32 relations: Baoji, Beijing, Chinese mythology, Chishui River (Shaanxi), Commercial Press, Dingxi, Dunhuang, Gansu, Han dynasty, Historical capitals of China, History of China, Jiang River, Jing River, Kashgar, Kua Fu, Lanzhou, Luo River (Shaanxi), Niutou River, Northern Silk Road, Parthia, Qin dynasty, Shaanxi, Shennong, Taklamakan Desert, Tang dynasty, Tianshui, Weiyuan County, Gansu, Wushao Mountain, Xi'an, Yan Emperor, Yellow River, Zhou dynasty.
() is a prefecture-level city in western Shaanxi province, People's Republic of China.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.
The Chishui River (literally "Red Water River") is a river in China.
The Commercial Press is the first modern publishing organisation in China.
Dingxi is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Gansu province, People's Republic of China.
Dunhuang is a county-level city in northwestern Gansu Province, Western China.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China".
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The Jiang River (p Jiāng Shuǐ) is the ancient name of a river in China.
The Jing River or Jing He (Pinyin: Jīng Hé), also called Jing Shui, is a tributary of the Wei River, which in turn is the largest tributary of the Yellow River.
Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Kua Fu or Kuafu is a giant in Chinese mythology who wished to capture the Sun.
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.
Luo River, also known by its Chinese name as the is a tributary of the Wei River.
The Niutou River is a major tributary of the Wei River, streaming north-east of Tianshui and through the town of Qingshui.
The Northern Silk Road is a prehistoric trackway in northern China originating in the early capital of Xi'an and extending north of the Taklamakan Desert to reach the ancient kingdoms of Parthia, Bactria and eventually Persia and Rome.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.
The Taklamakan Desert (Xiao'erjing: تَاكْلامَاقًا شَاموْ; تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; Такәламаган Шамә), also spelled "Taklimakan" and "Teklimakan", is a desert in southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tianshui is the second-largest city in Gansu Province, China.
Weiyuan County is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China.
Wushao Mountain, Wushao Ling Mountain or Wushaoling is a landform in Gansu Province, China, with significant desert elements on its northern slope.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Yan Emperor or the Flame Emperor was a legendary ancient Chinese ruler in pre-dynastic times.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.