (MIA) is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, and prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire.
Mission-type tactics (Auftragstaktik, from Auftrag and Taktik; also known as mission command in the US and UK), is a form of military tactics where the emphasis is on the outcome of a mission rather than the specific means of achieving it.
The National People's Army (NPA) (German: Nationale Volksarmee – NVA) was the name used for the armed forces of the German Democratic Republic.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
The Nazi salute, or Hitler salute (Hitler Greeting), is a gesture that was used as a greeting in Nazi Germany.
The 20th century German Nazi Party made extensive use of graphic symbolism, especially the swastika, which was used as its principal symbol and in the form of the swastika flag became the state flag of Nazi Germany.
Norman J. W. Goda is an American historian who specialises in the history of the Nazi Germany and the Holocaust.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Norwegian Campaign (9 April to 10 June 1940) was fought in Norway between Norway, the Allies and Germany in World War II after the latter's invasion of the country.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL), translated as the High Command of the Air Force in English, was the high command of the Luftwaffe.
The Oberkommando der Marine (OKM) was Nazi Germany's Naval High Command and the highest administrative and command authority of the Kriegsmarine.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany.
Omer Bartov (Hebrew: עֹמֶר בַּרְטוֹב; pronounced ʕoˈmer ˈbartov; born 1954) is the John P. Birkelund Distinguished Professor of European History and Professor of History and Professor of German Studies at Brown University.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.
A panzer division is one of the armored (tank) divisions in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
The Phoney War (Drôle de guerre; Sitzkrieg) was an eight-month period at the start of World War II, during which there was only one limited military land operation on the Western Front, when French troops invaded Germany's Saar district.
The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia.
The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, which was officially in force from 1919 to 1945.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Reichsmarschall, Marshal of the Reich (literal translation: Empire or Realm), was the highest rank in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
A reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of international law to punish another sovereign state that has already broken them.
Sir Richard John Evans (born 29 September 1947), is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany.
The Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics, often shortened to the Dole Institute, is a nonpartisan political institution located at the University of Kansas and founded by the former U.S. Senator from Kansas and 1996 Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole.
Robert M. Citino (born June 19, 1958) is an American military historian and the Samuel Zemurray Stone Senior Historian at the National WWII Museum.
Robert Ritter von Greim (born Robert Greim; 22 June 1892 – 24 May 1945) was a German Field Marshal and pilot.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Ronald Smelser (born 1942) is an American historian, author, and former professor of history at the University of Utah.
The Royal Italian Army (Italian: Regio Esercito Italiano) was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946.
Sönke Neitzel (born June 26, 1968) is a German historian who has written extensively about the Second World War.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV), rendered in English as Death's Head Units, was the SS organization responsible for administering the Nazi concentration camps for the Third Reich, among similar duties.
Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
The Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia (Gebiet des Militärbefehlshabers in Serbien) was the area of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that was placed under a military government of occupation by the Wehrmacht following the invasion, occupation and dismantling of Yugoslavia in April 1941.
The Agenda with Steve Paikin, or The Agenda, is the flagship current affairs program of TVOntario (TVO), Ontario’s public broadcaster.
The Myth of the Eastern Front: The Nazi-Soviet War in American Popular Culture is a 2008 book by the American historians Ronald Smelser and Edward J. Davies of the University of Utah.
The Wages of Destruction is a non-fiction book detailing the economic history of Nazi Germany.
The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality is a 2002 book by German historian Wolfram Wette which dealt with the issue of Wehrmacht's criminality during World War II and the legend of its "clean hands".
In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.
An officer of three-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8.
The Treaty of Rapallo was an agreement signed on 16 April 1922 between Germany and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) under which each renounced all territorial and financial claims against the other following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and World War I. The two governments also agreed to normalise their diplomatic relations and to "co-operate in a spirit of mutual goodwill in meeting the economic needs of both countries".
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.
The Turkestan Legion (Turkistanische Legion) was the name for the military units composed of the Turkic peoples who fought in the Wehrmacht during World War II.
TVOntario (often shortened to TVO and stylized on-air as tvo) is a Canadian publicly funded English language educational television station and media organization serving the Canadian province of Ontario.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
The United States Army Heritage and Education Center (USAHEC), in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, is the U.S. Army's primary historical research facility.
An unconditional surrender is a surrender in which no guarantees are given to the surrendering party.
The United States Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC or, obsolete, USACGSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, and international military officers.
The University Press of Kansas is a publisher located in Lawrence, KS that represents the six state universities in the US state of Kansas: Emporia State University, Fort Hays State University, Kansas State University (K-State), Pittsburg State University, the University of Kansas (KU), and Wichita State University.
The Vilna Ghetto was a World War II Jewish ghetto established and operated by Nazi Germany in the city of Vilnius in the territory of Nazi-administered Reichskommissariat Ostland.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
Walter Warlimont (3 October 1894 – 9 October 1976) was a German staff officer and war criminal during World War II.
Walther von Brauchitsch (4 October 1881 – 18 October 1948) was a German field marshal and the Commander-in-Chief of the German Army during the Nazi era.
Walter Karl Ernst August von Reichenau (8 October 1884 – 17 January 1942) was a field marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Władysław Szpilman (5 December 19116 July 2000) was a Polish pianist and classical composer of Jewish descent.
Wehrmacht Propaganda Troops (Wehrmachtpropaganda, abbreviated as WPr) was a branch of service of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Constitution of the German Reich (Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic era (1919–1933).
Werner Eduard Fritz von Blomberg (2 September 1878 – 14 March 1946) was a German ''Generalfeldmarschall'', Minister of War, and Commander-in-Chief of the German Armed Forces until January 1938, as he was forced to resign due to his marriage with a former prostitute.
Werner, Freiherr von Fritsch (4 August 1880 – 22 September 1939) was a member of the German High Command.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
A white émigré was a Russian subject who emigrated from Imperial Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War, and who was in opposition to the contemporary Russian political climate.
Wilhelm Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) in Nazi Germany during World War II.
Wilhelm Adalbert Hosenfeld (2 May 1895 – 13 August 1952), originally a school teacher, was a German Army officer who by the end of the Second World War had risen to the rank of Hauptmann (Captain).
Wolfram Wette (born 11 November 1940) is a German military historian and peace researcher.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wounded in action (WIA) describes combatants who have been wounded while fighting in a combat zone during wartime, but have not been killed.
The 1940 Field Marshal Ceremony refers to a promotion ceremony held at the Kroll Opera House in Berlin in which Adolf Hitler promoted twelve generals to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall ("field marshal") on 19 July 1940.
On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia.
Deutsche Wehrmacht, German aid to Soviet civilians in World War II, German officers, Hitler's army, Military of Nazi Germany, Nazi German armed forces, Nazi German army, Nazi army, Nazi forces, Nazi military, Nazi soldiers, Wehrmacht Service, Wermacht, World War II/Wehrmacht.