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Index Welfare

Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society. [1]

194 relations: Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601, Adolf Hitler, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Al-Ghazali, Al-Mawrid, Andrew Fisher, Argentina, Assar Lindbeck, Attendance Allowance, Augustus, Basic income, Bayt al-mal, BBC, Bet Tzedek Legal Services – The House of Justice, Bolivia, Bolsa Família, Brazil, California, Cameron–Clegg coalition, Canadian federalism, Catholic Church, Cato Institute, Chancellor of Germany, Charitable organization, Chile, Civil rights movement, Clement Attlee, Cloward–Piven strategy, Colombia, Conditional cash transfer, Conservatism, Corporatism, Council Tax, Cura Annonae, David Lloyd George, David R. Henderson, Debt, Disability, Disability Living Allowance, Disaster, Disease, Economic development, Economy of New Zealand, Ecuador, Edinburgh University Press, Education, English Poor Laws, Euphemism, Euro sign, Exit strategy, ..., Famine, Five Pillars of Islam, Flat rate, Forbes, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Free education, Government budget balance, Government revenue, Government spending, Great Britain, Great Depression, Great Depression in Canada, Gross domestic product, Gross income, Health insurance, Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition (United Kingdom), Honduras, Household, Housing Benefit, Human capital, Human Poverty Index, Incapacity Benefit, Income, Income Support, Individual retirement account, Industrial Revolution, Informal sector, International Labour Organization, Japan, Jobseeker's Allowance, Jonathan Gruber (economist), Kingdom of England, Labour economics, Labour power, Latin America, Lerman ratio, Liberal Party (UK), Liberalization, Liberty Fund, List of countries by social welfare spending, Los Angeles Times, Martin Wolf, Māori people, Means test, Medicaid, Medicare (Canada), Medicare (United States), Mediterranean Sea, Mexico, Middle Ages, Ministry of Education and Research (Sweden), Ministry of Employment (Sweden), Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (Sweden), Municipality, National Assistance Act 1948, National Insurance, National Insurance Act 1946, National Socialist Program, New Deal, Non-governmental organization, Nordic countries, Nordic model, Old age, Orphan, Otto von Bismarck, Panama, Parish, Paternalism, Paul Glewwe, Penn State University Press, Pension, Pension Credit, Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, Peru, Pliny the Younger, Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, Population, Poverty, Poverty in the United States, Poverty reduction, Poverty threshold, President of the United States, Provinces and territories of Canada, Public housing, Public sector, Public utility, Rashidun Caliphate, Right to an adequate standard of living, Robert Nelson (economist), Roman Empire, SAGE Publications, Salary, Social democracy, Social insurance, Social liberalism, Social Progress Index, Social risk management, Social safety net, Social security, Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952, Social Security (United States), Social security in Germany, Social services, Solidarity, State school, Structural adjustment, Student financial aid, Subsidy, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Supplemental Security Income, Sustainability, Tax, Tax revenue, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, Tertiary education, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, The New York Times, Trajan, Transfer payment, Umar, Unconditional cash transfer, Under-occupancy penalty, Unemployment, Unemployment benefits, United Kingdom, United Kingdom government austerity programme, United States Census Bureau, Universal health care, Veteran, Vocational education, Voucher, Welfare queen, Welfare state, Welfare trap, Welfare's effect on poverty, Well-being, Western Europe, Widow, Workfare, Workhouse, Working class, Works Progress Administration, Zakat. Expand index (144 more) »

Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601

The Poor Relief Act 1601 (43 Eliz 1 c 2) was an Act of the Parliament of England.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Aid to Families with Dependent Children

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was a federal assistance program in effect from 1935 to 1996 created by the Social Security Act (SSA) and administered by the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provided financial assistance to children whose families had low or no income.

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Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.

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Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991.

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Andrew Fisher

Andrew Fisher (29 August 186222 October 1928) was an Australian politician who served three separate terms as Prime Minister of Australia – from 1908 to 1909, from 1910 to 1913, and from 1914 to 1915.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Assar Lindbeck

Carl Assar Eugén Lindbeck (born 26 January 1930) is a Swedish professor of economics at Stockholm University and at the Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN) Lindbeck is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.

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Attendance Allowance

Attendance Allowance is a non-contributory Social Security benefit paid to elderly disabled people in the United Kingdom.

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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Basic income

A basic income, also called basic income guarantee, universal basic income (UBI), basic living stipend (BLS) or universal demogrant, is a type of program in which citizens (or permanent residents) of a country may receive a regular sum of money from the government.

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Bayt al-mal

Bayt al-mal (بيت المال) is an Arabic term that is translated as "House of money" or "House of Wealth." Historically, it was a financial institution responsible for the administration of taxes in Islamic states, particularly in the early Islamic Caliphate.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bet Tzedek Legal Services – The House of Justice

Bet Tzedek is an American non-profit human and poverty rights organization, internationally recognized for its work in providing unique advocacy and support for people living in poverty, and for communities victimized by discrimination and civil rights abuses.

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Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Bolsa Família

Bolsa Família (Family Allowance) is a social welfare program of the Brazilian government, part of the Fome Zero network of federal assistance programs.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Cameron–Clegg coalition

David Cameron and Nick Clegg formed the Cameron–Clegg coalition after the former was invited by Queen Elizabeth II to begin a new government, following the resignation of Prime Minister Gordon Brown on 11 May 2010.

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Canadian federalism

Canadian federalism involves the current nature and historical development of federal systems in Canada.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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Chancellor of Germany

The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.

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Charitable organization

A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization (NPO) whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. charitable, educational, religious, or other activities serving the public interest or common good).

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Civil rights movement

The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.

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Clement Attlee

Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.

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Cloward–Piven strategy

The Cloward–Piven strategy is a political strategy outlined in 1966 by American sociologists and political activists Richard Cloward and Frances Fox Piven that called for overloading the U.S. public welfare system in order to precipitate a crisis that would lead to a replacement of the welfare system with a national system of "a guaranteed annual income and thus an end to poverty".

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Conditional cash transfer

Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs aim to reduce poverty by making welfare programs conditional upon the receivers' actions.

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Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Corporatism is the organization of a society by corporate groups and agricultural, labour, military or scientific syndicates and guilds on the basis of their common interests.

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Council Tax

Council Tax is a local taxation system used in England, Scotland and Wales.

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Cura Annonae

In ancient Rome, the Romans used the term Cura Annonae ("care for the grain supply"), in honour of their goddess Annona and the grain dole was distributed from the Temple of Ceres.

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.

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David R. Henderson

David R. Henderson (born November 21, 1950) is a Canadian-born American economist and author who moved to the United States in 1972 and became a U.S. citizen in 1986, serving on President Ronald Reagan’s Council of Economic Advisers from 1982 to 1984.

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Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.

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A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

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Disability Living Allowance

Disability Living Allowance (DLA) is a social security benefit in the United Kingdom paid to eligible claimants who have personal care and/or mobility needs as a result of a mental or physical disability.

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A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a relatively short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Economic development

economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.

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Economy of New Zealand

The economy of New Zealand is the 53rd-largest national economy in the world when measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and the 68th-largest in the world when measured by purchasing power parity (PPP).

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Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Edinburgh University Press

Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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English Poor Laws

The English Poor Laws were a system of poor relief which existed in England and Wales that developed out of late-medieval and Tudor-era laws being codified in 1587–98.

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A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.

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Euro sign

The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).

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Exit strategy

An exit strategy is a means of leaving one's current situation, either after a predetermined objective has been achieved, justifying premises or decision markers for any given operational planning changed substantially, or as a strategy to mitigate inminent or possible failure.

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A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

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Five Pillars of Islam

The Five Pillars of Islam (أركان الإسلام; also أركان الدين "pillars of the religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life.

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Flat rate

A flat fee, also referred to as a flat rate or a linear rate, refers to a pricing structure that charges a single fixed fee for a service, regardless of usage.

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Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Free education

Free education is education funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition funding.

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Government budget balance

A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.

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Government revenue

Government revenue is money received by a government.

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Government spending

Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Great Depression in Canada

Canada was hit hard by the Great Depression.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Gross income

Gross income is all a person's receipts and gains from all sources, before any deductions.

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Health insurance

Health insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons.

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Henry Campbell-Bannerman

Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 183622 April 1908) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1905 to 1908 and Leader of the Liberal Party from 1899 to 1908.

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Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition (United Kingdom)

Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition, in the United Kingdom is led by the Leader of the Opposition.

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Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.

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A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.

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Housing Benefit

Housing Benefit is a means tested social security benefit in the United Kingdom that is intended to help meet housing costs for rented accommodation.

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Human capital

Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer.

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Human Poverty Index

The Human Poverty Index (HPI) was an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN) to complement the Human Development Index (HDI) and was first reported as part of the Human Development Report in 1997.

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Incapacity Benefit

Incapacity Benefit is a British social security benefit that was introduced in 1995 in an attempt to control the rising number of people on out-of-work sickness benefits.

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Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.

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Income Support

Income Support is an income-related benefit in the United Kingdom for some people who are on a low income.

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Individual retirement account

An individual retirement account (IRA) is a form of "individual retirement plan", provided by many financial institutions, that provides tax advantages for retirement savings in the United States.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Informal sector

The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.

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International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jobseeker's Allowance

Jobseeker's Allowance (JSA) is an unemployment benefit paid by the Government of the United Kingdom to people who are unemployed and actively seeking work.

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Jonathan Gruber (economist)

Jonathan Holmes Gruber (born September 30, 1965) is an American professor of economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he has taught since 1992.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Labour economics

Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

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Labour power

Labour power (in German: Arbeitskraft; in French: force de travail) is a key concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of capitalist political economy.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Lerman ratio

The Lerman ratio, named after economist Robert I. Lerman, suggest that a government benefit to the underemployed, such as welfare, will presumably reduce their overall hours of work.

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Liberal Party (UK)

The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

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Liberalization (or liberalisation) is a general term for any process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities.

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Liberty Fund

Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.

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List of countries by social welfare spending

This page lists countries by spending on social welfare.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Martin Wolf

Martin Harry Wolf, CBE (born 1946) is a British journalist who focuses on economics.

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Māori people

The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.

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Means test

A means test is a determination of whether an individual or family is eligible for government assistance, based upon whether the individual or family possesses the means to do without that help.

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Medicaid in the United States is a joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for some people with limited income and resources.

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Medicare (Canada)

Medicare (assurance-maladie) is an unofficial designation used to refer to the publicly funded, single-payer health care system of Canada.

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Medicare (United States)

In the United States, Medicare is a national health insurance program, now administered by the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services of the U.S. federal government but begun in 1966 under the Social Security Administration.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Ministry of Education and Research (Sweden)

The Ministry of Education and Research (Utbildningsdepartementet) is a government ministry in Sweden responsible for matters relating to schools, universities, colleges, and research.

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Ministry of Employment (Sweden)

The Ministry of Employment (Arbetsmarknadsdepartementet) is a ministry in the Swedish government responsible for labour market and working life policy.

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Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (Sweden)

The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (Socialdepartementet) is the ministry in the government of Sweden responsible for policies related to social welfare: financial security, social services, medical and health care, health promotion and the rights of children and disabled people.

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A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.

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National Assistance Act 1948

The National Assistance Act 1948 is an Act of Parliament passed in the United Kingdom by the Labour government of Clement Attlee.

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National Insurance

National Insurance (NI) is a tax system in the United Kingdom paid by workers and employers for funding state benefits.

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National Insurance Act 1946

The National Insurance Act 1946 (c 67) was a British Act of Parliament which established a comprehensive system of social security throughout the United Kingdom.

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National Socialist Program

The National Socialist Program, also known as the 25-point Program or the 25-point Plan, was the party program of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP).

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New Deal

The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.

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Non-governmental organization

Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Nordic model

The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism or Nordic social democracy) refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden).

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Old age

Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.

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An orphan (from the ορφανός orphanós) is someone whose parents have died, unknown, or have permanently abandoned them.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.

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Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

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A parish is a church territorial entity constituting a division within a diocese.

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Paternalism is action limiting a person's or group's liberty or autonomy which is intended to promote their own good.

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Paul Glewwe

Paul William Glewwe (born April 4, 1958) is an economist and Professor of Applied Economics at the University of Minnesota.

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Penn State University Press

Penn State University Press, also called The Pennsylvania State University Press, was established in 1956 and is a non-profit publisher of scholarly books and journals.

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A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments.

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Pension Credit

Pension Credit is the principal element of the UK welfare system for people of pension age.

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Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) is a United States federal law considered to be a major welfare reform.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Pliny the Younger

Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome.

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Poor Law Amendment Act 1834

The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 (PLAA), known widely as the New Poor Law, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey.

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In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

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Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

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Poverty in the United States

Poverty is a state of deprivation, lacking the usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions.

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Poverty reduction

Poverty reduction, or poverty alleviation, is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty.

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Poverty threshold

The poverty threshold, poverty limit or poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Provinces and territories of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.

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Public housing

Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local.

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Public sector

The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.

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Public utility

A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).

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Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Right to an adequate standard of living

The right to an adequate standard of living is recognized as a human right in international human rights instruments and is understood to establish a minimum entitlement to food, clothing and housing at an adequate level.

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Robert Nelson (economist)

Economist Robert Nelson is a professor of environmental policy in the University of Maryland School of Public Policy and a senior fellow of the Independent Institute.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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A salary is a form of payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract.

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Social democracy

Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.

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Social insurance

Social insurance is any government-sponsored program with the following four characteristics.

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Social liberalism

Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.

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Social Progress Index

The Social Progress Index (SPI) measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens.

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Social risk management

Social risk management (SRM) is a conceptual framework developed by the World Bank, specifically its Social Protection and Labor Sector under the leadership of Robert Holzmann, since the end 1990s.

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Social safety net

The social safety net is a collection of services provided by the state or other institutions such as friendly societies.

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Social security

Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

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Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952

Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952 is an International Labour Organization Convention on social security and protection at the contingencies that include any morbid condition, whatever its cause and pregnancy.

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Social Security (United States)

In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.

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Social security in Germany

Social security in Germany is codified on the Sozialgesetzbuch, or the "Social Code", contains 12 main parts, including the following,.

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Social services

Social services are a range of public services provided by the government, private, and non-profit organizations.

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Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.

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State school

State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.

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Structural adjustment

Structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) consist of loans provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) to countries that experienced economic crises.

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Student financial aid

Student financial aid (or student financial support, or student aid) is financial support given to individuals who are furthering their education.

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A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.

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Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people living in the United States.

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Supplemental Security Income

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a United States government means-tested welfare program that provides cash assistance and health care coverage (i.e., Medicaid) to people with low-income and limited assets who are either aged 65 or older, blind, or disabled (children included).

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Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.

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Tax revenue

Tax revenue is the income that is gained by governments through taxation.

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Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is one of the United States of America's federal assistance programs.

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Tertiary education

Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.

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The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.

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Transfer payment

In economics, a transfer payment (or government transfer or simply transfer) is a redistribution of income and wealth (payment) made without goods or services being received in return.

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Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.

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Unconditional cash transfer

Unconditional cash transfer (UCT) programs aim to reduce poverty by providing welfare programs without any conditions upon the receivers' actions.

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Under-occupancy penalty

The under-occupancy penalty (also known as the under occupation penalty, under-occupancy charge, under-occupation charge or size criteria) is a reform contained in the British Welfare Reform Act 2012 whereby public-housing (also called council or social housing) tenants with rooms deemed to be "spare" face a reduction in Housing Benefit, resulting in them being obliged to fund this reduction from their incomes or face rent arrears and potential eviction by their landlord (be that the local authority or a housing association).

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Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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Unemployment benefits

Unemployment benefits (depending on the jurisdiction also called unemployment insurance or unemployment compensation) are payments made by the state or other authorized bodies to unemployed people.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom government austerity programme

The United Kingdom government austerity programme is a fiscal policy undertaken in response to the Great Recession.

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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Universal health care

Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.

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A veteran (from Latin vetus, meaning "old") is a person who has had long service or experience in a particular occupation or field.

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Vocational education

Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.

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A voucher is a bond of the redeemable transaction type which is worth a certain monetary value and which may be spent only for specific reasons or on specific goods.

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Welfare queen

"Welfare queen" is a derogatory term used in the U.S. to refer to women who allegedly misuse or collect excessive welfare payments through fraud, child endangerment, or manipulation.

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Welfare state

The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.

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Welfare trap

The welfare trap (or unemployment trap or poverty trap in British English) theory asserts that taxation and welfare systems can jointly contribute to keep people on social insurance because the withdrawal of means-tested benefits that comes with entering low-paid work causes there to be no significant increase in total income.

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Welfare's effect on poverty

The effect of social welfare on poverty is controversial.

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Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is a general term for the condition of an individual or group.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died.

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Workfare is an alternative, and controversial, way of providing money to otherwise unemployed or underemployed people, who are applying for social benefits.

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In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment.

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Working class

The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.

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Works Progress Administration

The Works Progress Administration (WPA; renamed in 1939 as the Work Projects Administration) was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads.

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Zakat (زكاة., "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal زكاة المال, "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welfare

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