280 relations: Adolf Hitler, Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Alfred Hugenberg, Allies of World War I, Alsace-Lorraine, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, Article 48 (Weimar Constitution), Atheism, Austerity, Authoritarianism, Baden, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Bauhaus, Bauhaus Dessau Foundation, Bavaria, Bavarian People's Party, Bavarian Soviet Republic, Bebelplatz, Beer Hall Putsch, Belgian Land Component, Belgium, Berlin Declaration (1945), Berlin Palace, Blasphemy, British Army, Bundestag, Cabaret, Cabinet (government), Calvinism, Carl Schmitt, Catholic Church, Central bank, Centre Party (Germany), Chancellor, Chancellor of Germany, Charge (heraldry), Coalition, Coat of arms of Germany, Communist Party of Germany, Conservatism, Constituent assembly, Constitution of East Germany, Constitutionalism, Constructive vote of no confidence, Council of the People's Deputies, Court-martial, Czechoslovakia, Dawes Plan, De facto, ..., Debt deflation, Decree, Deflation, Der Spiegel, Deutschlandlied, East Germany, Ebert–Groener pact, Eight-hour day, Einstein Tower, Election threshold, Emil Doepler, Enabling act, Enabling Act of 1933, Ensign, Erich Ludendorff, Ernestine duchies, Escutcheon (heraldry), Eupen, Federalism, Flag of Germany, Flensburg, Flensburg Government, Frankfurt Constitution, Frankfurt Parliament, Franz von Papen, Free City of Lübeck, Free State of Prussia, Freikorps, French Army, Friedrich Ebert, Garrison Church (Potsdam), Gau (territory), General strike, George Grosz, German Army (German Empire), German Democratic Party, German federal election, 1930, German federal election, July 1932, German federal election, March 1933, German federal election, November 1932, German gold mark, German language, German National People's Party, German Papiermark, German Reich, German Rentenmark, German Workers' Party, German-speaking Community of Belgium, Germany, Gleichschaltung, Goddess, Gold standard, Golden Twenties, Grand coalition, Great Depression, Great Depression in the United States, Greater Hamburg Act, Greater Poland uprising (1918–1919), Gregor Strasser, Großes Schauspielhaus, Gules, Gustav Noske, Gustav Ritter von Kahr, Gustav Stresemann, Hajo Holborn, Hamburg, Hans von Seeckt, Harold James (historian), Heinrich Brüning, Heinrich Heine, Hermann Göring, Hermann Müller (politician), History of the United States Army, Holy See, Hoover Moratorium, House of Hohenzollern, Hugo Haase, Hugo Stinnes, Hyperinflation, Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic, Ian Kershaw, Imperial German Navy, Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany, Institute of Contemporary History (Munich), Internal devaluation, Jews, Joseph Goebbels, Joseph Schumpeter, Josephine Baker, Junker, Kampfbund, Kapp Putsch, Karl Dönitz, Karl Liebknecht, Kiel, Kiel mutiny, Kurt von Schleicher, Last will and testament of Adolf Hitler, League of Nations, Left-wing politics, List of authors banned in Nazi Germany, List of states of the German Empire, Locarno Treaties, Ludwig III of Bavaria, Ludwig Kaas, Lutheranism, Majoritarianism, Malmedy, Martin Heidegger, Mein Kampf, Minister for Foreign Affairs (Germany), Mores, Motion of no confidence, Munich, National colours of Germany, Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, Negotiation, Nihilism, Nobel Peace Prize, Nuremberg trials, Oberste Heeresleitung, Occupation of the Ruhr, Officer (armed forces), Or (heraldry), Orders of magnitude (numbers), Organisation Consul, Oskar von Hindenburg, Otto Wels, Parliamentary republic, Parliamentary system, Paul von Hindenburg, PDF, Pennon, Permanent Court of International Justice, Peter Lang (publisher), Philipp Scheidemann, Pope Pius XII, Potsdam, President of Germany (1919–1945), Presidential system, Prince Maximilian of Baden, Princeton University, Principality of Reuss-Greiz, Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont, Proportional representation, Protestantism, Province of Posen, Provinces of Prussia, Prussia, Redenomination, Regent, Reichsbank, Reichsflotte, Reichskonkordat, Reichsmarine, Reichsmark, Reichsrat (Germany), Reichstag (Weimar Republic), Reichstag building, Reichstag fire, Reichstag Fire Decree, Reichswehr, Republic, Rhineland, Richard J. Evans, Right-wing politics, Rosa Luxemburg, Ruhr, Ruhr uprising, Rule by decree, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Sable (heraldry), Saxe-Coburg, Saxony, Schutzstaffel, Schweinemord, Semi-presidential system, Separation of church and state, Silesian Uprisings, Simon & Schuster, Skirmish of the Berlin Schloss, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Soviet (council), Soviet Union, Spartacist uprising, Spartacus League, Stab-in-the-back myth, States of Germany, Sterling area, Sturmabteilung, Stuttgart, Submarine, Territory of the Saar Basin, The 1920s Berlin Project, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, The Third Reich Trilogy, Theodor Heuss, Thuringia, Timeline of the Weimar Republic, Trade union, Treason, Treaty of Rapallo (1922), Treaty of Versailles, Tricolour (flag), Two-round system, United and uniting churches, United Kingdom, Upper Silesia, Vatican City, Volker Berghahn, W. E. B. Du Bois, Walter Gropius, Walther Rathenau, Württemberg Landtag elections in the Weimar Republic, Wehrmacht, Weimar, Weimar Constitution, Weimar culture, Weimar National Assembly, Weimar paramilitary groups, West Germany, Wilhelm Frick, Wilhelm Groener, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Wolfgang Kapp, World War I, World War I reparations, Young Plan. Expand index (230 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).
Alfred Ernst Christian Alexander Hugenberg (19 June 1865 – 12 March 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
Article 231, often known as the War Guilt Clause, was the opening article of the reparations section of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War between the German Empire and the Allied and Associated Powers.
Article 48 of the constitution of the Weimar Republic of Germany (1919–1933) allowed the President, under certain circumstances, to take emergency measures without the prior consent of the Reichstag.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Austerity is a political-economic term referring to policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Baden is a historical German territory.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.
The Bauhaus Dessau Foundation is a Foundation (nonprofit organization) under public law.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The Bavarian People's Party (Bayerische Volkspartei; BVP) was the Bavarian branch of the Centre Party, a lay Roman Catholic party, which broke off from the rest of the party in 1918 to pursue a more conservative, more Bavarian particularist course.
The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayerische Räterepublik)Hollander, Neil (2013) Elusive Dove: The Search for Peace During World War I. McFarland.
The Bebelplatz (formerly colloquially Opernplatz) is a public square in the central Mitte district of Berlin, the capital of Germany.
The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch,Dan Moorhouse, ed.
The Land Component (Landcomponent, Composante terre) is the land-based branch of the Belgian Armed Forces.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
By the Berlin Declaration (Berliner Erklärung/Deklaration) of 5 June 1945,Officially, the "Declaration regarding the defeat of Germany and the assumption of supreme authority with respect to Germany by the Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the Provisional Government of the French Republic".
The Berlin Palace (Berliner Schloss or Stadtschloss), also known as the Berlin City Palace, is a building in the centre of Berlin, located on the Museum Island at Schlossplatz, opposite the Lustgarten park.
Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
Cabaret is a form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Carl Schmitt (11 July 1888 – 7 April 1985) was a conservative German jurist and political theorist.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or just Zentrum) is a lay Catholic political party in Germany, primarily influential during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic.
Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
In heraldry, a charge is any emblem or device occupying the field of an escutcheon (shield).
The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more persons, faction, states, political parties, militaries etc.
The coat of arms of Germany displays a black eagle with a red beak, tongue and feet on a golden field, which is blazoned: Or, an eagle displayed sable beaked langued and membered gules.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a document called the constitution.
The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was founded in 1949 and was absorbed into the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.
Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".
The constructive vote of no confidence (in German: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum, in Spanish: moción de censura constructiva) is a variation on the motion of no confidence that allows a parliament to withdraw confidence from a head of government only if there is a positive majority for a prospective successor.
The Council of the People's Deputies was the name given to the government of the November Revolution in Germany from November 1918 until February 1919.
A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Dawes Plan (as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was an initial plan in 1924 to resolve the World War I reparations that Germany had to pay, which had strained diplomacy following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Debt deflation is a theory that recessions and depressions are due to the overall level of debt rising in real value because of deflation, causing people to default on their consumer loans and mortgages.
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).
In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The "italic" (English: "Song of Germany",; also known as "italic", or "The Song of the Germans"), or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany since 1922, except in East Germany, whose anthem was "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" ("Risen from Ruins") from 1949 to 1990.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Ebert–Groener pact, sometimes called the Ebert-Groener deal, was an agreement between the Social Democrat Friedrich Ebert, at the time the head of government of Germany, and Wilhelm Groener, Quartermaster General of the German Army, on November 10, 1918.
The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses.
The Einstein Tower (German: Einsteinturm) is an astrophysical observatory in the Albert Einstein Science Park in Potsdam, Germany built by architect Erich Mendelsohn.
The electoral threshold is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature.
Emil Doepler "the Younger" (29 October 1855 in Munich – 21 December 1922 in Berlin) was a German Art Nouveau illustrator, decorative artist, and art teacher.
An enabling act is a piece of legislation by which a legislative body grants an entity which depends on it (for authorization or legitimacy) the power to take certain actions.
The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet—in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler—the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag.
An ensign is the national flag flown on a vessel to indicate citizenry.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
The Ernestine duchies, also known as the Saxon duchies (although the Albertine appanage duchies of Weissenfels, Merseburg and Zeitz were also "Saxon duchies" and adjacent to several Ernestine ones), were a changing number of small states that were largely located in the present-day German state of Thuringia and governed by dukes of the Ernestine line of the House of Wettin.
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.
Eupen (German and French, previously known as Néau in French, and Dutch) is a city and municipality in the Belgian province of Liège, from the German border (Aachen), from the Dutch border (Maastricht) and from the "High Fens" nature reserve (Ardennes). The town is also the capital of the Euroregion Meuse-Rhine. First mentioned in 1213 as belonging to the Duchy of Limburg, possession of Eupen passed to Brabant, Burgundy, the Holy Roman Empire and France before being given in 1815 to Prussia, which joined the German Empire in 1870. In 1919, after the First World War, the Treaty of Versailles transferred Eupen and the nearby municipality of Malmedy from Germany to Belgium. German remains the official language in Eupen, and the city serves as the capital for Belgium's German-speaking Community. The city has a small university, the Autonome Hochschule in der deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft, offering bachelor's degrees in Education and Nursing. In 2010, Eupen's association football team, K.A.S. Eupen, became the first club from the German-speaking Community to play in the Belgian Pro League. On 1 January 2006 Eupen had a total population of 18,248 (8,892 males and 9,356 females). The total area is which gives a population density of 175.90 inhabitants per km2. Eupen is considered in Belgium to be a Roman Catholic region with strongly conservative views.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The flag of Germany or German Flag (Flagge Deutschlands) is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold (Schwarz-Rot-Gold).
Flensburg (Danish, Low Saxon: Flensborg; North Frisian: Flansborj; South Jutlandic: Flensborre) is an independent town (kreisfreie Stadt) in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
The Flensburg Government (Flensburger Regierung), also known as the Flensburg Cabinet (Flensburger Kabinett), the Dönitz Government (Regierung Dönitz), or the Schwerin von Krosigk Cabinet (Kabinett Schwerin von Krosigk), was the short-lived government of Nazi Germany during a period of three weeks around the end of World War II in Europe.
The Frankfurt Constitution (Frankfurter Reichsverfassung, FRV) or Constitution of St.
The Frankfurt Parliament (Frankfurter Nationalversammlung, literally Frankfurt National Assembly) was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, elected on 1 May 1848 (see German federal election, 1848).
Franz von Papen (29 October 18792 May 1969) was a German nobleman, General Staff officer and politician.
The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck was a city-state from 1226 to 1937, in what is now the German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) was a German state formed after the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of the First World War.
Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
Friedrich Ebert (4 February 1871 28 February 1925) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the first President of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925.
The Garrison Church (full name: Court and Garrison Church Potsdam, German: was a Protestant Baroque church in Potsdam. It was a parish church of the Prussian royal family until 1918. Originally built as a Calvinist church for Prussian monarchs, it became a United Protestant church with both Calvinist and Lutheran participation after the Prussian Union of Churches in 1817. The architect Philipp Gerlach was commissioned by king Friedrich Wilhelm I. to build the church for members of the court and for the soldiers garrisoned in Potsdam. It was consecrated on August 17, 1732 and was soon well-attended by both the civilian and military communities. Friedrich Wilhelm I was buried at his request in the crypt of the church in 1740. In 1786 his son, Frederick the Great, was buried there also, but against his will. History can hardly happen in a more compact form than here: Both Czar Alexander I and Napoleon visited Frederick II's grave. It was here that the first freely-elected Potsdam City Parliament met and the Lutheran and Reformed Churches celebrated their union. The Nazis used the church for their Day of Potsdam, and many members of the 20th July conspiracy and their families worshiped there. The nave and bell tower were destroyed by fire during an air raid in the night from April 14 to April 15, 1945. Only the outside walls remained standing. In 1950 the Holy Cross Chapel was built within the cruciform walls of the bell tower. A new congregation met there for services until on a summer Sunday in 1968, the GDR head of state Walter Ulbricht and his Communist Party ignored widespread protests and ordered the remaining walls left standing to be torn down. In its place, in 1971 a Computing Center was built. The remaining empty space continues to demand an important community effort to rectify. The Garnisonkirche is a monument of national importance; a place of learning, a workshop for the advancement of freedom an reconciliation and today should be a city symbol. Since 2004 it belongs to the International Community of the Cross of Nails (founded in Dresden, Germany in February 1991). In 2004 a group of highly motivated citizens formed the Promotion Committee for the Reconstruction of the Garrison Church, a non-profit organization. In June 2008 followed the Garnisonkirche Potsdam foundation. Both organizations work together for the reconstruction of the Garrison church Potsdam not only as a parish church for its citizens but also as a reminder that future German-European cooperation is possible and essential. In 2013 the German National Committee for Cultural an Media Affairs named the Garrison church Potsdam an important cultural monument and offered 12 million Euro towards the funding of its reconstruction.
Gau (Dutch: gouw, Frisian: gea or goa) is a Germanic term for a region within a country, often a former or actual province.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
George Grosz (born Georg Ehrenfried Groß; July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a German artist known especially for his caricatural drawings and paintings of Berlin life in the 1920s.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
The German Democratic Party (Deutsche Demokratische Partei, DDP) was founded in November, 1918, by leaders of the former Progressive People's Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei), left members of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei), and a new group calling themselves the Democrats.
The German federal election occurred on 14 September 1930.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 31 July 1932, following the premature dissolution of the Reichstag.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 5 March 1933, after the Nazi seizure of power and just six days after the Reichstag fire.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 6 November 1932.
The Goldmark (officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German National People's Party (DNVP) was a national conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic.
The name Papiermark ("paper mark", officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) is applied to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Goldmark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of World War I. In particular, the name is used for the banknotes issued during the hyperinflation in Germany of 1922 and especially 1923.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1945 in the German language.
The Rentenmark (RM) was a currency issued on 15 October 1923 to stop the hyperinflation of 1922 and 1923 in Weimar Germany.
The German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) was a short-lived political party established in Weimar Germany after World War I. It was the precursor of the Nazi Party, which was officially known as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP).
The German-speaking Community of Belgium (Deutschsprachige Gemeinschaft Belgiens, DG; Communauté germanophone de Belgique; Duitstalige Gemeenschap van België) or Eastern Belgium (Ostbelgien; Belgique de l'est; Oost-België) is one of the three federal communities of Belgium.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gleichschaltung, or in English co-ordination, was in Nazi terminology the process of Nazification by which Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party successively established a system of totalitarian control and coordination over all aspects of German society, "from the economy and trade associations to the media, culture and education".
A goddess is a female deity.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
The Golden Twenties, also known as The Happy Twenties, is the decade of the 1920s in Germany.
A grand coalition is an arrangement in a multi-party parliamentary system in which the two largest political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Depression began in August 1929, when the United States economy first went into an economic recession.
The Greater Hamburg Act (Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz), in full the Law Regarding Greater Hamburg and Other Territorial Readjustments (Gesetz über Groß-Hamburg und andere Gebietsbereinigungen), was passed by the government of Nazi Germany on 26 January 1937, and mandated the exchange of territories between Hamburg and the Free State of Prussia.
The Greater Poland uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland region (German: Grand Duchy of Poznań or Provinz Posen) against German rule.
Gregor Strasser (also Straßer, see ß; 31 May 1892 – 30 June 1934) was an early prominent German Nazi official and politician who was murdered during the Night of the Long Knives in 1934.
The Großes Schauspielhaus (Great Theater) was a theatre in Berlin, Germany, often described as an example of expressionist architecture, designed by Hans Poelzig for theatre impresario Max Reinhardt.
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures called "colours." In engraving, it is sometimes depicted as a region of vertical lines or else marked with gu. as an abbreviation.
Gustav Noske (9 July 1868 – 30 November 1946) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
Gustav Ritter von Kahr (29 November 1862 – 30 June 1934) was a German right-wing politician, active in the state of Bavaria.
(10 May 1878 – 3 October 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor in 1923 (for a brief period of 102 days) and Foreign Minister 1923–1929, during the Weimar Republic.
Hajo Holborn (18 May 1902, Berlin – 20 June 1969, Bonn) was a German-American historian and specialist in modern German history.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt (22 April 1866 – 27 December 1936) was a German military officer who served as Chief of Staff to August von Mackensen, and was a central figure in planning the victories Mackensen achieved for Germany in the east during the First World War.
Harold James (born 19 January 1956 in Bedford, United Kingdom) is an economic historian specializing in the history of Germany and European economic history.
Heinrich Aloysius Maria Elisabeth Brüning (26 November 1885 – 30 March 1970) was a German Centre Party politician and academic, who served as Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1932.
Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a German poet, journalist, essayist, and literary critic.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
(18 May 1876 – 20 March 1931) was a German Social Democratic politician who served as Foreign Minister (1919–1920), and twice as Chancellor of Germany (1920, 1928–1930) in the Weimar Republic.
The history of the United States Army began in 1775.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The Hoover Moratorium was a public statement issued by US President Herbert Hoover on June 20, 1931, who hoped to ease the coming international economic crisis and provide time for recovery.
The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
Hugo Haase (29 September 1863 – 7 November 1919) was a German socialist politician, jurist and pacifist.
Hugo Dieter Stinnes (12 February 1870 – 10 April 1924) was a German industrialist and politician.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
During a period between 1918 and January 1924, the German mark suffered hyperinflation.
Sir Ian Kershaw, FBA (born 29 April 1943) is an English historian and author whose work has chiefly focused on the social history of 20th-century Germany.
The Imperial German Navy ("Imperial Navy") was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire.
The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, USPD) was a short-lived political party in Germany during the German Empire and the Weimar Republic.
The Institute of Contemporary History (Institut für Zeitgeschichte) in Munich was conceived in 1947 under the name Deutsches Institut für Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Zeit ("German Institute of the History of the National Socialist Era").
Internal devaluation is an economic and social policy option whose aim is to restore the international competitiveness of some country mainly by reducing its labour costs – either wages or the indirect costs of employers.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.
Josephine Baker (born Freda Josephine McDonald; 3 June 1906 – 12 April 1975) was an American-born French entertainer, activist, and French Resistance agent.
Junker (Junker, Scandinavian: Junker, Jonkheer, Yunker) is a noble honorific, derived from Middle High German Juncherre, meaning "young nobleman"Duden; Meaning of Junker, in German.
The Kampfbund ("Battle-league") was a league of patriotic fighting societies and the German National Socialist party in Bavaria, Germany, in the 1920s.
The Kapp Putsch, also known as the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch after its leaders Wolfgang Kapp and Walther von Lüttwitz, was an attempted coup on 13 March 1920 which aimed to undo the German Revolution of 1918–1919, overthrow the Weimar Republic and establish a right-wing autocratic government in its place.
Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
Karl Liebknecht (13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany.
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).
The Kiel mutiny was a major revolt by sailors of the German High Seas Fleet on 3 November 1918.
Kurt Ferdinand Friedrich Hermann von Schleicher (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic.
The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was prompted by Hitler receiving a telegram from Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring asking for confirmation of Göring's succession, combined with news of Heinrich Himmler's attempted negotiations of surrender with the western Allies, and reports that Red Army troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
These authors are from the prohibitions lists in Nazi Germany and come from the following lists and others.
The German Empire consisted originally of 26, and later (as of 1876) 25 constituent states and an Imperial Territory, the largest of which was Prussia.
The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland, on 5–16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on 1 December, in which the First World War Western European Allied powers and the new states of Central and Eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial settlement, and return normalizing relations with defeated Germany (the Weimar Republic).
Ludwig III (Ludwig Luitpold Josef Maria Aloys Alfried; Louis Leopold Joseph Mary Aloysius Alfred; 7 January 1845 – 18 October 1921) was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918.
Ludwig Kaas (23 May 1881 – 15 April 1952) was a German Roman Catholic priest and politician during the Weimar Republic.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Majoritarianism is a traditional political philosophy or agenda that asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language, social class, or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society.
Malmedy (German obsolete Malmünd) is a Walloon city and municipality of Belgium.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
The Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs (Bundesminister des Auswärtigen) is the head of the Federal Foreign Office and a member of the Cabinet of Germany.
Mores (sometimes; from Latin mōrēs,, plural form of singular mōs, meaning "manner", "custom", "usage", "habit") was introduced from English into American English by William Graham Sumner (1840–1910), an early U.S. sociologist, to refer to social norms that are widely observed and are considered to have greater moral significance than others.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The national colours of the Federal Republic of Germany are officially black, red, and gold, defined with the adoption of the West German flag as a tricolour with these colours in 1949.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
Negotiation comes from the Latin neg (no) and otsia (leisure) referring to businessmen who, unlike the patricians, had no leisure time in their industriousness; it held the meaning of business (le négoce in French) until the 17th century when it took on the diplomatic connotation as a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues.
Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
The Oberste Heeresleitung (Supreme Army Command or OHL) was the highest echelon of command of the army (Heer) of the German Empire.
The Occupation of the Ruhr (Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to meet its second reparation payment of the £6.6 billion that was dictated in the Treaty of Versailles by the Triple Entente(1919) in the aftermath of World War I.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
In heraldry, or (French for "gold") is the tincture of gold and, together with argent (silver), belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals", or light colours.
This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.
Organisation Consul (O.C.) was an ultra-nationalist force operating in Germany in 1921 and 1922.
Oskar Wilhelm Robert Paul Ludwig von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg (31 January 1883 – 12 February 1960) was a German Generalleutnant.
Otto Wels (15 September 1873 – 16 September 1939) was the chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1919 and a member of parliament from 1920 to 1933.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A pennon or pennant is a flag that is larger at the hoist than at the fly.
The Permanent Court of International Justice, often called the World Court, existed from 1922 to 1946.
Peter Lang is an academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences.
Philipp Heinrich Scheidemann (26 July 1865 – 29 November 1939) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
Pope Pius XII (Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 18769 October 1958), was the Pope of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death.
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.
The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, which was officially in force from 1919 to 1945.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
Maximilian, Margrave of Baden (Maximilian Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm; 10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929),Almanach de Gotha.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
The Principality of Reuss-Greiz (Fürstentum Reuß-Greiz), called the Principality of the Reuss Elder Line (Fürstentum Reuß älterer Linie.) after 1848, was a sovereign state in modern Germany, ruled by members of the House of Reuss.
The County of Waldeck (later the Principality of Waldeck and Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire and its successors from the late 12th century until 1929.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Posen (Provinz Posen, Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia from 1848 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 until 1918.
The Provinces of Prussia constituted the main administrative divisions of Prussia upon the Stein-Hardenberg Reforms.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Redenomination is the process of changing the face value of banknotes or coins used in circulating currency.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
The was the central bank of Germany from 1876 until 1945.
The Reichsflotte (Imperial Fleet) was the first navy for all of Germany, established by the revolutionary German Empire to provide a naval force in the First Schleswig War against Denmark.
The Reichskonkordat ("Concordat between the Holy See and the German Reich") is a treaty negotiated between the Vatican and the emergent Nazi Germany.
The Reichsmarine (Navy of the Realm) was the name of the German Navy during the Weimar Republic and first two years of Nazi Germany.
The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June in East Germany when it was replaced by the East German mark.
The Reichsrat was one of two legislative bodies in Germany during Weimar Republic (1919–1933), the other being the Reichstag.
The Reichstag (English: Diet of the Realm) was the Lower house of the Weimar Republic's Legislature from 1919, with the creation of the Weimar constitution, to 1933, with the Reichstag fire.
The Reichstag (Reichstagsgebäude; officially: Deutscher Bundestag - Plenarbereich Reichstagsgebäude) is a historic edifice in Berlin, Germany, constructed to house the Imperial Diet (German: Reichstag) of the German Empire.
The Reichstag fire (Reichstagsbrand) was an arson attack on the Reichstag building (home of the German parliament) in Berlin on 27 February 1933, just one month after Adolf Hitler had been sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.
The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung) is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State (Verordnung des Reichspräsidenten zum Schutz von Volk und Staat) issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg on the advice of Chancellor Adolf Hitler on 28 February 1933 in immediate response to the Reichstag fire.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Sir Richard John Evans (born 29 September 1947), is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Rosa Luxemburg (Róża Luksemburg; also Rozalia Luxenburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28.
The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Ruhr uprising (Ruhraufstand) or March uprising (Märzaufstand) was a left-wing workers' revolt in the Ruhr region of Germany in March 1920.
Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators, absolute monarchs and military leaders.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
In heraldry, sable is the tincture black, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures, called "colours".
Saxe-Coburg (Sachsen-Coburg) was a duchy held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in today's Bavaria, Germany.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
In 1915, due to World War I food restrictions and rationing, the German bureaucracy decided to regard pigs as co-eaters with humans and tried to preserve supplies.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
The Silesian Uprisings (Aufstände in Oberschlesien; Powstania śląskie) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles and Polish Silesians of Upper Silesia, from 1919 to 1921, against German rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War I. In the latter-day history of Poland after World War II, the insurrections were celebrated as centrepieces of national pride.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
The Skirmish of the Berlin Schloss (German: Weihnachtskämpfe or Weihnachtsaufstand) was a small skirmish between the socialist revolutionary Volksmarinedivision and regular German army units on 24 December 1918 during the German Revolution of 1918–19.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spartacist uprising (Spartakusaufstand), also known as the January uprising (Januaraufstand), was a general strike (and the armed battles accompanying it) in Germany from 4 to 15 January 1919.
The Spartacus League (Spartakusbund) was a Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during World War I. The League was named after Spartacus, leader of the largest slave rebellion of the Roman Republic.
The stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoßlegende) was the notion, widely believed and promulgated in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I on the battlefield but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918–19.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
The sterling area (or sterling bloc, legally scheduled territories) was a group of countries that either pegged their currencies to the pound sterling, or actually used the pound as their own currency.
The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
The Territory of the Saar Basin (Saarbeckengebiet, Saarterritorium; Le Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre) was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate.
The 1920s Berlin Project is a historical role-playing community in Second Life.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.
The Third Reich Trilogy is a series of three narrative history books by the British historian Richard J. Evans covering the rise and collapse of Nazi Germany in detail, with a focus on the internal politics and the decision-making process.
Theodor Heuss (31 January 1884 – 12 December 1963) was a liberal German politician who served as the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany (then West Germany) from 1949 to 1959.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
This Weimar Timeline charts the chronology of the Weimar Republic, dating the pre-history before the adoption of the actual Weimar constitution.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
The Treaty of Rapallo was an agreement signed on 16 April 1922 between Germany and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) under which each renounced all territorial and financial claims against the other following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and World War I. The two governments also agreed to normalise their diplomatic relations and to "co-operate in a spirit of mutual goodwill in meeting the economic needs of both countries".
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
A tricolour or tricolor is a type of flag or banner design with a triband design which originated in the 16th century as a symbol of republicanism, liberty or indeed revolution.
The two-round system (also known as the second ballot, runoff voting or ballotage) is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.
A united church, also called a uniting church, is a church formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; Silesian Polish: Gůrny Ślůnsk; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Volker Rolf Berghahn (born 15 February 1938) is a historian of German and modern European history at Columbia University.
William Edward Burghardt "W.
Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture.
Walther Rathenau (29 September 1867 – 24 June 1922) was a German statesman who served as Foreign Minister during the Weimar Republic.
This table shows the historical election results for the Landtag in the Free People's State of Württemberg, a part of the Weimar Republic.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Weimar (Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.
The Constitution of the German Reich (Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic era (1919–1933).
Weimar culture was the emergence of the arts and sciences that happened in Germany during the Weimar Republic, the latter during that part of the interwar period between Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918 and Hitler's rise to power in 1933.
The Weimar National Assembly (Weimarer Nationalversammlung) was the constitutional convention and de facto parliament of Germany from 6 February 1919 to 6 June 1920.
Paramilitary groups were formed throughout the Weimar Republic in the wake of Germany's defeat in World War I and the ensuing German Revolution.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Wilhelm Frick (12 March 1877 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent German politician of the NSDAP, who served as Reich Minister of the Interior in the Hitler Cabinet from 1933 to 1943 and as the last governor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
Karl Eduard Wilhelm Groener (22 November 1867 – 3 May 1939) was a German soldier and politician.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Wolfgang Kapp (24 July 1858 – 12 June 1922) was a Prussian civil servant and journalist.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War I reparations were compensation imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.
The Young Plan was a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I written in August 1929 and formally adopted in 1930.
Birth of weimar republic, Free State of Gotha, German Reich (1919-1933), German Reich (1919–1933), List of Weimer states, November Republic, Republic of Weimar, The Great Depression in Germany, The Weimar Republic, Weiman republic, Weimar Democracy, Weimar Era, Weimar Establishment, Weimar Germany, Weimar era, Weimar government, Weimar parliament, Weimar period, Weimar regime, Weimar rep, Weimar republic, Weimarer Republik, Weimer Republic, Weimer republic, Weimsr republic, Wiemar Republic, Wiemar republic.